bims-imicid Biomed News
on Immunometabolism of infection, cancer and immune-mediated disease
Issue of 2023‒04‒23
twenty-six papers selected by
Dylan Ryan
University of Cambridge

  1. Sci Signal. 2023 Apr 18. 16(781): eabo2709
      Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an abundant population of innate T cells that recognize bacterial ligands and play a key role in host protection against bacterial and viral pathogens. Upon activation, MAIT cells undergo proliferative expansion and increase their production of effector molecules such as cytokines. In this study, we found that both mRNA and protein abundance of the key metabolism regulator and transcription factor MYC was increased in stimulated MAIT cells. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified the activation of two MYC-controlled metabolic pathways, amino acid transport and glycolysis, both of which were necessary for MAIT cell proliferation. Last, we showed that MAIT cells isolated from people with obesity showed decreased MYC mRNA abundance upon activation, which was associated with defective MAIT cell proliferation and functional responses. Collectively, our data uncover the importance of MYC-regulated metabolism for MAIT cell proliferation and provide additional insight into the molecular basis for the functional defects of MAIT cells in obesity.
  2. PLoS Pathog. 2023 Apr 18. 19(4): e1011317
      Metabolism is key to cellular processes that underlie the ability of a virus to productively infect. Polyamines are small metabolites vital for many host cell processes including proliferation, transcription, and translation. Polyamine depletion also inhibits virus infection via diverse mechanisms, including inhibiting polymerase activity and viral translation. We showed that Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) attachment requires polyamines; however, the mechanism was unknown. Here, we report polyamines' involvement in translation, through a process called hypusination, promotes expression of cholesterol synthesis genes by supporting SREBP2 synthesis, the master transcriptional regulator of cholesterol synthesis genes. Measuring bulk transcription, we find polyamines support expression of cholesterol synthesis genes, regulated by SREBP2. Thus, polyamine depletion inhibits CVB3 by depleting cellular cholesterol. Exogenous cholesterol rescues CVB3 attachment, and mutant CVB3 resistant to polyamine depletion exhibits resistance to cholesterol perturbation. This study provides a novel link between polyamine and cholesterol homeostasis, a mechanism through which polyamines impact CVB3 infection.
  3. bioRxiv. 2023 Apr 04. pii: 2023.04.03.535373. [Epub ahead of print]
      Chronic high-fat feeding triggers widespread metabolic dysfunction including obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. While these ultimate pathological states are relatively well understood, we have a limited understanding of how high-fat intake first triggers physiological changes. Here, we identify an acute microglial metabolic response that rapidly translates intake of high-fat diet (HFD) to a surprisingly beneficial effect on spatial and learning memory. Acute high-fat intake increases palmitate levels in cerebrospinal fluid and triggers a wave of microglial metabolic activation characterized by mitochondrial membrane activation, fission and metabolic skewing towards aerobic glycolysis. These effects are generalized, detectable in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cortex all within 1-3 days of HFD exposure. In vivo microglial ablation and conditional DRP1 deletion experiments show that the microglial metabolic response is necessary for the acute effects of HFD. 13 C-tracing experiments reveal that in addition to processing via β-oxidation, microglia shunt a substantial fraction of palmitate towards anaplerosis and re-release of bioenergetic carbons into the extracellular milieu in the form of lactate, glutamate, succinate, and intriguingly, the neuro-protective metabolite itaconate. Together, these data identify microglial cells as a critical nutrient regulatory node in the brain, metabolizing away harmful fatty acids and liberating the same carbons instead as alternate bioenergetic and protective substrates. The data identify a surprisingly beneficial effect of short-term HFD on learning and memory.
