bims-imicid Biomed News
on Immunometabolism of infection, cancer and immune-mediated disease
Issue of 2023‒05‒28
37 papers selected by
Dylan Ryan
University of Cambridge

  1. Cell Metab. 2023 May 17. pii: S1550-4131(23)00178-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      Augmented T cell function leading to host damage in autoimmunity is supported by metabolic dysregulation, making targeting immunometabolism an attractive therapeutic avenue. Canagliflozin, a type 2 diabetes drug, is a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor with known off-target effects on glutamate dehydrogenase and complex I. However, the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on human T cell function have not been extensively explored. Here, we show that canagliflozin-treated T cells are compromised in their ability to activate, proliferate, and initiate effector functions. Canagliflozin inhibits T cell receptor signaling, impacting on ERK and mTORC1 activity, concomitantly associated with reduced c-Myc. Compromised c-Myc levels were encapsulated by a failure to engage translational machinery resulting in impaired metabolic protein and solute carrier production among others. Importantly, canagliflozin-treated T cells derived from patients with autoimmune disorders impaired their effector function. Taken together, our work highlights a potential therapeutic avenue for repurposing canagliflozin as an intervention for T cell-mediated autoimmunity.
    Keywords:  CD4 T cell; T cell; autoimmunity; canagliflozin; gliflozins; human; immunometabolism
  2. Nat Cell Biol. 2023 May 25.
      Although mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells provide rapid, innate-like responses, they are not pre-set, and memory-like responses have been described for MAIT cells following infections. The importance of metabolism for controlling these responses, however, is unknown. Here, following pulmonary immunization with a Salmonella vaccine strain, mouse MAIT cells expanded as separate CD127-Klrg1+ and CD127+Klrg1- antigen-adapted populations that differed in terms of their transcriptome, function and localization in lung tissue. These populations remained altered from steady state for months as stable, separate MAIT cell lineages with enhanced effector programmes and divergent metabolism. CD127+ MAIT cells engaged in an energetic, mitochondrial metabolic programme, which was critical for their maintenance and IL-17A synthesis. This programme was supported by high fatty acid uptake and mitochondrial oxidation and relied on highly polarized mitochondria and autophagy. After vaccination, CD127+ MAIT cells protected mice against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. In contrast, Klrg1+ MAIT cells had dormant but ready-to-respond mitochondria and depended instead on Hif1a-driven glycolysis to survive and produce IFN-γ. They responded antigen independently and participated in protection from influenza virus. These metabolic dependencies may enable tuning of memory-like MAIT cell responses for vaccination and immunotherapies.
  3. Res Sq. 2023 May 10. pii: [Epub ahead of print]
      Modulation of metabolic flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) plays an important role in T cell activation and differentiation. PDC sits at the transition between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle and is a major producer of acetyl-CoA, marking it as a potential metabolic and epigenetic node. To understand the role of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in T cell differentiation, we generated mice deficient in T cell pyruvate dehydrogenase E1A ( Pdha ) subunit using a CD4-cre recombinase-based strategy. Herein, we show that genetic ablation of PDC activity in T cells ( TPdh -/- ) leads to marked perturbations in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and OXPHOS. TPdh -/- T cells became dependent upon substrate level phosphorylation via glycolysis, secondary to depressed OXPHOS. Due to the block of PDC activity, histone acetylation was also reduced, including H3K27, a critical site for CD8 + T M differentiation. Transcriptional and functional profiling revealed abnormal CD8 + T M differentiation in vitro. Collectively, our data indicate that PDC integrates the metabolome and epigenome in CD8 + memory T cell differentiation. Targeting this metabolic and epigenetic node can have widespread ramifications on cellular function.
  4. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2023 ;10 1136252
      Introduction: Metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation may mediate macrophage polarization from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. We hypothesized that changes in cardiac macrophage glucose metabolism would reflect polarization status after myocardial infarction (MI), ranging from the early inflammatory phase to the later wound healing phase.Methods: MI was induced by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery in adult male C57BL/6J mice for 1 (D1), 3 (D3), or 7 (D7) days. Infarct macrophages were subjected to metabolic flux analysis or gene expression analysis. Monocyte versus resident cardiac macrophage metabolism was assessed using mice lacking the Ccr2 gene (CCR2 KO).
    Results: By flow cytometry and RT-PCR, D1 macrophages exhibited an M1 phenotype while D7 macrophages exhibited an M2 phenotype. Macrophage glycolysis (extracellular acidification rate) was increased at D1 and D3, returning to basal levels at D7. Glucose oxidation (oxygen consumption rate) was decreased at D3, returning to basal levels at D7. At D1, glycolytic genes were elevated (Gapdh, Ldha, Pkm2), while TCA cycle genes were elevated at D3 (Idh1 and Idh2) and D7 (Pdha1, Idh1/2, Sdha/b). Surprisingly, Slc2a1 and Hk1/2 were increased at D7, as well as pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) genes (G6pdx, G6pd2, Pgd, Rpia, Taldo1), indicating increased PPP activity. Macrophages from CCR2 KO mice showed decreased glycolysis and increased glucose oxidation at D3, and decreases in Ldha and Pkm2 expression. Administration of dichloroacetate, a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor, robustly decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphorylation in the non-infarcted remote zone, but did not affect macrophage phenotype or metabolism in the infarct zone.
    Discussion: Our results indicate that changes in glucose metabolism and the PPP underlie macrophage polarization following MI, and that metabolic reprogramming is a key feature of monocyte-derived but not resident macrophages.
    Keywords:  glycolysis; heart failure; immunometabolism; inflammation; macrophage
  5. iScience. 2023 May 19. 26(5): 106774
      The expansion of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, which is tightly associated with the development of lupus, is reversed by the inhibition of either glycolysis or glutaminolysis in mice. Here we analyzed the gene expression and metabolome of Tfh cells and naive CD4+ T (Tn) cells in the B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (triple congenic, TC) mouse model of lupus and its congenic B6 control. Lupus genetic susceptibility in TC mice drives a gene expression signature starting in Tn cells and expanding in Tfh cells with enhanced signaling and effector programs. Metabolically, TC Tn and Tfh cells showed multiple defective mitochondrial functions. TC Tfh cells also showed specific anabolic programs including enhanced glutamate metabolism, malate-aspartate shuttle, and ammonia recycling, as well as altered dynamics of amino acid content and their transporters. Thus, our study has revealed specific metabolic programs that can be targeted to specifically limit the expansion of pathogenic Tfh cells in lupus.
