bims-imicid Biomed News
on Immunometabolism of infection, cancer and immune-mediated disease
Issue of 2023‒09‒10
thirty-one papers selected by
Dylan Ryan, University of Cambridge

  1. Science. 2023 Sep 08. 381(6662): 1092-1098
      Dietary fiber improves metabolic health, but host-encoded mechanisms for digesting fibrous polysaccharides are unclear. In this work, we describe a mammalian adaptation to dietary chitin that is coordinated by gastric innate immune activation and acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase). Chitin consumption causes gastric distension and cytokine production by stomach tuft cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in mice, which drives the expansion of AMCase-expressing zymogenic chief cells that facilitate chitin digestion. Although chitin influences gut microbial composition, ILC2-mediated tissue adaptation and gastrointestinal responses are preserved in germ-free mice. In the absence of AMCase, sustained chitin intake leads to heightened basal type 2 immunity, reduced adiposity, and resistance to obesity. These data define an endogenous metabolic circuit that enables nutrient extraction from an insoluble dietary constituent by enhancing digestive function.
  2. Nat Commun. 2023 Sep 06. 14(1): 5472
      Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) disrupts glycolytic flux in infected myeloid cells through an unclear mechanism. Flux through the glycolytic pathway in myeloid cells is inextricably linked to the availability of NAD+, which is maintained by NAD+ salvage and lactate metabolism. Using lung tissue from tuberculosis (TB) patients and myeloid deficient LDHA (LdhaLysM-/-) mice, we demonstrate that glycolysis in myeloid cells is essential for protective immunity in TB. Glycolytic myeloid cells are essential for the early recruitment of multiple classes of immune cells and IFNγ-mediated protection. We identify NAD+ depletion as central to the glycolytic inhibition caused by Mtb. Lastly, we show that the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide exerts a host-dependent, antimycobacterial effect, and that nicotinamide prophylaxis and treatment reduce Mtb lung burden in mice. These findings provide insight into how Mtb alters host metabolism through perturbation of NAD(H) homeostasis and reprogramming of glycolysis, highlighting this pathway as a potential therapeutic target.
  3. iScience. 2023 Sep 15. 26(9): 107569
      Colorectal cancer (CRC) shows high incidence and mortality, partly due to the tumor microenvironment (TME), which is viewed as an active promoter of disease progression. Macrophages are among the most abundant cells in the TME. These immune cells are generally categorized as M1, with inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, or M2, which promote tumor proliferation and survival. Although the M1/M2 subclassification scheme is strongly influenced by metabolism, the metabolic divergence between the subtypes remains poorly understood. Therefore, we generated a suite of computational models that characterize the M1- and M2-specific metabolic states. Our models show key differences between the M1 and M2 metabolic networks and capabilities. We leverage the models to identify metabolic perturbations that cause the metabolic state of M2 macrophages to more closely resemble M1 cells. Overall, this work increases understanding of macrophage metabolism in CRC and elucidates strategies to promote the metabolic state of anti-tumor macrophages.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Health informatics; Human genetics; Quantitative genetics
  4. JCI Insight. 2023 Sep 08. pii: e167656. [Epub ahead of print]8(17):
      Pathogenic mutations in mitochondrial (mt) tRNA genes that compromise oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) exhibit heteroplasmy and cause a range of multisyndromic conditions. Although mitochondrial disease patients are known to suffer from abnormal immune responses, how heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations affect the immune system at the molecular level is largely unknown. Here, in mice carrying pathogenic C5024T in mt-tRNAAla and in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome carrying A3243G in mt-tRNALeu, we found memory T and B cells to have lower pathogenic mtDNA mutation burdens than their antigen-inexperienced naive counterparts, including after vaccination. Pathogenic burden reduction was less pronounced in myeloid compared with lymphoid lineages, despite C5024T compromising macrophage OXPHOS capacity. Rapid dilution of the C5024T mutation in T and B cell cultures could be induced by antigen receptor-triggered proliferation and was accelerated by metabolic stress conditions. Furthermore, we found C5024T to dysregulate CD8+ T cell metabolic remodeling and IFN-γ production after activation. Together, our data illustrate that the generation of memory lymphocytes shapes the mtDNA landscape, wherein pathogenic variants dysregulate the immune response.