  4. bioRxiv. 2023 Apr 04. pii: 2023.04.03.533021. [Epub ahead of print]
      Metabolism is an indispensable part of T-cell proliferation, activation, and exhaustion, yet the metabolism of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells remains incompletely understood. CARs are comprised of extracellular domains that determine cancer specificity, often using single-chain variable fragments (scFvs), and intracellular domains that trigger signaling upon antigen binding. Here we show that CARs differing only in the scFv reprogram T-cell metabolism differently. Even in the absence of antigens, some CARs increase proliferation and nutrient uptake in T cells. Using stable isotope tracers and mass spectrometry, we observe basal metabolic fluxes through glycolysis doubling and amino acid uptake overtaking anaplerosis in CAR-T cells harboring rituximab scFv, unlike other similar anti-CD20 scFvs. Disparate rituximab and 14g2a-based anti-GD2 CAR-T cells are similarly hypermetabolic and channel excess nutrients to nitrogen overflow metabolism. Since CAR-dependent metabolic reprogramming alters cellular energetics, nutrient utilization, and proliferation, metabolic profiling should be an integral part of CAR-T cell development.
  5. Cell Death Dis. 2023 Apr 19. 14(4): 276
      Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 have spread rapidly worldwide; however, most infected patients have mild or no symptoms. This study aimed to understand the host response to Omicron infections by performing metabolomic profiling of plasma. We observed that Omicron infections triggered an inflammatory response and innate immune, and adaptive immunity was suppressed, including reduced T-cell response and immunoglobulin antibody production. Similar to the original SARS-CoV-2 strain circulating in 2019, the host developed an anti-inflammatory response and accelerated energy metabolism in response to Omicron infection. However, differential regulation of macrophage polarization and reduced neutrophil function has been observed in Omicron infections. Interferon-induced antiviral immunity was not as strong in Omicron infections as in the original SARS-CoV-2 infections. The host response to Omicron infections increased antioxidant capacity and liver detoxification more than in the original strain. Hence, these findings suggest that Omicron infections cause weaker inflammatory alterations and immune responses than the original SARS-CoV-2 strain.
  6. Nat Commun. 2023 Apr 20. 14(1): 2271
      Insulin resistance (IR) during obesity is linked to adipose tissue macrophage (ATM)-driven inflammation of adipose tissue. Whether anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids (GCs) at physiological levels modulate IR is unclear. Here, we report that deletion of the GC receptor (GR) in myeloid cells, including macrophages in mice, aggravates obesity-related IR by enhancing adipose tissue inflammation due to decreased anti-inflammatory ATM leading to exaggerated adipose tissue lipolysis and severe hepatic steatosis. In contrast, GR deletion in Kupffer cells alone does not alter IR. Co-culture experiments show that the absence of GR in macrophages directly causes reduced phospho-AKT and glucose uptake in adipocytes, suggesting an important function of GR in ATM. GR-deficient macrophages are refractory to alternative ATM-inducing IL-4 signaling, due to reduced STAT6 chromatin loading and diminished anti-inflammatory enhancer activation. We demonstrate that GR has an important function in macrophages during obesity by limiting adipose tissue inflammation and lipolysis to promote insulin sensitivity.
  7. Microbes Infect. 2023 Apr 19. pii: S1286-4579(23)00042-4. [Epub ahead of print] 105139
      Increasing evidence indicates a strong interaction between cellular metabolism and innate macrophage immunity. Here, we show that the intracellular replication of Mycobacteroides massiliense in macrophages depends on host pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) activity. Infection with M. massiliense induced a metabolic switch in macrophages by increasing glycolysis and decreasing oxidative phosphorylation. Treatment with dichloroacetate (DCA), a PDK inhibitor, converts this switch in M. massiliense-infected macrophages and restricts intracellular bacterial replication. Mechanistically, DCA resulted in AMPKα1 activation via increased AMP/ATP ratio, consequently inducing autophagy to constrain bacterial proliferation in the phagolysosome. This study suggests that the pharmacological inhibition of PDK could be a strategy for host-directed therapy to control virulent M. massiliense infections.