    Keywords:  Cell biology; Immunology; Metabolomics; Physiology; Transcriptomics
  6. J Autoimmun. 2023 May 20. pii: S0896-8411(23)00057-4. [Epub ahead of print]138 103048
      Metabolic reprogramming plays a pivotal role in the differentiation and function of immune cells including dendritic cells (DCs). Regulatory DCs can be generated in regional tissue niches like splenic stroma and act as an important part of stromal control of immune response for the maintenance of immune tolerance. However, the metabolic alterations during splenic stroma-driven regulatory DCs differentiation and the metabolic enzyme involved in regulatory DCs function remain poorly understood. By combining metabolomic, transcriptomic, and functional investigations of mature DCs (maDCs) and diffDCs (regulatory DCs differentiated from activated mature DCs through coculturing with splenic stroma), here we identified succinate-CoA ligase subunit beta Suclg2 as a key metabolic enzyme that reprograms the proinflammatory status of mature DCs into a tolerogenic phenotype via preventing NF-κB signaling activation. diffDCs downregulate succinic acid levels and increase the Suclg2 expression along with their differentiation from mature DCs. Suclg2-interference impaired the tolerogenic function of diffDCs in inducing T cell apoptosis and enhanced activation of NF-κB signaling and expression of inflammatory genes CD40, Ccl5, and Il12b in diffDCs. Furthermore, we identified Lactb as a new positive regulator of NF-κB signaling in diffDCs whose succinylation at the lysine 288 residue was inhibited by Suclg2. Our study reveals that the metabolic enzyme Suclg2 is required to maintain the immunoregulatory function of diffDCs, adding mechanistic insights into the metabolic regulation of DC-based immunity and tolerance.
    Keywords:  Lactb; Metabolic reprogramming; Regulatory dendritic cells; Succinic acid; Succinylation; Suclg2; T cell apoptosis; diffDCs
  7. Biochem Pharmacol. 2023 May 18. pii: S0006-2952(23)00205-8. [Epub ahead of print]213 115614
      Acute myocardial infarction (MI) and chemotherapeutic drug administration can induce myocardial damage and cardiomyocyte cell death, and trigger the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that initiate the aseptic inflammatory response. The moderate inflammatory response is beneficial for repairing damaged myocardium, while an excessive inflammatory response exacerbates myocardial injury, promotes scar formation, and results in a poor prognosis of cardiac diseases. Immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1) is specifically highly expressed in activated macrophages and mediates the production of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolite itaconate. However, the role of IRG1 in the inflammation and myocardial injury of cardiac stress-related diseases remains unknown. Here, we found that IRG1 knockout mice exhibited increased cardiac tissue inflammation and infarct size, aggravated myocardial fibrosis, and impaired cardiac function after MI and in vivo doxorubicin (Dox) administration. Mechanically, IRG1 deficiency enhanced the production of IL-6 and IL-1β by suppressing the nuclear factor red lineage 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) pathway in cardiac macrophages. Importantly, 4-octyl itaconate (4-OI), a cell-permeable derivative of itaconate, reversed the inhibited expression of NRF2 and ATF3 caused by IRG1 deficiency. Moreover, in vivo 4-OI administration inhibited the cardiac inflammation and fibrosis, and prevented adverse ventricle remodeling in IRG1 knockout mice with MI or Dox-induced myocardial injury. Our study uncovers the critical protective role of IRG1 in suppressing inflammation and preventing cardiac dysfunction under ischemic or toxic injury conditions, providing a potential target for the treatment of myocardial injury.
    Keywords:  ATF3; Doxorubicin; IRG1; Inflammation; Myocardial injury; NRF2
  8. bioRxiv. 2023 May 08. pii: 2023.05.07.539780. [Epub ahead of print]
      Unchecked chronic inflammation is the underlying cause of many diseases, ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to obesity and neurodegeneration. Given the deleterious nature of unregulated inflammation, it is not surprising that cells have acquired a diverse arsenal of tactics to limit inflammation. IL-10 is a key anti-inflammatory cytokine that can limit immune cell activation and cytokine production in innate immune cell types; however, the exact mechanism by which IL-10 signaling subdues inflammation remains unclear. Here, we find that IL-10 signaling constrains sphingolipid metabolism. Specifically, we find increased saturated very long chain (VLC) ceramides are critical for the heightened inflammatory gene expression that is a hallmark of IL-10-deficient macrophages. Genetic deletion of CerS2, the enzyme responsible for VLC ceramide production, limited exacerbated inflammatory gene expression associated with IL-10 deficiency both in vitro and in vivo , indicating that "metabolic correction" is able to reduce inflammation in the absence of IL-10. Surprisingly, accumulation of saturated VLC ceramides was regulated by flux through the de novo mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) synthesis pathway, where addition of exogenous MUFAs could limit both saturated VLC ceramide production and inflammatory gene expression in the absence of IL-10 signaling. Together, these studies mechanistically define how IL-10 signaling manipulates fatty acid metabolism as part of its molecular anti-inflammatory strategy and could lead to novel and inexpensive approaches to regulate aberrant inflammation.
  9. J Leukoc Biol. 2023 May 26. pii: qiad062. [Epub ahead of print]
      Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) develop from monocytes play a key role in innate inflammatory responses as well as T-cell priming. Steady-state moDCs regulate immunogenicity and tolerogenicity by changing metabolic patterns to participate in the body's immune response. Increased glycolytic (Gly) metabolism after danger signal induction may strengthen moDCs' immunogenicity, whereas high levels of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) were associated with the immaturity and tolerogenicity of moDCs. In this review, we will discuss what is currently known about differential metabolic reprogramming of human moDCs development and distinct functional properties.