    Keywords:  Adaptive immunity; Immunology; Metabolism; Mitochondria
  5. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1232820
      Autoimmune diseases are heterogeneous disorders believed to stem from the immune system's inability to distinguish between auto- and foreign- antigens. B lymphocytes serve a crucial role in humoral immunity as they generate antibodies and present antigens. Dysregulation of B cell function induce the onset of autoimmune disorders by generating autoantibodies and pro-inflammatory cytokines, resulting in an imbalance in immune regulation. New research in immunometabolism shows that cellular metabolism plays an essential role in controlling B lymphocytes immune reactions by providing the energy and substrates for B lymphocytes activation, differentiation, and function. However, dysregulated immunometabolism lead to autoimmune diseases by disrupting self-tolerance mechanisms. This review summarizes the latest research on metabolic reprogramming of B lymphocytes in autoimmune diseases, identifying crucial pathways and regulatory factors. Moreover, we consider the potential of metabolic interventions as a promising therapeutic strategy. Understanding the metabolic mechanisms of B cells brings us closer to developing novel therapies for autoimmune disorders.
    Keywords:  B cell; B cell differentiation and function; B cell metabolism; autoimmune diseases; autoimmunity
  6. iScience. 2023 Oct 20. 26(10): 107719
      Little is known about the effects of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity on resident colonic lamina propria (LP) macrophages (LPMs) function and metabolism. Here, we report that obesity and diabetes resulted in increased macrophage infiltration in the colon. These macrophages exhibited the residency phenotype CX3CR1hiMHCIIhi and were CD4-TIM4-. During HFD, resident colonic LPM exhibited a lipid metabolism gene expression signature that overlapped that used to define lipid-associated macrophages (LAMs). Via single-cell RNA sequencing, we identified a sub-cluster of macrophages, increased in HFD, that were responsible for the LAM signature. Compared to other macrophages in the colon, these cells were characterized by elevated glycolysis, phagocytosis, and efferocytosis signatures. CX3CR1hiMHCIIhi colonic resident LPMs had fewer lipid droplets (LDs) and decreased triacylglycerol (TG) content compared to equivalent cells in lean mice and exhibited increased phagocytic capacity, suggesting that HFD induces adaptive responses in LPMs to limit bacterial translocation.
    Keywords:  Endocrinology; Immune response; Metabolomics
  7. Semin Immunol. 2023 Aug 31. pii: S1044-5323(23)00125-2. [Epub ahead of print]70 101834
      T cell survival, differentiation after stimulation, and function are intrinsically linked to distinct cellular metabolic states. The ability of T cells to readily transition between metabolic states enables flexibility to meet the changing energy demands defined by distinct effector states or T cell lineages. Immune aging is characterized, in part, by the loss of naïve T cells, accumulation of senescent T cells, severe dysfunction in memory phenotype T cells in particular, and elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, or 'inflammaging'. Here, we review our current understanding of the phenotypic and functional changes that occur with aging in T cells, and how they relate to metabolic changes in the steady state and after T cell activation. We discuss the apparent contradictions in the aging T cell phenotype - where enhanced differentiation states and metabolic profiles in the steady state can correspond to a diminished capacity to adapt metabolically and functionally after T cell activation. Finally, we discuss key recent studies that indicate the enormous potential for aged T cell metabolism to induce systemic inflammaging and organism-wide multimorbidity, resulting in premature death.
    Keywords:  Aging; Metabolism; Organismal aging; T cell dysfunction; T cells; Unconventional T cells
  8. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1211068
      In recent years, the central role of cell bioenergetics in regulating immune cell function and fate has been recognized, giving rise to the interest in immunometabolism, an area of research focused on the interaction between metabolic regulation and immune function. Thus, early metabolic changes associated with the polarization of macrophages into pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving cells under different stimuli have been characterized. Tumor-associated macrophages are among the most abundant cells in the tumor microenvironment; however, it exists an unmet need to study the effect of chemotherapeutics on macrophage immunometabolism. Here, we use a systems biology approach that integrates transcriptomics and metabolomics to unveil the immunometabolic effects of trabectedin (TRB) and lurbinectedin (LUR), two DNA-binding agents with proven antitumor activity. Our results show that TRB and LUR activate human macrophages toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype by inducing a specific metabolic rewiring program that includes ROS production, changes in the mitochondrial inner membrane potential, increased pentose phosphate pathway, lactate release, tricarboxylic acids (TCA) cycle, serine and methylglyoxal pathways in human macrophages. Glutamine, aspartate, histidine, and proline intracellular levels are also decreased, whereas oxygen consumption is reduced. The observed immunometabolic changes explain additional antitumor activities of these compounds and open new avenues to design therapeutic interventions that specifically target the immunometabolic landscape in the treatment of cancer.