    Keywords:  Mycobacteroides massiliense; antimicrobial activity; autophagy; dichloroacetate; host immune defense
  8. Mar Life Sci Technol. 2022 Aug;4(3): 291-302
      Macrophages are well known for their phagocytic functions in innate immunity across species. In mammals, they rapidly consume a large amount of energy by shifting their metabolism from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation toward aerobic glycolysis, to perform the effective bactericidal function upon infection. Meanwhile, they strive for sufficient energy resources by restricting systemic metabolism. In contrast, under nutrient deprivation, the macrophage population is down-regulated to save energy for survival. Drosophila melanogaster possesses a highly conserved and comparatively simple innate immune system. Intriguingly, recent studies have shown that Drosophila plasmatocytes, the macrophage-like blood cells, adopt comparable metabolic remodeling and signaling pathways to achieve energy reassignment when challenged by pathogens, indicating the conservation of such metabolic strategies between insects and mammals. Here, focusing on Drosophila macrophages (plasmatocytes), we review recent advances regarding their comprehensive roles in local or systemic metabolism under homeostasis or stress, emphasizing macrophages as critical players in the crosstalk between the immune system and organic metabolism from a Drosophila perspective.
    Keywords:  Drosophila; Immune system; Macrophage; Metabolism; Plasmatocyte
  9. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2023 Apr 21. 14(1): 99
      BACKGROUND: Continuous cross talk between MSCs and macrophages is integral to acute and chronic inflammation resulting from contaminated polyethylene particles (cPE); however, the effect of this inflammatory microenvironment on mitochondrial metabolism has not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that (a) exposure to cPE leads to impaired mitochondrial metabolism and glycolytic reprogramming and (b) macrophages play a key role in this pathway.METHODS: We cultured MSCs with/without uncommitted M0 macrophages, with/without cPE in 3-dimensional gelatin methacrylate (3D GelMA) constructs/scaffolds. We evaluated mitochondrial function (membrane potential and reactive oxygen species-ROS production), metabolic pathways for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production (glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation) and response to stress mechanisms. We also studied macrophage polarization toward the pro-inflammatory M1 or the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype and the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs.
    RESULTS: Exposure to cPE impaired mitochondrial metabolism of MSCs; addition of M0 macrophages restored healthy mitochondrial function. Macrophages exposed to cPE-induced glycolytic reprogramming, but also initiated a response to this stress to restore mitochondrial biogenesis and homeostatic oxidative phosphorylation. Uncommitted M0 macrophages in coculture with MSC polarized to both M1 and M2 phenotypes. Osteogenesis was comparable among groups after 21 days.
    CONCLUSION: This work confirmed that cPE exposure triggers impaired mitochondrial metabolism and glycolytic reprogramming in a 3D coculture model of MSCs and macrophages and demonstrated that macrophages cocultured with MSCs undergo metabolic changes to maintain energy production and restore homeostatic metabolism.
    Keywords:  MSCs; Macrophage; Metabolism; Mitochondria; Polyethylene particles; Three-dimensional model
  10. Trends Biochem Sci. 2023 Apr 18. pii: S0968-0004(23)00080-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      The metabolic cross-talk between cancer cells and T cells dictates cancer formation and progression. These cells possess metabolic plasticity. Thus, they adapt their metabolic profile to meet their phenotypic requirements. However, the nutrient microenvironment of a tumor is a very hostile niche in which these cells are forced to compete for the available nutrients. The hyperactive metabolism of tumor cells often outcompetes the antitumorigenic CD8+ T cells while promoting the protumorigenic exhausted CD8+ T cells and T regulatory (Treg) cells. Thus, cancer cells elude the immune response and spread in an uncontrolled manner. Identifying the metabolic pathways necessary to shift the balance from a protumorigenic to an antitumorigenic immune phenotype is essential to potentiate antitumor immunity.
    Keywords:  antitumorigenic T cells; immunometabolism; protumorigenic T cells; tumor microenvironment
  11. Microbes Infect. 2023 Apr 19. pii: S1286-4579(23)00044-8. [Epub ahead of print] 105141
      Herpes simplex virus infection is a major cause of vision loss in humans. Eye damaging consequences are often driven by inflammatory cells as a result of an immune response to the virus. In the present report, we have compared the effect of inhibiting energy metabolism with etomoxir (Etox), which acts on the fatty acid oxidation pathway and 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), which acts on glycolysis for their inhibitory effects on herpetic ocular lesions. Both drugs showed similar protective effects when therapy was started on the day of infection, but some 2DG recipients succumbed to encephalitis. In contrast, all Etox recipients remained healthy. Both drugs were compared for effects on inflammatory reactions in the trigeminal ganglion (TG), where virus replicates and then establishes latency. Results indicate that 2DG significantly reduced CD8 and CD4 Th1 T cells in the TG, whereas Etox had minimal or no effect on such cells, perhaps explaining why encephalitis occurred only in 2DG recipients. Unlike treatment with 2DG, Etox therapy was largely ineffective when started at the time of lesion expression. Reasons for the differential effects were discussed as was the relevance of combining metabolic reprogramming approaches to combat viral inflammatory lesions.