    Keywords:  glycolysis; immunogenicity; metabolism; moDCs; oxidative phosphorylation; tolerogenicity
  10. J Autoimmun. 2023 May 23. pii: S0896-8411(23)00040-9. [Epub ahead of print]138 103031
      The aim of this study was to assess the L-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1) as a possible therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Synovial LAT1 expression in RA was monitored by immunohistochemistry and transcriptomic datasets. The contribution of LAT1 to gene expression and immune synapse formation was assessed by RNA-sequencing and total internal reflection fluorescent (TIRF) microscopy, respectively. Mouse models of RA were used to assess the impact of therapeutic targeting of LAT1. LAT1 was strongly expressed by CD4+ T cells in the synovial membrane of people with active RA and the level of expression correlated with levels of ESR and CRP as well as DAS-28 scores. Deletion of LAT1 in murine CD4+ T cells inhibited the development of experimental arthritis and prevented the differentiation of CD4+ T cells expressing IFN-γ and TNF-α, without affecting regulatory T cells. LAT1 deficient CD4+ T cells demonstrated reduced transcription of genes associated with TCR/CD28 signalling, including Akt1, Akt2, Nfatc2, Nfkb1 and Nfkb2. Functional studies using TIRF microscopy revealed a significant impairment of immune synapse formation with reduced recruitment of CD3ζ and phospho-tyrosine signalling molecules in LAT1 deficient CD4+ T cells from the inflamed joints but not the draining lymph nodes of arthritic mice. Finally, it was shown that a small molecule LAT1 inhibitor, currently undergoing clinical trials in man, was highly effective in treating experimental arthritis in mice. It was concluded that LAT1 plays a critical role in activation of pathogenic T cell subsets under inflammatory conditions and represents a promising new therapeutic target for RA.
    Keywords:  Amino acids; Immunometabolism; Inflammation; Rheumatoid arthritis; T lymphocytes
  11. Biomolecules. 2023 Apr 29. pii: 770. [Epub ahead of print]13(5):
      This study investigated the critical role of Glut1-mediated glucose metabolism in the inflammatory response of macrophages, which are energy-intensive cells within the innate immune system. Inflammation leads to increased Glut1 expression, ensuring sufficient glucose uptake to support macrophage functions. We demonstrated that using siRNA to knock down Glut1 reduces the expression of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and markers, such as IL-6, iNOS, MHC II/CD40, reactive oxygen species, and the hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-producing enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE). Glut1 activates a pro-inflammatory profile through a nuclear factor (NF)-κB, while silencing Glut1 can prevent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IκB degradation, blocking NF-κB activation. Glut1's role in autophagy, an essential process for macrophage functions such as antigen presentation, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion, was also measured. The findings show that LPS stimulation decreases autophagosome formation, but Glut1 knockdown reverses this effect, increasing autophagy beyond control levels. The study highlights Glut1's importance in macrophage immune responses and its regulation of apoptosis during LPS stimulation. Knocking down Glut1 negatively impacts cell viability and mitochondrial intrinsic pathway signaling. These findings collectively suggest that targeting macrophage glucose metabolism through Glut1 could potentially serve as a target for controlling inflammation.
    Keywords:  Glut 1; autophagy; hydrogen sulfide; inflammation; macrophage
  12. Trop Med Infect Dis. 2023 May 03. pii: 264. [Epub ahead of print]8(5):
      Leishmania infection of phagocytic cells, such as macrophages, induces the differentiation of infected cells into different phenotypes according to their surrounding microenvironments. The classical activation of macrophages involves metabolic reprogramming, in which several metabolites such as succinate, fumarate and itaconate are accumulated. The immunoregulatory functions of itaconate in the context of Leishmania infection were investigated in this paper. Ex vivo bone marrow-derived macrophages were differentiated into classically activated macrophages through IFNG activation and infection with Leishmania infantum. A high-throughput real-time qPCR experiment was designed for the analyses of 223 genes involved in immune response and metabolism. The transcriptional profile of classically activated macrophages revealed the enrichment of the IFNG response pathways and the upregulation of genes such as Cxcl9, Irf1, Acod1, Il12b, Il12rb1, Nos2 or Stat1. In vitro pre-stimulation with itaconate induced a loss of the parasite control and the upregulation of genes related to local acute inflammatory response. Our results reveal that itaconate accumulation dampened classically activated macrophage antiparasitic activity, and this is reflected by the differential expression of the Il12b, Icosl and Mki67 genes. The possibility of inducing parasite-killing responses in the host through metabolic reprograming is an interesting approach for the treatment of Leishmania infections that will undoubtedly attract increasing attention in the coming years.
    Keywords:  Leishmania infantum; classically activated macrophages; gene expression profiling; itaconate; macrophage activation; metabolic stimulus
  13. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2023 May 22.
      SIGNIFICANCE: The architecture of the mitochondrial network and cristae critically impact cell differentiation and identity. Cells undergoing metabolic reprogramming to aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), such as immune cells, stem cells, and cancer cells, go through controlled modifications in mitochondrial architecture, which is critical for achieving the resulting cellular phenotype.RECENT ADVANCES: Recent studies in immunometabolism have shown that the manipulation of mitochondrial network dynamics and cristae shape directly affects T cell phenotype and macrophage polarization through altering energy metabolism. Similar manipulations also alter the specific metabolic phenotypes that accompany somatic reprogramming, stem cell differentiation, and cancer cells. The modulation of OXPHOS activity, accompanied by changes in metabolite signaling, ROS generation, and ATP levels is the shared underlying mechanism.
    CRITICAL ISSUES: The plasticity of mitochondrial architecture is particularly vital for metabolic reprogramming. Consequently, failure to adapt the appropriate mitochondrial morphology often compromises the differentiation and identity of the cell. Immune, stem, and tumor cells exhibit striking similarities in their coordination of mitochondrial morphology with metabolic pathways. However, although many general unifying principles can be observed, their validity is not absolute, and the mechanistic links thus need to be further explored.
    FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved and their relationships to both mitochondrial network and cristae morphology will not only further deepen our understanding of energy metabolism but may also contribute to improved therapeutic manipulation of cell viability, differentiation, proliferation, and identity in many different cell types.