    Keywords:  ROS; immunometabolism; lurbinectedin; macrophages; trabectedin
  9. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 Sep 12. 120(37): e2304722120
      Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV) is one of the epidemic-prone diseases prioritized by the World Health Organisation as public health emergency with an urgent need for accelerated research. The trajectory of host response against CCHFV is multifarious and remains unknown. Here, we reported the temporal spectrum of pathogenesis following the CCHFV infection using genome-wide blood transcriptomics analysis followed by advanced systems biology analysis, temporal immune-pathogenic alterations, and context-specific progressive and postinfection genome-scale metabolic models (GSMM) on samples collected during the acute (T0), early convalescent (T1), and convalescent-phase (T2). The interplay between the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like/nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor and tumor necrosis factor signaling governed the trajectory of antiviral immune responses. The rearrangement of intracellular metabolic fluxes toward the amino acid metabolism and metabolic shift toward oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation during acute CCHFV infection determine the pathogenicity. The upregulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle during CCHFV infection, compared to the noninfected healthy control and between the severity groups, indicated an increased energy demand and cellular stress. The upregulation of glycolysis and pyruvate metabolism potentiated energy generation through alternative pathways associated with the severity of the infection. The downregulation of metabolic processes at the convalescent phase identified by blood cell transcriptomics and single-cell type proteomics of five immune cells (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, CD14+ monocytes, B cells, and NK cells) potentially leads to metabolic rewiring through the recovery due to hyperactivity during the acute phase leading to post-viral fatigue syndrome.
    Keywords:  Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; genome-scale metabolic models; post viral fatigue
  10. Mol Immunol. 2023 Sep 01. pii: S0161-5890(23)00174-8. [Epub ahead of print]162 84-94
      Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) critically controls phagosome acidification to promote pathogen digestion and clearance in macrophage. However, the specific subunits of V-ATPase have been evidenced to play contradictory functions in inflammatory cytokines generation and secretion exposure to external bacterial or LPS stimulation. Therefore, identifying the unique function of the separate subunit of V-ATPase is extremely important to regulate macrophage function. Here, we found that D-mannose, a C-2 epimer of glucose, suppressed ATP6V1B2 lysosomal translocation to inhibit V-ATPase activity in macrophages, thereby causing the scaffold protein axis inhibitor protein (AXIN) recruitment to lysosomal membrane and AMPK activation. Correspondingly, LPS-stimulated macrophage M1 polarization was significantly suppressed by D-mannose via down-regulating NF-κB signaling pathway in response to AMPK activation, while IL-4 induced macrophage M2 polarization were not affected. Furthermore, the failure of lysosomal localization of ATP6V1B2 caused by D-mannose also led to the acidification defects of lysosome. Therefore, D-mannose displayed a remarkable function in inhibiting macrophage phagocytosis and bacterial killing. Taken together, D-mannose acts a novel V-ATPase suppressor to attenuate macrophage inflammatory production but simultaneously prevent macrophage phagocytosis and bacterial killing.
    Keywords:  Bacterial killing; D-mannose; Macrophage polarization; V-ATPase
  11. Sci Rep. 2023 Sep 07. 13(1): 14708
      Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and its clinical symptoms can span from asymptomatic colonization to pseudomembranous colitis and even death. The current standard of care for CDI is antibiotic treatment to achieve bacterial clearance; however, 15 to 35% of patients experience recurrence after initial response to antibiotics. We have conducted a comprehensive, global colonic transcriptomics analysis of a 10-day study in mice to provide new insights on the local host response during CDI and identify novel host metabolic mechanisms with therapeutic potential. The analysis indicates major alterations of colonic gene expression kinetics at the acute infection stage, that are restored during the recovery phase. At the metabolic level, we observe a biphasic response pattern characterized by upregulated glycolytic metabolism during the peak of inflammation, while mitochondrial metabolism predominates during the recovery/healing stage. Inhibition of glycolysis via 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) administration during CDI decreases disease severity, protects from mortality, and ameliorates colitis in vivo. Additionally, 2-DG also protects intestinal epithelial cells from C. difficile toxin damage, preventing loss of barrier integrity and secretion of proinflammatory mediators. These data postulate the pharmacological targeting of host immunometabolic pathways as novel treatment modalities for CDI.
  12. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1176956
      Creatine is an indispensable organic compound utilized in physiological environments; however, its role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here, we show that creatine supplementation enhances anti-tumor immunity through the functional upregulation of macrophages by increasing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Creatine supplementation significantly suppressed B16-F10-originated tumor growth in mice compared with the control treatment. Under these conditions, intratumor macrophages polarized towards the M1 phenotype rather than the M2 phenotype, and there was an increase in tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in the mice. The cytokine production and antigen-presenting activity in the macrophages were enhanced by creatine supplementation, resulting in a substantial increase in tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. ATP upregulation was achieved through the cytosolic phosphocreatine (PCr) system via extracellular creatine uptake, rather than through glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the macrophages. Blockade of the creatine transporter (CrT) failed to upregulate ATP and enhance the immunological activity of macrophages in creatine supplementation, which also impaired CD8+ T cell activity. Consequently, CrT blockade failed to suppress tumor growth in the creatine-supplemented mice. Thus, creatine is an important nutrient that promotes macrophage function by increasing ATP levels, ultimately contributing to enhanced anti-tumor immunity orchestrated by CD8+ T cells.