    Keywords:  2DG; FAO; HSV; etomoxir; immunometabolism; immunopathogenesis
  12. Cell Rep. 2023 Apr 20. pii: S2211-1247(23)00435-7. [Epub ahead of print]42(5): 112424
      Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) drive healthy visceral adipose tissue (VAT) expansion via adipocyte hyperplasia. Obesity induces ASC senescence that causes VAT dysfunction and metabolic disorders. It is challenging to restrain this process by biological intervention, as mechanisms of controlling VAT ASC senescence remain unclear. We demonstrate that a population of CX3CR1hi macrophages is maintained in mouse VAT during short-term energy surplus, which sustains ASCs by restraining their senescence, driving adaptive VAT expansion and metabolic health. Long-term overnutrition induces diminishment of CX3CR1hi macrophages in mouse VAT accompanied by ASC senescence and exhaustion, while transferring CX3CR1hi macrophages restores ASC reservoir and triggers VAT beiging to alleviate the metabolic maladaptation. Mechanistically, visceral ASCs attract macrophages via MCP-1 and shape their CX3CR1hi phenotype via exosomes; these macrophages relieve ASC senescence by promoting the arginase1-eIF5A hypusination axis. These findings identify VAT CX3CR1hi macrophages as ASC supporters and unravel their therapeutic potential for metabolic maladaptation to obesity.
    Keywords:  CP: Immunology; CP: Metabolism; CX3CR1; adipose-derived stem cell; cellular senescence; macrophage; obesity; visceral adipose tissue
  13. Int Immunopharmacol. 2023 Apr 15. pii: S1567-5769(23)00513-1. [Epub ahead of print]119 110192
      Glycolysis has been demonstrated as a crucial metabolic process in bacteria infected diseases via modulating the activity of pyroptosis. Macrophages are the most abundant immune cells that infiltrated in the infected periodontal tissues, which significantly influence the outcome of periodontitis (PD). However, the effect of glycolysis in regulating macrophage pyroptosis during PD development remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the role of glycolysis in PD-associated macrophage pyroptosis and periodontal degeneration. Clinical specimens were used to determine the emergence of macrophage pyroptosis and glycolysis in periodontal tissues by immunohistochemical analysis and western blot. For an in-depth understanding of the regulatory effect of glycolysis in the progression of macrophage pyroptosis associated periodontitis, both in vivo PD model and in vitro PD model were treated with 2-DG (2-Deoxy-d-glucose), a glycolysis inhibitor. The data showed that the blockade of glycolysis could significantly suppress the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced macrophage pyroptosis, resulting in an attenuation of the inflammatory response and bone resorption in periodontal lesions. Furthermore, we revealed that the regulatory effect of glycolysis on macrophage pyroptosis can be mediated via AMPK/SIRT1/NF-κB signaling pathway. Our study unveiled that suppressed glycolysis restrains the activity of PD-associated macrophage pyroptosis, osteoclastogenesis, and subsequent periodontal tissue destruction. These findings extend our knowledge of glycolysis in regulating PD-associated macrophage pyroptosis and provide a potential novel target for PD therapy.
    Keywords:  2-Deoxy-d-glucose; Glycolysis; Hexokinase; Macrophages; Periodontitis; Pyroptosis
  14. Theranostics. 2023 ;13(6): 1774-1808
      Metabolic reprogramming is one of the most important hallmarks of malignant tumors. Specifically, lipid metabolic reprogramming has marked impacts on cancer progression and therapeutic response by remodeling the tumor microenvironment (TME). In the past few decades, immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment landscape for advanced cancers. Lipid metabolic reprogramming plays pivotal role in regulating the immune microenvironment and response to cancer immunotherapy. Here, we systematically reviewed the characteristics, mechanism, and role of lipid metabolic reprogramming in tumor and immune cells in the TME, appraised the effects of various cell death modes (specifically ferroptosis) on lipid metabolism, and summarized the antitumor therapies targeting lipid metabolism. Overall, lipid metabolic reprogramming has profound effects on cancer immunotherapy by regulating the immune microenvironment; therefore, targeting lipid metabolic reprogramming may lead to the development of innovative clinical applications including sensitizing immunotherapy.