  14. Front Physiol. 2023 ;14 1139296
      Macrophages play critical roles in mediating and resolving tissue injury as well as tissue remodeling during cardiorenal disease. Altered immunometabolism, particularly macrophage metabolism, is a critical underlying mechanism of immune dysfunction and inflammation, particularly in individuals with underlying metabolic abnormalities. In this review, we discuss the critical roles of macrophages in cardiac and renal injury and disease. We also highlight the roles of macrophage metabolism and discuss metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity and diabetes, which may impair normal macrophage metabolism and thus predispose individuals to cardiorenal inflammation and injury. As the roles of macrophage glucose and fatty acid metabolism have been extensively discussed elsewhere, we focus on the roles of alternative fuels, such as lactate and ketones, which play underappreciated roles during cardiac and renal injury and heavily influence macrophage phenotypes.
    Keywords:  cardiac injury; heart; inflammation; ketone; kidney; lactate; macrophage; renal injury
  15. World J Gastroenterol. 2023 May 07. 29(17): 2701-2703
      Several studies have shown that the immune system is highly regulated by tryptophan metabolism, which serves as an immunomodulatory factor. The indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), as an intracellular enzyme that participates in metabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan in the kynurenine pathway, is an independent prognostic marker for pancreatic cancer (PC). First, overexpression of IDO1 inhibits the maturation of dendritic cells and T-cell proliferation in the liver and spleen. Second, the high expression of kynurenine induces and activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, resulting in upregulated programmed cell death protein 1 expression. Third, the induction of IDO1 can lead to loss of the T helper 17 cell/regulatory T cell balance, mediated by the proximal tryptophan catabolite from IDO metabolism. In our study, we found that overexpression of IDO1 upregulated CD8+ T cells and reduced natural killer T cells in pancreatic carcinoma in mice. Hence, it may be essential to pay more attention to tryptophan metabolism in patients, especially those who are tolerant to immunotherapy for PC.
    Keywords:  Immunosuppression; Pancreatic cancer stroma; T cell; Tryptophan metabolism; Xxx
  16. Clin Sci (Lond). 2023 May 31. 137(10): 807-821
      Lymphocytes act as regulatory and effector cells in inflammation and infection situations. A metabolic switch towards glycolytic metabolism predominance occurs during T lymphocyte differentiation to inflammatory phenotypes (Th1 and Th17 cells). Maturation of T regulatory cells, however, may require activation of oxidative pathways. Metabolic transitions also occur in different maturation stages and activation of B lymphocytes. Under activation, B lymphocytes undergo cell growth and proliferation, associated with increased macromolecule synthesis. The B lymphocyte response to an antigen challenge requires an increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) supply derived mainly through glycolytic metabolism. After stimulation, B lymphocytes increase glucose uptake, but they do not accumulate glycolytic intermediates, probably due to an increase in various metabolic pathway 'end product' formation. Activated B lymphocytes are associated with increased utilization of pyrimidines and purines for RNA synthesis and fatty acid oxidation. The generation of plasmablasts and plasma cells from B lymphocytes is crucial for antibody production. Antibody production and secretion require increased glucose consumption since 90% of consumed glucose is needed for antibody glycosylation. This review describes critical aspects of lymphocyte metabolism and functional interplay during activation. We discuss the primary fuels for the metabolism of lymphocytes and the particularities of T and B cell metabolism, including the differentiation of lymphocytes, stages of development of B cells, and the production of antibodies.
    Keywords:  Antibody production; B Cell; Glucose; Glutamine; Immunometabolism; Leucocyte
  17. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1186892
      A growing body of research suggests that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolites produced by intestinal symbiotic bacteria that ferment dietary fibers (DFs), play a crucial role in the health status of symbiotes. SCFAs act on a variety of cell types to regulate important biological processes, including host metabolism, intestinal function, and immune function. SCFAs also affect the function and fate of immune cells. This finding provides a new concept in immune metabolism and a better understanding of the regulatory role of SCFAs in the immune system, which impacts the prevention and treatment of disease. The mechanism by which SCFAs induce or regulate the immune response is becoming increasingly clear. This review summarizes the different mechanisms through which SCFAs act in cells. According to the latest research, the regulatory role of SCFAs in the innate immune system, including in NLRP3 inflammasomes, receptors of TLR family members, neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells, eosinophils, basophils and innate lymphocyte subsets, is emphasized. The regulatory role of SCFAs in the adaptive immune system, including in T-cell subsets, B cells, and plasma cells, is also highlighted. In addition, we discuss the role that SCFAs play in regulating allergic airway inflammation, colitis, and osteoporosis by influencing the immune system. These findings provide evidence for determining treatment options based on metabolic regulation.
    Keywords:  G-protein-coupled receptor; adaptive immunity; histone deacetylase; innate immunity; short-chain fatty acid
  18. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 May 18. pii: 8967. [Epub ahead of print]24(10):
      Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, play important roles in maintaining brain homeostasis and facilitating the brain's innate immune responses. Following immune challenges microglia also retain immune memories, which can alter responses to secondary inflammatory challenges. Microglia have two main memory states, training and tolerance, which are associated with increased and attenuated expression of inflammatory cytokines, respectively. However, the mechanisms differentiating these two distinct states are not well understood. We investigated mechanisms underlying training versus tolerance memory paradigms in vitro in BV2 cells using B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a priming stimulus followed by LPS as a second stimulus. BAFF followed by LPS showed enhanced responses indicative of priming, whereas LPS followed by LPS as the second stimulus caused reduced responses suggestive of tolerance. The main difference between the BAFF versus the LPS stimulus was the induction of aerobic glycolysis by LPS. Inhibiting aerobic glycolysis during the priming stimulus using sodium oxamate prevented the establishment of the tolerized memory state. In addition, tolerized microglia were unable to induce aerobic glycolysis upon LPS restimulus. Therefore, we conclude that aerobic glycolysis triggered by the first LPS stimulus was a critical step in the induction of innate immune tolerance.