    Keywords:  ATP; CD8+ T cells; anti-tumor immunity; creatine; macrophages
  13. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1199751
      Background: Dysregulated inflammation is associated with many skeletal diseases and disorders, such as osteolysis, non-union of fractures, osteonecrosis, osteoarthritis and orthopaedic infections. We previously showed that continuous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contaminated polyethylene particles (cPE) caused prolonged inflammation and impaired bone formation. However, the metabolic and bioenergetic processes associated with inflammation of bone are unknown. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that modulate cell metabolism and orchestrate the inflammatory responses that involve both resident and recruited cells. Glycolytic reprogramming, the shift from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to glycolysis causes inappropriate cell activation and function, resulting in dysfunctional cellular metabolism. We hypothesized that impaired immunoregulation and bone regeneration from inflammatory states are associated with glycolytic reprogramming and mitochondrial dysfunction in macrophages (Mφ) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs).Methods: We used the Seahorse XF96 analyzer and real-time qPCR to study the bioenergetics of Mφ and MSCs exposed to cPE. To understand the oxygen consumption rate (OCR), we used Seahorse XF Cell Mito Stress Test Kit with Seahorse XF96 analyzer. Similarly, Seahorse XF Glycolytic Rate Assay Kit was used to detect the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and Seahorse XF Real-Time ATP Rate Assay kit was used to detect the real-time ATP production rates from OXPHOS and glycolysis. Real-time qPCR was performed to analyze the gene expression of key enzymes in glycolysis and mitochondrial biogenesis. We further detected the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines in Mφ and genes related to cell differentiation in MSC during the challenge of cPE.
    Results: Our results demonstrated that the oxidative phosphorylation of Mφ exposed to cPE was significantly decreased when compared with the control group. We found reduced basal, maximal and ATP-production coupled respiration rates, and decreased proton leak in Mφ during challenge with cPE. Meanwhile, Mφ showed increased basal glycolysis and proton efflux rates (PER) when exposed to cPE. The percentage (%) of PER from glycolysis was higher in Mφ exposed to cPE, indicating that the contribution of the glycolytic pathway to total extracellular acidification was elevated during the challenge of cPE. In line with the results of OCR and ECAR, we found Mφ during cPE challenge showed higher glycolytic ATP (glycoATP) production rates and lower mitochondrial ATP (mitoATP) production rates which is mainly from OXPHOS. Interestingly, MSCs showed enhanced glycolysis during challenge with cPE, but no significant changes in oxygen consumption rates (OCR). In accordance, seahorse assay of real-time ATP revealed glycoATP rates were elevated while mitoATP rates showed no significant differences in MSC during challenge with cPE. Furthermore, Mφ and MSCs exposed to cPE showed upregulated gene expression levels of glycolytic regulators and Mφ exposed to cPE expressed higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
    Conclusion: This study demonstrated the dysfunctional bioenergetic activity of bone marrow-derived Mφ and MSCs exposed to cPE, which could impair the immunoregulatory properties of cells in the bone niche. The underlying molecular defect related to disordered mitochondrial function could represent a potential therapeutic target during the resolution of inflammation.
    Keywords:  bone marrow-derived cells; inflammation; macrophage; mesenchymal stromal cell; mitochondrial bioenergetics
  14. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1212695
      Despite chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy's extraordinary success in subsets of B-cell lymphoma and leukemia, various barriers restrict its application in solid tumors. This has prompted investigating new approaches for producing CAR T cells with superior therapeutic potential. Emerging insights into the barriers to CAR T cell clinical success indicate that autophagy shapes the immune response via reprogramming cellular metabolism and vice versa. Autophagy, a self-cannibalization process that includes destroying and recycling intracellular components in the lysosome, influences T cell biology, including development, survival, memory formation, and cellular metabolism. In this review, we will emphasize the critical role of autophagy in regulating and rewiring metabolic circuits in CAR T cells, as well as how the metabolic status of CAR T cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) alter autophagy regulation in CAR T cells to restore functional competence in CAR Ts traversing solid TMEs.