    Keywords:  immunotherapy; lipid metabolic reprogramming; therapeutic target; tumor microenvironment
  15. Front Physiol. 2023 ;14 1145233
      Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized as a significant global health problem due to being an important contributor to morbidity and mortality. Inflammation is the critical event that leads to CKD development orchestrated by a complex interaction between renal parenchyma and immune cells. Particularly, the crosstalk between tubular epithelial cells (TECs) and macrophages is an example of the critical cell communication in the kidney that drives kidney fibrosis, a pathological feature in CKD. Metabolism dysregulation of TECs and macrophages can be a bridge that connects inflammation and fibrogenesis. Currently, some evidence has reported how cellular lipid disturbances can affect kidney disease and cause tubulointerstitial fibrosis highlighting the importance of investigating potential molecules that can restore metabolic parameters. Vitamin D (VitD) is a hormone naturally produced by mammalian cells in a coordinated manner by the skin, liver, and kidneys. VitD deficiency or insufficiency is prevalent in patients with CKD, and serum levels of VitD are inversely correlated with the degree of kidney inflammation and renal function. Proximal TECs and macrophages produce the active form of VitD, and both express the VitD receptor (VDR) that evidence the importance of this nutrient in regulating their functions. However, whether VitD signaling drives physiological and metabolism improvement of TECs and macrophages during kidney injury is an open issue to be debated. In this review, we brought to light VitD as an important metabolic modulator of lipid metabolism in TECs and macrophages. New scientific approaches targeting VitD e VDR signaling at the cellular metabolic level can provide a better comprehension of its role in renal physiology and CKD progression.
    Keywords:  VDR (vitamin D receptor); beta-oxidation; immune cell; metabolism; renal fibrosis
  16. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1168455
      Even though cancer patients are generally considered more susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the mechanisms driving their predisposition to severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not yet been deciphered. Since metabolic disorders are associated with homeostatic frailty, which increases the risk of infection and cancer, we asked whether we could identify immunometabolic pathways intersecting with cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thanks to a combined flow cytometry and multiomics approach, here we show that the immunometabolic traits of COVID-19 cancer patients encompass alterations in the frequency and activation status of circulating myeloid and lymphoid subsets, and that these changes are associated with i) depletion of tryptophan and its related neuromediator tryptamine, ii) accumulation of immunosuppressive tryptophan metabolites (i.e., kynurenines), and iii) low nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) availability. This metabolic imbalance is accompanied by altered expression of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), with a distinctive downregulation of IL-6 and upregulation of IFNγ mRNA expression levels. Altogether, our findings indicate that cancer not only attenuates the inflammatory state in COVID-19 patients but also contributes to weakening their precarious metabolic state by interfering with NAD+-dependent immune homeostasis.
    Keywords:  COVID - 19; cancer; immunity; inflammation; metabolism
  17. bioRxiv. 2023 Apr 03. pii: 2023.04.01.535229. [Epub ahead of print]
      The balance of pro-inflammatory T helper type 17 (Th17) and anti-inflammatory T regulatory (Treg) cells is crucial in maintaining immune homeostasis in health and disease conditions. Differentiation of naïve CD4 + T cells into Th17/Treg cells is dependent upon T cell receptor (TCR) activation and cytokine signaling, which includes the kinase ITK. Signals from ITK can regulate the differentiation of Th17 and Treg cell fate choice, however, the mechanism remains to be fully understood. We report here that in the absence of ITK activity, instead of developing into Th17 cells under Th17 conditions, naïve CD4 + T cells switch to cells expressing the Treg marker Foxp3 (Forkhead box P3). These switched Foxp3 + Treg like cells retain suppressive function and resemble differentiated induced Tregs in their transcriptomic profile, although their chromatin accessibility profiles are intermediate between Th17 and induced Tregs cells. Generation of the switched Foxp3 + Treg like cells was associated with reduced expression of molecules involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, with reduced activation of the mTOR signaling pathway, and reduced expression of BATF. This ITK dependent switch between Th17 and Treg cells was reversed by increasing intracellular calcium. These findings suggest potential strategies for fine tune the TCR signal strength via ITK to regulate the balance of Th17/Treg cells.