    Keywords:  BV2; DOHaD; innate immune memory; metabolism; microglia; tolerance; training
  19. Inflammation. 2023 May 22.
      Biofilm formation is a leading cause for chronic implant-related bone infections as biofilms shield bacteria against the immune system and antibiotics. Additionally, biofilms generate a metabolic microenvironment that shifts the immune response towards tolerance. Here, we compared the impact of the metabolite profile of bacterial environments on macrophage immune activation using Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and epidermidis (SE) conditioned media (CM) of planktonic and biofilm cultures. The biofilm environment had reduced glucose and increased lactate concentrations. Moreover, the expression of typical immune activation markers on macrophages was reduced in the biofilm environment compared to the respective planktonic CM. However, all CM caused a predominantly pro-inflammatory macrophage cytokine response with a comparable induction of Tnfa expression. In biofilm CM, this was accompanied by higher levels of anti-inflammatory Il10. Planktonic CM, on the other hand, induced an IRF7 mediated Ifnb gene expression which was absent in the biofilm environments. For SA but not for SE planktonic CM, this was accompanied by IRF3 activation. Stimulation of macrophages with TLR-2/-9 ligands under varying metabolic conditions revealed that, like in the biofilm setting, low glucose concentration reduced the Tnfa to Il10 mRNA ratio. However, the addition of extracellular L-lactate but not D-lactate increased the Tnfa to Il10 mRNA ratio upon TLR-2/-9 stimulation. In summary, our data indicate that the mechanisms behind the activation of macrophages differ between planktonic and biofilm environments. These differences are independent of the metabolite profiles, suggesting that the production of different bacterial factors is ultimately more important than the concentrations of glucose and lactate in the environment.
    Keywords:  Biofilm; Immune response; Implant-related bone infections; Macrophages; Metabolites.; Staphylococcus
  20. Life Metab. 2022 Dec;1(3): 258-269
      Obesity is characterized by chronic, low-grade inflammation, which is driven by macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue. PPARγ is well established to have an anti-inflammatory function in macrophages, but the mechanism that regulates its function in these cells remains to be fully elucidated. PPARγ undergoes post-translational modifications (PTMs), including acetylation, to mediate ligand responses, including on metabolic functions. Here, we report that PPARγ acetylation in macrophages promotes their infiltration into adipose tissue, exacerbating metabolic dysregulation. We generated a mouse line that expresses a macrophage-specific, constitutive acetylation-mimetic form of PPARγ (K293Qflox/flox:LysM-cre, mK293Q) to dissect the role of PPARγ acetylation in macrophages. Upon high-fat diet feeding to stimulate macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, we assessed the overall metabolic profile and tissue-specific phenotype of the mutant mice, including responses to the PPARγ agonist Rosiglitazone. Macrophage-specific PPARγ K293Q expression promotes proinflammatory macrophage infiltration and fibrosis in epididymal white adipose tissue, but not in subcutaneous or brown adipose tissue, leading to decreased energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and adipose tissue function. Furthermore, mK293Q mice are resistant to Rosiglitazone-induced improvements in adipose tissue remodeling. Our study reveals that acetylation is a new layer of PPARγ regulation in macrophage activation, and highlights the importance and potential therapeutic implications of such PTMs in regulating metabolism.
    Keywords:  PPARγ acetylation; adipose tissue remodeling; fibrosis; inflammation; macrophage
  21. Front Pharmacol. 2023 ;14 940129
      Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) like bacterial cell wall components and viral nucleic acids are known ligands of innate inflammatory receptors that trigger multiple inflammatory pathways that may result in acute inflammation and oxidative stress-driven tissue and organ toxicity. When dysregulated, this inflammation may lead to acute toxicity and multiorgan failure. Inflammatory events are often driven by high energy demands and macromolecular biosynthesis. Therefore, we proposed that targeting the metabolism of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-driven inflammatory events, using an energy restriction approach, can be an effective strategy to prevent the acute or chronic detrimental effects of accidental or seasonal bacterial and other pathogenic exposures. In the present study, we investigated the potential of energy restriction mimetic agent (ERMA) 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) in targeting the metabolism of inflammatory events during LPS-elicited acute inflammatory response. Mice fed with 2-DG as a dietary component in drinking water showed reduced LPS-driven inflammatory processes. Dietary 2-DG reduced LPS-induced lung endothelial damage and oxidative stress by strengthening the antioxidant defense system and limiting the activation and expression of inflammatory proteins, viz., P-Stat-3, NfκΒ, and MAP kinases. This was accompanied by decreased TNF, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). 2-DG also reduced the infiltration of PMNCs (polymorphonuclear cells) in inflamed tissues. Altered glycolysis and improved mitochondrial activity in 2-DG-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells suggested possible impairment of macrophage metabolism and, therefore, activation in macrophages. Taken together, the present study suggests that inclusion of glycolytic inhibitor 2-DG as a part of the diet can be helpful in preventing the severity and poor prognosis associated with inflammatory events during bacterial and other pathogenic exposures.
    Keywords:  chronic inflammation; energy restriction; glycolysis; metabolism; neutrophils; pathogens; polymorphonuclear cells; sepsis
  22. STAR Protoc. 2023 May 19. pii: S2666-1667(23)00268-X. [Epub ahead of print]4(2): 102301
      The infiltration of activated T cells, such as CD8+ effector, in metabolic tissues plays a crucial role for the initiation and propagation of obesity-induced inflammation. Given the pivotal role of lactate transporter monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in immune cell activation, we present a protocol for the isolation and activation of CD8+ T lymphocytes selectively lacking MCT1. We describe steps for the induction of adipocyte differentiation, CD8+ T isolation and activation, and adipocyte-CD8+ T cell co-culture. We then detail qPCR analysis on differentiated adipocytes. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Macchi et al.1.