    Keywords:  CAR T cell; adoptive cellular therapy (ACT); autophagy; metabolism; tumor microenvironment
  15. bioRxiv. 2023 Aug 25. pii: 2023.08.24.552964. [Epub ahead of print]
      Lung immune tone, i.e. the immune state of the lung, can vary between individuals and over a single individual's lifetime, and its basis and regulation in the context of inflammatory responses to injury is poorly understood. The gut microbiome, through the gut-lung axis, can influence lung injury outcomes but how the diet and microbiota affect lung immune tone is also unclear. We hypothesized that lung immune tone would be influenced by the presence of fiber-fermenting short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing gut bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a fiber diet intervention study followed by lung injury in mice and profiled gut microbiota using 16S sequencing, metabolomics, and lung immune tone. We also studied germ-free mice to evaluate lung immune tone in the absence of microbiota and performed in vitro mechanistic studies on immune tone and metabolic programming of alveolar macrophages exposed to the SCFA propionate (C3). Mice on high-fiber diet were protected from sterile lung injury compared to mice on a fiber-free diet. This protection strongly correlated with lower lung immune tone, elevated propionate levels and enrichment of specific fecal microbiota taxa; conversely, lower levels of SCFAs and an increase in other fatty acid metabolites and bacterial taxa correlated with increased lung immune tone and increased lung injury in the fiber-free group. In vitro , C3 reduced lung alveolar macrophage immune tone (through suppression of IL-1β and IL-18) and metabolically reprogrammed them (switching from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation after LPS challenge). Overall, our findings reveal that the gut-lung axis, through dietary fiber intake and enrichment of SCFA-producing gut bacteria, can regulate innate lung immune tone via IL-1β and IL-18 pathways. These results provide a rationale for the therapeutic development of dietary interventions to preserve or enhance specific aspects of host lung immunity.
  16. Dev Cell. 2023 Aug 28. pii: S1534-5807(23)00409-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Reprogramming lipid metabolic pathways is a critical feature of activating immune responses to infection. However, how these reconfigurations occur is poorly understood. Our previous screen to identify cellular deubiquitylases (DUBs) activated during influenza virus infection revealed Usp25 as a prominent hit. Here, we show that Usp25-deleted human lung epithelial A549 cells display a >10-fold increase in pathogenic influenza virus production, which was rescued upon reconstitution with the wild type but not the catalytically deficient (C178S) variant. Proteomic analysis of Usp25 interactors revealed a strong association with Erlin1/2, which we confirmed as its substrate. Newly synthesized Erlin1/2 were degraded in Usp25-/- or Usp25C178S cells, activating Srebp2, with increased cholesterol flux and attenuated TLR3-dependent responses. Our study therefore defines the function of a deubiquitylase that serves to restrict a range of viruses by reprogramming lipid biosynthetic flux to install appropriate inflammatory responses.
    Keywords:  Erlin1/2; Usp25; autophagy; cholesterol; influenza; innate immunity; lipid homeostasis
  17. bioRxiv. 2023 Aug 26. pii: 2023.08.26.554955. [Epub ahead of print]
      Glucose is the primary cellular energy substrate and its metabolism via glycolysis is initiated by the rate-limiting enzyme Hexokinase (HK). In energy-demanding tissues like the brain, HK1 is the prominent isoform, primarily localized on mitochondria, crucial for the efficient coupling of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, thereby ensuring optimal energy generation. Here, we reveal a novel regulatory mechanism whereby metabolic sensor enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) modulates HK1 activity and its mitochondrial association. OGT catalyzes reversible O-GlcNAcylation, a post-translational modification, influenced by glucose flux-mediated intracellular UDP-GlcNAc concentrations. Dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of HK1's regulatory domain occurs with increased OGT activity, promoting glycolytic metabolon assembly on the outer mitochondrial membrane. This modification enhances HK1's mitochondrial localization, orchestrating glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP production. Mutations in HK1's O-GlcNAcylation site reduce ATP generation, affecting presynaptic vesicle release in neurons. Our findings reveal a new pathway linking neuronal metabolism to mitochondrial function through OGT and glycolytic metabolon formation, and provide important insight into the previously unknown metabolism plasticity mechanism.
  18. Immune Netw. 2023 Aug;23(4): e28
      Lipid accumulation in macrophages is a prominent phenomenon observed in atherosclerosis. Previously, intimal foamy macrophages (FM) showed decreased inflammatory gene expression compared to intimal non-foamy macrophages (NFM). Since reprogramming of lipid metabolism in macrophages affects immunological functions, lipid profiling of intimal macrophages appears to be important for understanding the phenotypic changes of macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions. While lipidomic analysis has been performed in atherosclerotic aortic tissues and cultured macrophages, direct lipid profiling has not been performed in primary aortic macrophages from atherosclerotic aortas. We utilized nanoflow ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to provide comprehensive lipid profiles of intimal non-foamy and foamy macrophages and adventitial macrophages from Ldlr-/- mouse aortas. We also analyzed the gene expression of each macrophage type related to lipid metabolism. FM showed increased levels of fatty acids, cholesterol esters, phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and sphingomyelin. However, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, and ceramide levels were decreased in FM compared to those in NFM. Interestingly, FM showed decreased triacylglycerol (TG) levels. Expressions of lipolysis-related genes including Pnpla2 and Lpl were markedly increased but expressions of Lpin2 and Dgat1 related to TG synthesis were decreased in FM. Analysis of transcriptome and lipidome data revealed differences in the regulation of each lipid metabolic pathway in aortic macrophages. These comprehensive lipidomic data could clarify the phenotypes of macrophages in the atherosclerotic aorta.