  18. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 964660
      Background: Chronic systemic inflammation reduces the bioavailability of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), a key enzyme of immune tolerance catalyzing the initial step of tryptophan degradation along the so-called l-kynurenine (l-kyn) pathway, that is induced by inflammatory stimuli and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. A specific relationship between IDO1 activity and circulating EPC numbers has not yet been investigated.Methods: In this study, circulating EPCs were examined in mice treated with low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic low-grade inflammation. Moreover, the association between IDO1 activity and circulating EPCs was studied in a cohort of 277 patients with variable systemic low-grade inflammation.
    Results: Repeated low doses of LPS caused a decrease in circulating EPCs and l-kyn supplementation, mimicking IDO1 activation, significantly increased EPC numbers under homeostatic conditions preventing EPC decline in low-grade endotoxemia. Accordingly, in patients with variable systemic low-grade inflammation, there was a significant interaction between IDO1 activity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in predicting circulating EPCs, with high hs-CRP associated with significantly lower EPCs at low IDO1 activity but not at high IDO1 activity.
    Interpretation: Overall, these findings demonstrate that systemic low-grade inflammation reduces circulating EPCs. However, high IDO1 activity and l-kyn supplementation limit circulating EPC loss in low-grade inflammation.
    Keywords:  EPC — endothelial progenitor cells; IDO1 enzyme; IL-6 (interleukin 6); hs-CRP (high sensitivity C-reactive protein); kynurenine (KYN); low-grade inflammation
  19. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2023 ;13 1165647
      Dysregulation of metabolism plays an important role in the onset and progression of multiple pathogenic diseases, including viral hepatitis. However, a model to predict viral hepatitis risk by metabolic pathways is still lacking. Thus, we developed two risk assessment models for viral hepatitis based on metabolic pathways identified through univariate and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression analysis. The first model is designed to assess the progression of the disease by evaluating changes in the Child-Pugh class, hepatic decompensation, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The second model is focused on determining the prognosis of the illness, taking into account the patient's cancer status. Our models were further validated by Kaplan-Meier plots of survival curves. In addition, we investigated the contribution of immune cells in metabolic processes and identified three distinct subsets of immune cells-CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and NK cells-that have significantly affected metabolic pathways. Specifically, our findings suggest that resting or inactive macrophages and NK cells contribute to maintaining metabolic homeostasis, particularly with regard to lipid and α-amino acid metabolism, thereby potentially reducing the risk of viral hepatitis progression. Moreover, maintaining metabolic homeostasis ensures a balance between killer-proliferative and exhausted CD8+ T cells, which helps in mitigating CD8+ T cell-mediated liver damage while preserving energy reserves. In conclusion, our study offers a useful tool for early disease detection in viral hepatitis patients through metabolic pathway analysis and sheds light on the immunological understanding of the disease through the examination of immune cell metabolic disorders.
    Keywords:  host-pathogen interactions; immune cells; metabolism; prognosis; viral hepatitis
  20. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2023 Apr 14. pii: S1043-2760(23)00059-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      CD4+ T cells are effector T cells (Teffs) produced by the differentiation of initial T cells in peripheral lymphoid tissue after being attacked by antigens, and have an indispensable role in the development and activation of B cells and CD8+ T cells to regulate and assist immunity. In this review, we provide a new perspective on the relationship between CD4+ T cell glycolysis and its function. We summarize the effects of changes in the glycolysis level of CD4+ T cells on their activation, differentiation, proliferation, and survival. In addition, we emphasize that regulation of the glycolysis level of CD4+ T cells changes their inflammatory phenotypes and function. The study of immune metabolism has received more attention recently, but more work is needed to answer many open questions.