    Keywords:  Cell Biology; Cell culture; Cell isolation; Flow Cytometry/Mass Cytometry; Metabolism; Model Organisms; Molecular Biology
  23. Biomedicines. 2023 May 14. pii: 1443. [Epub ahead of print]11(5):
      Macrophage adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) limits the development of experimental colitis. AMPK activation inhibits NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in macrophages during inflammation, while increased NOX2 expression is reported in experimental models of colitis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Although there are reductions in AMPK activity in IBD, it remains unclear whether targeted inhibition of NOX2 in the presence of defective AMPK can reduce the severity of colitis. Here, we investigate whether the inhibition of NOX2 ameliorates colitis in mice independent of AMPK activation. Our study identified that VAS2870 (a pan-Nox inhibitor) alleviated dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in macrophage-specific AMPKβ1-deficient (AMPKβ1LysM) mice. Additionally, VAS2870 blocked LPS-induced TLR-4 and NOX2 expression, ROS production, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from AMPKβ1LysM mice, whereas sodium salicylate (SS; AMPK β1 activator) did not. Both VAS2870 and SS inhibited LPS-induced NOX2 expression, ROS production, and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretions in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from wildtype (AMPKβ1fl/fl) mice but only VAS2870 inhibited these effects of LPSs in AMPKβ1LysM BMDMs. Furthermore, in macrophage cells (RAW 264.7), both SS and VAS2870 inhibited ROS production and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reversed the impaired autophagy induced by LPSs. These data suggest that inhibiting NOX2 can reduce inflammation independent of AMPK in colitis.
    Keywords:  AMPK; NOX2; autophagy; colitis; inflammation; macrophages
  24. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2023 May 24. pii: S0147-6513(23)00544-4. [Epub ahead of print]259 115040
      Exposure to the toxic metal cadmium (Cd) is a well-established risk factor for hepatic inflammation, but it remains unclear how metabolic components, such as different fatty acids (FAs), interact with Cd to influence this process. Understanding these interactions is essential for identifying potential preventative and therapeutic targets for this disorder. To address this question, we conducted in vitro and in vivo studies to investigate the combinatorial effect of Cd and saturated FAs on hepatic inflammation. Specifically, we assessed the cytotoxicity of Cd on macrophages and their polarization and inflammatory activation upon co-exposure to Cd and saturated FAs. Our results showed that while saturated FAs had minimal impact on the cytotoxicity of Cd on macrophages, they significantly collaborated with Cd in predisposing macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory M1 polarization, thereby promoting inflammatory activation. This joint effect of Cd and saturated FAs resulted in persistent inflammation and hepatic steatohepatitis in vivo. In summary, our study identified macrophage polarization as a novel mechanism by which co-exposure to Cd and saturated lipids induces hepatic inflammation. Our findings suggest that intervening in macrophage polarization may be a potential approach for mitigating the adverse hepatic effects of Cd.
    Keywords:  Cadmium; Inflammation; Macrophage M1 polarization; NASH; Saturated fatty acids
  25. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 May 12. pii: 8650. [Epub ahead of print]24(10):
      Alcohol misuse, directly or indirectly as a result of its metabolism, negatively impacts most tissues, including four with critical roles in energy metabolism regulation: the liver, pancreas, adipose, and skeletal muscle. Mitochondria have long been studied for their biosynthetic roles, such as ATP synthesis and initiation of apoptosis. However, current research has provided evidence that mitochondria participate in myriad cellular processes, including immune activation, nutrient sensing in pancreatic β-cells, and skeletal muscle stem and progenitor cell differentiation. The literature indicates that alcohol impairs mitochondrial respiratory capacity, promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and disrupting mitochondrial dynamics, leading to dysfunctional mitochondria accumulation. As discussed in this review, mitochondrial dyshomeostasis emerges at a nexus between alcohol-disrupted cellular energy metabolism and tissue injury. Here, we highlight this link and focus on alcohol-mediated disruption of immunometabolism, which refers to two distinct, yet interrelated processes. Extrinsic immunometabolism involves processes whereby immune cells and their products influence cellular and/or tissue metabolism. Intrinsic immunometabolism describes immune cell fuel utilization and bioenergetics that affect intracellular processes. Alcohol-induced mitochondrial dysregulation negatively impacts immunometabolism in immune cells, contributing to tissue injury. This review will present the current state of literature, describing alcohol-mediated metabolic and immunometabolic dysregulation from a mitochondrial perspective.
    Keywords:  adaptive immunity; adipose tissue; alcohol; innate immunity; liver; mitochondria; pancreas; skeletal muscle immunometabolism
  26. Biochem Pharmacol. 2023 May 19. pii: S0006-2952(23)00210-1. [Epub ahead of print] 115619
      Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by damage to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Key pathogenic mechanisms underlying PD include alpha-synuclein misfolding and aggregation, impaired protein clearance, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. However, to date, no study has confirmed the specific pathogenesis of PD. Similarly, current PD treatment methods still have shortcomings. Although some emerging therapies have proved effective for PD, the specific mechanism still needs further clarification. Metabolic reprogramming, a term first proposed by Warburg, is applied to the metabolic energy characteristics of tumor cells. Microglia have similar metabolic characteristics. Pro-inflammatory M1 type and anti-inflammatory M2 type are the two types of activated microglia, which exhibit different metabolic patterns in glucose, lipid, amino acid, and iron metabolism. Additionally, mitochondrial dysfunction may be involved in microglial metabolic reprogramming by activating various signaling mechanisms. Functional changes in microglia resulting from metabolic reprogramming can cause changes in the brain microenvironment, thus playing an important role in neuroinflammation or tissue repair. The involvement of microglial metabolic reprogramming in PD pathogenesis has been confirmed. Neuroinflammation and dopaminergic neuronal death can effectively be reduced by inhibiting certain metabolic pathways in M1 microglia or reverting M1 cells to the M2 phenotype. This review summarizes the relationship between microglial metabolic reprogramming and PD and provides strategies for PD treatment.
    Keywords:  Metabolic reprogramming; Microglia; Mitochondria; Neuroinflammation; Parkinson's disease; Signaling pathway
  27. Nature. 2023 May 24.
      Cancer alters the function of multiple organs beyond those targeted by metastasis1,2. Here we show that inflammation, fatty liver and dysregulated metabolism are hallmarks of systemically affected livers in mouse models and in patients with extrahepatic metastasis. We identified tumour-derived extracellular vesicles and particles (EVPs) as crucial mediators of cancer-induced hepatic reprogramming, which could be reversed by reducing tumour EVP secretion via depletion of Rab27a. All EVP subpopulations, exosomes and principally exomeres, could dysregulate hepatic function. The fatty acid cargo of tumour EVPs-particularly palmitic acid-induced secretion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) by Kupffer cells, generating a pro-inflammatory microenvironment, suppressing fatty acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation, and promoting fatty liver formation. Notably, Kupffer cell ablation or TNF blockade markedly decreased tumour-induced fatty liver generation. Tumour implantation or pre-treatment with tumour EVPs diminished cytochrome P450 gene expression and attenuated drug metabolism in a TNF-dependent manner. We also observed fatty liver and decreased cytochrome P450 expression at diagnosis in tumour-free livers of patients with pancreatic cancer who later developed extrahepatic metastasis, highlighting the clinical relevance of our findings. Notably, tumour EVP education enhanced side effects of chemotherapy, including bone marrow suppression and cardiotoxicity, suggesting that metabolic reprogramming of the liver by tumour-derived EVPs may limit chemotherapy tolerance in patients with cancer. Our results reveal how tumour-derived EVPs dysregulate hepatic function and their targetable potential, alongside TNF inhibition, for preventing fatty liver formation and enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy.