    Keywords:  Atherosclerosis; Hyperlipidemic mice; Lipidomics; Macrophages; nUHPLC-ESI-MS/MS
  19. Hypertension. 2023 Sep 07.
      Salt sensitivity concerns blood pressure alterations after a change in salt intake (sodium chloride). The heart is a pump, and vessels are tubes; sodium can affect both. A high salt intake increases cardiac output, promotes vascular dysfunction and capillary rarefaction, and chronically leads to increased systemic vascular resistance. More recent findings suggest that sodium also acts as an important second messenger regulating energy metabolism and cellular functions. Besides endothelial cells and fibroblasts, sodium also affects innate and adaptive immunometabolism, immune cell function, and influences certain microbes and microbiota-derived metabolites. We propose the idea that the definition of salt sensitivity should be expanded beyond high blood pressure to cellular and molecular salt sensitivity.
    Keywords:  T lymphocytes; macrophages; mitochondria; salts; sodium
  20. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2023 ;16 2391-2398
      Acne vulgaris is one of the most widespread skin conditions and the main reason for visiting a dermatologist. Inflammatory response and abnormal infiltrations of immune cells are the main pathogenesis of acne. The increased lipid is the prerequisite for the acne, and the perturbation of lipid composition and content is consistent with the severity of acne. Furthermore, the increased lipid production not only contributes to the occurrence and development of acne, but also sensitizes the function of immune cells. The lipid metabolic dysfunction aggravates the severity of local tissue and provides pro-inflammatory-cytokine cues, which indicates the crucial roles of lipid metabolism on immune cells. Recent advances have demonstrated the lipid metabolism reprogramming of various immune cells in acne lesion. The abnormal lipid accumulation, lipolysis, and fatty acid oxidation lead to the activation and differentiation of immune cells, which promotes the pro-inflammatory cytokines production. Thus, this review discusses the emerging role of lipid metabolism reprogramming of immune cells in the progress of acne and aims to constitute food for others' projects involved in acne research.
    Keywords:  acne vulgaris; inflammatory response; lipid; reprogramming
  21. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2023 Sep 07.
      BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are protective in atherosclerosis but reduced during disease progression due to cell death and loss of stability. However, the mechanisms of Treg dysfunction remain unknown. Oxidized phospholipids are abundant in atherosclerosis and can activate innate immune cells, but little is known regarding their impact on T cells. Given Treg loss during atherosclerosis progression and oxidized phospholipid levels in the plaque microenvironment, we investigated whether oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (oxPAPC), an oxidized phospholipid associated with atherosclerotic plaques, alters Treg differentiation and function.METHODS: CD4+ T cells were polarized to Treg, T helper (Th) 1, and Th17 cells with or without oxPAPC and assessed by flow cytometry. Gene expression in oxPAPC-treated Tregs was analyzed by bulk RNA sequencing. Functional studies of oxPAPC-induced Tregs were performed by coculturing Tregs with CellTrace Violet-labeled cells in vitro, and by adoptively transferring Tregs to hyperlipidemic Ldlr-/- mice to measure atherosclerosis progression.
    RESULTS: Compared with controls, oxPAPC-treated Tregs were less viable, but surviving cells expressed higher levels of the Th1-associated markers T-bet, CXCR3, and IFN (interferon)-γ. Th1 and Th17 skewing cultures were unaltered by oxPAPC. IFN-γ is linked to Treg instability, thus Treg polarization experiments were repeated using Ifngr1-/- CD4+ T cells. IFNγR1 (INF gamma receptor 1) deficiency did not improve cell viability in oxPAPC-treated Tregs; however, T-bet and IFN-γ expression was not increased in surviving cells suggesting a role for IFN-γsignaling. OxPAPC-treated Tregs were less suppressive in vitro, and adoptive transfer studies in hyperlipidemic Ldlr-/- mice showed that oxPAPC-induced Tregs possessed altered tissue homing and were insufficient to inhibit atherosclerosis progression.
    CONCLUSIONS: OxPAPC elicits Treg-specific changes altering Treg differentiation and inducing a Th1-like phenotype in surviving cells partially through IFN-γ signaling. This is biologically relevant as oxPAPC-treated Tregs do not reduce atherosclerosis progression in Ldlr-/- mice. This study supports the role of oxidized phospholipids in negatively impacting Treg differentiation and atheroprotective function.