    Keywords:  CD4(+) T cell; differentiation; function; glycolysis; proliferation
  21. Trends Cell Biol. 2023 Apr 18. pii: S0962-8924(23)00049-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are critical in promoting tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. In adapting to metabolic changes in the tumor microenvironment (TME), TAMs reprogram their metabolisms and acquire immunosuppressive and pro-tumor properties. Increased glucose metabolism in TAMs leads to the accumulation of a variety of oncometabolites that exhibit potent tumor-promoting capacity via regulating gene expression and signaling transduction. Glucose uptake also fuels O-GlcNAcylation and other post-translational modifications to promote pro-tumor polarization and function of TAMs. Glucose metabolism coordinates interactions between TAMs and various types of cells in the TME, creating a complex network that facilitates tumor progression. Targeting glucose metabolism represents a promising strategy to switch TAMs from pro-tumor toward anti-tumor function for cancer therapy.
    Keywords:  O-GlcNAcylation; glucose metabolism; lactic acids; tumor metastasis; tumor-associated macrophages
  22. J Lipid Res. 2023 Apr 17. pii: S0022-2275(23)00047-0. [Epub ahead of print] 100374
      Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a complex clinical syndrome, but a predominant subset of HFpEF patients has metabolic syndrome (MetS). Mechanistically, systemic, non-resolving inflammation associated with MetS might drive HFpEF remodeling. Free fatty acid receptor 4 (Ffar4) is a GPCR for long-chain fatty acids that attenuates metabolic dysfunction and resolves inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that Ffar4 would attenuate remodeling in HFpEF secondary to MetS (HFpEF-MetS). To test this hypothesis, mice with systemic deletion of Ffar4 (Ffar4KO) were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet with L-NAME in their water to induce HFpEF-MetS. In male Ffar4KO mice, this HFpEF-MetS diet induced similar metabolic deficits, but worsened diastolic function and microvascular rarefaction relative to wild-type (WT) mice. Conversely, in female Ffar4KO mice, the diet produced greater obesity but no worsened ventricular remodeling relative to WT mice. In Ffar4KO males, MetS altered the balance of inflammatory oxylipins systemically in HDL and in the heart, decreasing the eicosapentaenoic acid-derived, pro-resolving oxylipin 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE), while increasing the arachadonic acid-derived, proinflammatory oxylipin 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE). This increased 12-HETE/18-HEPE ratio reflected a more proinflammatory state both systemically and in the heart in male Ffar4KO mice and was associated with increased macrophage numbers in the heart, which in turn correlated with worsened ventricular remodeling. In summary, our data suggest that Ffar4 controls the proinflammatory/pro-resolving oxylipin balance systemically and in the heart to resolve inflammation and attenuate HFpEF remodeling.
    Keywords:  18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid; Free fatty acid receptor 4 (Ffar4); Omega-3 fatty acids; heart failure preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF); inflammation; lipidomics; metabolic syndrome; obesity; phospholipase a2
  23. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2023 Feb;88(2): 280-288
      Diseases associated with the disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are widespread in the modern world. Interaction between the cells of adipose tissue - adipocytes - and immune system cells is an essential factor in pathogenesis of such diseases. Long-term increase in the glucose and fatty acid levels leads to adipocyte hypertrophy and increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines by these cells. As a result, immune cells acquire a pro-inflammatory phenotype, and new leukocytes are recruited. Inflammation of adipose tissue leads to insulin resistance and stimulates formation of atherosclerotic plaques and development of autoimmunity. New studies show that different groups of B lymphocytes play an essential role in regulation of adipose tissue inflammation. Decrease in the number of B-2 lymphocytes suppresses development of a number of metabolic diseases, whereas decreased numbers of the regulatory B lymphocytes and B-1 lymphocytes are associated with more severe pathology. Recent studies showed that adipocytes influence B lymphocyte activity both directly and by altering activity of other immune cells. These findings provide better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of human pathologies associated with impaired carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Keywords:  B lymphocytes; B1 lymphocytes; B2 lymphocytes; adipocytes; adipokines; diabetes; regulatory B lymphocytes
  24. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 Apr 25. 120(17): e2210929120
      Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis is an excellent target for antimalarial intervention. While most studies have focused on the use of CoA to produce acetyl-CoA in the apicoplast and the cytosol of malaria parasites, mitochondrial acetyl-CoA production is less well understood. In the current study, we performed metabolite-labeling experiments to measure endogenous metabolites in Plasmodium falciparum lines with genetic deletions affecting mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Our results show that the mitochondrion is required for cellular acetyl-CoA biosynthesis and identify a synthetic lethal relationship between the two main ketoacid dehydrogenase enzymes. The activity of these enzymes is dependent on the lipoate attachment enzyme LipL2, which is essential for parasite survival solely based on its role in supporting acetyl-CoA metabolism. We also find that acetyl-CoA produced in the mitochondrion is essential for the acetylation of histones and other proteins outside of the mitochondrion. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the mitochondrion is required for cellular acetyl-CoA metabolism and protein acetylation essential for parasite survival.