  28. bioRxiv. 2023 May 09. pii: 2023.05.08.539908. [Epub ahead of print]
      Crosstalk between metabolism and stress-responsive signaling is essential to maintaining cellular homeostasis. One way this crosstalk is achieved is through the covalent modification of proteins by endogenous, reactive metabolites that regulate the activity of key stress-responsive transcription factors such as NRF2. Several metabolites including methylglyoxal, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, fumarate, and itaconate covalently modify sensor cysteines of the NRF2 regulatory protein KEAP1, resulting in stabilization of NRF2 and activation of its cytoprotective transcriptional program. Here, we employed a shRNA-based screen targeting the enzymes of central carbon metabolism to identify additional regulatory nodes bridging metabolic pathways to NRF2 activation. We found that succinic anhydride, increased by genetic depletion of the TCA cycle enzyme succinyl-CoA synthetase or by direct administration, results in N-succinylation of lysine 131 of KEAP1 to activate NRF2 transcriptional signaling. This study identifies KEAP1 as capable of sensing reactive metabolites not only by several cysteine residues but also by a conserved lysine residue, indicating its potential to sense an expanded repertoire of reactive metabolic messengers.
  29. Front Oncol. 2023 ;13 1175532
      Metabolism is central to energy generation and cell signaling in all life forms. Cancer cells rely heavily on glucose metabolism wherein glucose is primarily converted to lactate even in adequate oxygen conditions, a process famously known as "the Warburg effect." In addition to cancer cells, Warburg effect was found to be operational in other cell types, including actively proliferating immune cells. According to current dogma, pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis that is converted into lactate in normal cells, particularly under hypoxic conditions. However, several recent observations suggest that the final product of glycolysis may be lactate, which is produced irrespective of oxygen concentrations. Traditionally, glucose-derived lactate can have three fates: it can be used as a fuel in the TCA cycle or lipid synthesis; it can be converted back into pyruvate in the cytosol that feeds into the mitochondrial TCA; or, at very high concentrations, accumulated lactate in the cytosol may be released from cells that act as an oncometabolite. In immune cells as well, glucose-derived lactate seems to play a major role in metabolism and cell signaling. However, immune cells are much more sensitive to lactate concentrations, as higher lactate levels have been found to inhibit immune cell function. Thus, tumor cell-derived lactate may serve as a major player in deciding the response and resistance to immune cell-directed therapies. In the current review, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the glycolytic process in eukaryotic cells with a special focus on the fate of pyruvate and lactate in tumor and immune cells. We will also review the evidence supporting the idea that lactate, not pyruvate, is the end product of glycolysis. In addition, we will discuss the impact of glucose-lactate-mediated cross-talk between tumor and immune cells on the therapeutic outcomes after immunotherapy.
    Keywords:  TCA cycle; Warburg effect; cancer; glycolysis; immunotherapy; lactate; metabolism; mitochondria
  30. Diabetes. 2023 May 22. pii: db230030. [Epub ahead of print]
      Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by the immune-mediated loss of pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin. The latest advances in stem cell (SC)-beta cell differentiation methods have made a cell replacement therapy for T1D feasible. However, recurring autoimmunity would rapidly destroy transplanted SC-beta cells. A promising strategy to overcome immune rejection is to genetically engineer SC-beta cells. We previously identified Renalase (Rnls) as a novel target for beta cell protection. Here we show that Rnls deletion endows beta cells with the capacity to modulate the metabolism and function of immune cells within the local graft microenvironment. We used flow cytometry and single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize beta cell graft-infiltrating immune cells in a mouse model for T1D. Loss of Rnls within transplanted beta cells affected both the composition and the transcriptional profile of infiltrating immune cells in favor of an anti-inflammatory profile with decreased antigen presenting capacity. We propose that changes in beta cell metabolism mediate local immune regulation and that this feature could be exploited for therapeutic goals.
  31. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1124786
      Psoriasis is a chronic autoinflammatory skin disease associated with multiple comorbidities, with a prevalence ranging from 2 to 3% in the general population. Decades of preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that alterations in cholesterol and lipid metabolism are strongly associated with psoriasis. Cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-17), which are important in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, have been shown to affect cholesterol and lipid metabolism. Cholesterol metabolites and metabolic enzymes, on the other hand, influence not only the biofunction of keratinocytes (a primary type of cell in the epidermis) in psoriasis, but also the immune response and inflammation. However, the relationship between cholesterol metabolism and psoriasis has not been thoroughly reviewed. This review mainly focuses on cholesterol metabolism disturbances in psoriasis and their crosstalk with psoriatic inflammation.
    Keywords:  cholesterol metabolism; immunity; immunometabolism; inflammation; psoriatic inflammation
  32. Sci Adv. 2023 May 26. 9(21): eadg5128
      An intense, nonresolving airway inflammatory response leads to destructive lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). Dysregulation of macrophage immune function may be a key facet governing the progression of CF lung disease, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We used 5' end centered transcriptome sequencing to profile P. aeruginosa LPS-activated human CF macrophages, showing that CF and non-CF macrophages deploy substantially distinct transcriptional programs at baseline and following activation. This includes a significantly blunted type I IFN signaling response in activated patient cells relative to healthy controls that was reversible upon in vitro treatment with CFTR modulators in patient cells and by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing to correct the F508del mutation in patient-derived iPSC macrophages. These findings illustrate a previously unidentified immune defect in human CF macrophages that is CFTR dependent and reversible with CFTR modulators, thus providing new avenues in the search for effective anti-inflammatory interventions in CF.