    Keywords:  atherosclerosis; cell death; disease progression; interferon; phospholipid
  22. Joint Bone Spine. 2023 Sep 06. pii: S1297-319X(23)00113-6. [Epub ahead of print] 105634
      Osteoarthritis (OA), the leading cause of disability in the elderly, still lacks effective treatment due to the unelucidated mechanisms of pathogenesis and progression. In cartilage, although the solo cell type of chondrocytes is resident, cartilage progenitor cells (CPCs) are identified. Chondrocytes in cartilage mainly utilize glycolysis because of the low oxygen tension. Until now, whether the metabolic pathway changes are associated with OA initiation or progression, as well as the biology of CPCs, remains fully clarified. By reviewing relevant literature from previous functional studies, we further mined recently published mouse and human chondrocytes single-cell RNA-sequencing datasets to explore gene expression profiles shift in OA initiation or during OA progression, regarding metabolism. In this review, we demonstrated that chondrocytes' metabolic shift from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in OA initiation or during OA progression. Genes that related to OXPHOS, electron transport, mitochondrial translation, and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex assembly were upregulated in chondrocytes of injured cartilage or during OA progression. In addition, compared to OXPHOS, glycolysis facilitates CPC expansion and chondrogenic potential. The collated information suggests a potential therapeutic for OA through metabolic reprogramming of glycolysis to interrupt OA pathology and favor CPCs rejuvenation to restore healthy cartilage.
    Keywords:  Chondrocyte; Glycolysis; Osteoarthritis; Oxidative phosphorylation
  23. bioRxiv. 2023 Aug 22. pii: 2023.08.22.554238. [Epub ahead of print]
      HER2+ breast tumors have abundant immune-suppressive cells, including M2-type tumor associated macrophages (TAMs). While TAMs consist of the immune-stimulatory M1-type and immune-suppressive M2-type, M1/M2-TAM ratio is reduced in immune-suppressive tumors, contributing to their immunotherapy refractoriness. M1 vs. M2-TAM formation depends on differential arginine metabolism, where M1-TAMs convert arginine to nitric oxide (NO) and M2- TAMs convert arginine to polyamines (PAs). We hypothesize that such distinct arginine metabolism in M1- vs M2-TAMs is attributed to different availability of BH 4 (NO synthase cofactor) and that its replenishment would reprogram M2-TAMs to M1-TAMs. Recently, we reported that sepiapterin (SEP), the endogenous BH 4 precursor, elevates the expression of M1- TAM markers within HER2+ tumors. Here, we show that SEP restores BH 4 levels in M2-TAMs, which then redirects arginine metabolism to NO synthesis and converts M2-TAMs to M1-TAMs. The reprogrammed TAMs exhibit full-fledged capabilities of antigen presentation and induction of effector T cells to trigger immunogenic cell death of HER2+ cancer cells. This study substantiates the utility of SEP in metabolic shift of HER2+ breast tumor microenvironment as a novel immunotherapeutic strategy.
  24. Exp Dermatol. 2023 Sep 08.
      PKM2 mediates the Warburg effects and is crucial for tumorigenesis, but its role in hyperplastic skin disorders remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the function of PKM2 in psoriatic keratinocytes. We found that PKM2 expression and its nuclear translocation were induced in the epidermis of psoriasis patients, contributing to aerobic glycolysis and cell growth. Moreover, mass spectrometry combined with immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that PKM2 could interact with TRIM33, an E3 ubiquitin ligase in the nucleus, and this interaction is critical for the nuclear retention of PKM2. As a result of TRIM33-mediated ubiquitination, PKM2 nuclear protein kinase function is promoted, thus leading to the phosphorylation of STAT3. In addition, blocking PKM2 nuclear translocation abrogated TRIM33-triggered glycolysis and cell proliferation in keratinocytes. Taken together, our experiments demonstrate that ubiquitination regulates the nuclear retention of PKM2 in keratinocytes. Moreover, our results highlight a novel mechanism accounting for the metabolic reprogramming of keratinocytes in psoriasis patients.