    Keywords:  acetyl-CoA; acetylation; lipoic acid; malaria parasites; mitochondrion
  25. PLoS Pathog. 2023 Apr 19. 19(4): e1011286
      Flaviviruses continue to emerge as global health threats. There are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved antiviral treatments for flaviviral infections. Therefore, there is a pressing need to identify host and viral factors that can be targeted for effective therapeutic intervention. Type I interferon (IFN-I) production in response to microbial products is one of the host's first line of defense against invading pathogens. Cytidine/uridine monophosphate kinase 2 (CMPK2) is a type I interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) that exerts antiviral effects. However, the molecular mechanism by which CMPK2 inhibits viral replication is unclear. Here, we report that CMPK2 expression restricts Zika virus (ZIKV) replication by specifically inhibiting viral translation and that IFN-I- induced CMPK2 contributes significantly to the overall antiviral response against ZIKV. We demonstrate that expression of CMPK2 results in a significant decrease in the replication of other pathogenic flaviviruses including dengue virus (DENV-2), Kunjin virus (KUNV) and yellow fever virus (YFV). Importantly, we determine that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of CMPK2, which lacks kinase activity, is sufficient to restrict viral translation. Thus, its kinase function is not required for CMPK2's antiviral activity. Furthermore, we identify seven conserved cysteine residues within the NTD as critical for CMPK2 antiviral activity. Thus, these residues may form an unknown functional site in the NTD of CMPK2 contributing to its antiviral function. Finally, we show that mitochondrial localization of CMPK2 is required for its antiviral effects. Given its broad antiviral activity against flaviviruses, CMPK2 is a promising potential pan-flavivirus inhibitor.
  26. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2023 Apr 21.
      SIGNIFICANCE: Innate immune cells adopt distinct memory states during the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Intracellular generations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles during the programming dynamics of innate immune cells such as monocytes and macrophages.RECENT ADVANCES: ROS modulates the adaptation of innate leukocytes to varying intensities and durations of inflammatory signals, facilitates fundamental reprogramming dynamics such as priming, tolerance and exhaustion, in addition to fundamental processes of proliferation, differentiation, phagocytosis, chemotaxis, as well as expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. ROS can be generated at distinct subcellular compartments including cellular membrane, mitochondria, and peroxisome. Complex inflammatory signals may finely regulate ROS generation within distinct subcellular compartments which in turn may differentially facilitate innate memory dynamics.
    CRITICAL ISSUES: Complex inflammatory signals with varying strength and durations may differentially trigger ROS generation at peroxisome, mitochondria and other subcellular organelles. Peroxisomal or mitochondrial ROS may facilitate the assembly of distinct signaling platforms involved in the programming of memory innate leukocytes. Despite the emerging connection of subcellular ROS with innate immune memory, underlying mechanisms are still not well defined.
    FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Recent important discoveries linking subcellular ROS and innate memory as critically reviewed here hold novel translational relevance related to acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Capitalizing on these novel findings, future systems studies that employ next-gen single cell dynamics analyses in response to complex inflammatory environments are urgently needed in order to comprehensively decipher the programming dynamics of innate immune memory, finely modulated by subcellular ROS.