  33. Cardiovasc Res. 2023 May 24. pii: cvad082. [Epub ahead of print]
      AIMS: The metabolic failure of macrophages to adequately process lipid is central to the etiology of atherosclerosis. Here, we examine the role of macrophage angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in a mouse model of PCSK9 induced atherosclerosis.METHODS AND RESULTS: Atherosclerosis in mice was induced with AAV-PCSK9 and a high fat diet. Animals with increased macrophage ACE (ACE 10/10 mice) have a marked reduction in atherosclerosis vs. WT mice. Macrophages from both the aorta and peritoneum of ACE 10/10 express increased PPARα and have a profoundly altered phenotype to process lipids characterized by higher levels of the surface scavenger receptor CD36, increased uptake of lipid, increased capacity to transport long chain fatty acids into mitochondria, higher oxidative metabolism and lipid β-oxidation as determined using 13C isotope tracing, increased cell ATP, increased capacity for efferocytosis, increased concentrations of the lipid transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1, and increased cholesterol efflux. These effects are mostly independent of angiotensin II. Human THP-1 cells, when modified to express more ACE, increase expression of PPARα, increase cell ATP and acetyl-CoA, and increase cell efferocytosis.
    CONCLUSION AND TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Increased macrophage ACE expression enhances macrophage lipid metabolism, cholesterol efflux, efferocytosis, and it reduces atherosclerosis. This has implications for the treatment of cardiovascular disease with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) vs. ACE inhibitors.
  34. PLoS Pathog. 2023 May 22. 19(5): e1011058
      Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is an intracellular foodborne pathogen which causes the severe disease listeriosis in immunocompromised individuals. Macrophages play a dual role during Lm infection by both promoting dissemination of Lm from the gastrointestinal tract and limiting bacterial growth upon immune activation. Despite the relevance of macrophages to Lm infection, the mechanisms underlying phagocytosis of Lm by macrophages are not well understood. To identify host factors important for Lm infection of macrophages, we performed an unbiased CRISPR/Cas9 screen which revealed pathways that are specific to phagocytosis of Lm and those that are required for internalization of bacteria generally. Specifically, we discovered the tumor suppressor PTEN promotes macrophage phagocytosis of Lm and L. ivanovii, but not other Gram-positive bacteria. Additionally, we found that PTEN enhances phagocytosis of Lm via its lipid phosphatase activity by promoting adherence to macrophages. Using conditional knockout mice lacking Pten in myeloid cells, we show that PTEN-dependent phagocytosis is important for host protection during oral Lm infection. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive identification of macrophage factors involved in regulating Lm uptake and characterizes the function of one factor, PTEN, during Lm infection in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, these results demonstrate a role for opsonin-independent phagocytosis in Lm pathogenesis and suggest that macrophages play a primarily protective role during foodborne listeriosis.
  35. Int Immunopharmacol. 2023 May 19. pii: S1567-5769(23)00661-6. [Epub ahead of print]120 110338
      Atherosclerosis is the pathological basis of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Oxidized LDL has been recognized as a major atherogenic factor in the vessel wall for decades. A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidized LDL modulates macrophage phenotypes in atherosclerosis. This article reviews the research progress on the regulation of macrophage polarization by oxidized LDL. Mechanistically, oxidized LDL induces macrophage polarization via cell signaling, metabolic reprogramming, epigenetic regulation, and intercellular regulation. This review is expected to provide new targets for the treatment of atherosclerosis.
    Keywords:  Atherosclerosis; Drugs; Macrophage polarization; Oxidized LDL
  36. Front Mol Biosci. 2023 ;10 1180537
      Kawasaki disease (KD) is a childhood vasculitis disease that is difficult to diagnose, and there is an urgent need for the identification of accurate and specific biomarkers. Here, we aimed to investigate metabolic alterations in patients with KD to determine novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for KD. To this end, we performed untargeted metabolomics and found that several metabolic pathways were significantly enriched, including amino acid, lipid, and tryptophan metabolism, the latter of which we focused on particularly. Tryptophan-targeted metabolomics was conducted to explore the role of tryptophan metabolism in KD. The results showed that Trp and indole acetic acid (IAA) levels markedly decreased, and that l-kynurenine (Kyn) and kynurenic acid (Kyna) levels were considerably higher in patients with KD than in healthy controls. Changes in Trp, IAA, Kyn, and Kyna levels in a KD coronary arteritis mouse model were consistent with those in patients with KD. We further analyzed public single-cell RNA sequencing data of patients with KD and revealed that their peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed Aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression that was remarkably higher than that of healthy children. These results suggest that the Trp metabolic pathway is significantly altered in KD and that metabolic indicators may serve as novel diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers for KD.
    Keywords:  biomarker; coronary arteritis; kawasaki disease; metabolomics; tryptophan metabolism
  37. Nat Commun. 2023 May 24. 14(1): 2847
      Phospholipase D3 (PLD3) polymorphisms are linked to late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Being a lysosomal 5'-3' exonuclease, its neuronal substrates remained unknown as well as how a defective lysosomal nucleotide catabolism connects to AD-proteinopathy. We identified mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a major physiological substrate and show its manifest build-up in lysosomes of PLD3-defective cells. mtDNA accretion creates a degradative (proteolytic) bottleneck that presents at the ultrastructural level as a marked abundance of multilamellar bodies, often containing mitochondrial remnants, which correlates with increased PINK1-dependent mitophagy. Lysosomal leakage of mtDNA to the cytosol activates cGAS-STING signaling that upregulates autophagy and induces amyloid precursor C-terminal fragment (APP-CTF) and cholesterol accumulation. STING inhibition largely normalizes APP-CTF levels, whereas an APP knockout in PLD3-deficient backgrounds lowers STING activation and normalizes cholesterol biosynthesis. Collectively, we demonstrate molecular cross-talks through feedforward loops between lysosomal nucleotide turnover, cGAS-STING and APP metabolism that, when dysregulated, result in neuronal endolysosomal demise as observed in LOAD.