    Keywords:  keratinocyte; metabolic reprogramming; psoriasis; pyruvate kinase M2; ubiquitination
  25. bioRxiv. 2023 Aug 26. pii: 2023.08.24.554661. [Epub ahead of print]
      The ALDH2*2 (rs671) allele is one of the most common genetic mutations in humans, yet the positive evolutionary selective pressure to maintain this mutation is unknown, despite its association with adverse health outcomes. ALDH2 is responsible for the detoxification of metabolically produced aldehydes, including lipid-peroxidation end products derived from inflammation. Here, we demonstrate that host-derived aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), malondialdehyde (MDA), and formaldehyde (FA), all of which are metabolized by ALDH2, are directly toxic to the bacterial pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Francisella tularensis at physiological levels. We find that Aldh2 expression in macrophages is decreased upon immune stimulation, and that bone marrow-derived macrophages from Aldh2 -/- mice contain elevated aldehydes relative to wild-type mice. Macrophages deficient for Aldh2 exhibited enhanced control of Francisella infection. Finally , mice lacking Aldh2 demonstrated increased resistance to pulmonary infection by M. tuberculosis , including in a hypersusceptible model of tuberculosis, and were also resistant to Francisella infection. We hypothesize that the absence of ALDH2 contributes to the host's ability to control infection by pathogens such as M. tuberculosis and F. tularensis , and that host-derived aldehydes act as antimicrobial factors during intracellular bacterial infections.One sentence summary: Aldehydes produced by host cells contribute to the control of bacterial infections.
  26. Gut. 2023 Sep 06. pii: gutjnl-2023-330541. [Epub ahead of print]
  27. Nat Commun. 2023 Sep 02. 14(1): 5333
      Inhibition of glycolysis in immune cells and cancer cells diminishes their activity, and thus combining immunotherapies with glycolytic inhibitors is challenging. Herein, a strategy is presented where glycolysis is inhibited in cancer cells using PFK15 (inhibitor of PFKFB3, rate-limiting step in glycolysis), while simultaneously glycolysis and function is rescued in DCs by delivery of fructose-1,6-biphosphate (F16BP, one-step downstream of PFKFB3). To demonstrate the feasibility of this strategy, vaccine formulations are generated using calcium-phosphate chemistry, that incorporate F16BP, poly(IC) as adjuvant, and phosphorylated-TRP2 peptide antigen and tested in challenging and established YUMM1.1 tumours in immunocompetent female mice. Furthermore, to test the versatility of this strategy, adoptive DC therapy is developed with formulations that incorporate F16BP, poly(IC) as adjuvant and mRNA derived from B16F10 cells as antigens in established B16F10 tumours in immunocompetent female mice. F16BP vaccine formulations rescue DCs in vitro and in vivo, significantly improve the survival of mice, and generate cytotoxic T cell (Tc) responses by elevating Tc1 and Tc17 cells within the tumour. Overall, these results demonstrate that rescuing glycolysis of DCs using metabolite-based formulations can be utilized to generate immunotherapy even in the presence of glycolytic inhibitor.
  28. Biomed Pharmacother. 2023 Sep 05. pii: S0753-3322(23)01226-X. [Epub ahead of print]166 115428
      The association among increased inflammation, disrupted iron homeostasis, and adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity has been widely recognized. However, the specific impact of inflammation on iron homeostasis during human adipogenesis and in adipocytes remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on iron homeostasis during human adipocyte differentiation, in fully differentiated adipocytes, and in human adipose tissue. We found that LPS-induced inflammation hindered adipogenesis and led to a gene expression profile indicative of intracellular iron accumulation. This was accompanied by increased expression of iron importers (TFRC and SLC11A2), markers of intracellular iron accumulation (FTH, CYBA, FTL, and LCN2), and decreased expression of iron exporter-related genes (SLC40A1), concomitant with elevated intracellular iron levels. Mechanistically, RNA-seq analysis and gene knockdown experiments revealed the significant involvement of iron importers SLC39A14, SLC39A8, and STEAP4 in LPS-induced intracellular iron accumulation in human adipocytes. Notably, markers of LPS signaling pathway-related inflammation were also associated with a gene expression pattern indicative of intracellular iron accumulation in human adipose tissue, corroborating the link between LPS-induced inflammation and iron accumulation at the tissue level. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that induction of adipocyte inflammation disrupts iron homeostasis, resulting in adipocyte iron overload.
    Keywords:  Adipocyte; Adipogenesis; Gene knockdown; Inflammation; Iron; RNA-seq
  29. PLoS Pathog. 2023 Sep 05. 19(9): e1011636
      The covalent modification of bacterial (lipo)polysaccharides with discrete substituents may impact their biosynthesis, export and/or biological activity. Whether mycobacteria use a similar strategy to control the biogenesis of its cell envelope polysaccharides and modulate their interaction with the host during infection is unknown despite the report of a number of tailoring substituents modifying the structure of these glycans. Here, we show that discrete succinyl substituents strategically positioned on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lipoarabinomannan govern the mannose-capping of this lipoglycan and, thus, much of the biological activity of the entire molecule. We further show that the absence of succinyl substituents on the two main cell envelope glycans of Mtb, arabinogalactan and lipoarabinomannan, leads to a significant increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in infected murine and human macrophages. Collectively, our results validate polysaccharide succinylation as a critical mechanism by which Mtb controls inflammation.