bims-imicid Biomed News
on Immunometabolism of infection, cancer and immune-mediated disease
Issue of 2023‒01‒08
twenty papers selected by
Dylan Ryan
University of Cambridge

  1. Nat Microbiol. 2023 Jan;8(1): 91-106
      Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by a phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae family. Infection can result in systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a high fatality rate, and there are currently no treatments or vaccines available. The microbiota has been implicated in host susceptibility to systemic viral infection and disease outcomes, but whether the gut microbiota is implicated in severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection is unknown. Here, we analysed faecal and serum samples from patients with SFTS using 16S ribosomal RNA-sequencing and untargeted metabolomics, respectively. We found that the gut commensal Akkermansia muciniphila increased in relative abundance over the course of infection and was reduced in samples from deceased patients. Using germ-free or oral antibiotic-treated mice, we found that A. muciniphila produces the β-carboline alkaloid harmaline, which protects against SFTSV infection by suppressing NF-κB-mediated systemic inflammation. Harmaline indirectly modulated the virus-induced inflammatory response by specifically enhancing bile acid-CoA: amino acid N-acyltransferase expression in hepatic cells to increase conjugated primary bile acids, glycochenodeoxycholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid. These bile acids induced transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor-5-dependent anti-inflammatory responses. These results indicate the probiotic potential of A. muciniphila in mitigating SFTSV infection.
  2. Nat Immunol. 2023 Jan 05.
      Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and myeloid cells are critical in the metastatic microenvironment. Here, we explore the implications of reprogramming pre-metastatic niche myeloid cells by inducing trained immunity with whole beta-glucan particle (WGP). WGP-trained macrophages had increased responsiveness not only to lipopolysaccharide but also to tumor-derived factors. WGP in vivo treatment led to a trained immunity phenotype in lung interstitial macrophages, resulting in inhibition of tumor metastasis and survival prolongation in multiple mouse models of metastasis. WGP-induced trained immunity is mediated by the metabolite sphingosine-1-phosphate. Adoptive transfer of WGP-trained bone marrow-derived macrophages reduced tumor lung metastasis. Blockade of sphingosine-1-phosphate synthesis and mitochondrial fission abrogated WGP-induced trained immunity and its inhibition of lung metastases. WGP also induced trained immunity in human monocytes, resulting in antitumor activity. Our study identifies the metabolic sphingolipid-mitochondrial fission pathway for WGP-induced trained immunity and control over metastasis.
  3. Mol Cell. 2022 Dec 23. pii: S1097-2765(22)01164-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins are crucial to guarantee the proper biological functions in immune responses. Although protein phosphorylation has been extensively studied, our current knowledge of protein pyrophosphorylation, which occurs based on phosphorylation, is very limited. Protein pyrophosphorylation is originally considered to be a non-enzymatic process, and its function in immune signaling is unknown. Here, we identify a metabolic enzyme, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase 1 (UAP1), as a pyrophosphorylase for protein serine pyrophosphorylation, by catalyzing the pyrophosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) at serine (Ser) 386 to promote robust type I interferon (IFN) responses. Uap1 deficiency significantly impairs the activation of both DNA- and RNA-viruse-induced type I IFN pathways, and the Uap1-deficient mice are highly susceptible to lethal viral infection. Our findings demonstrate the function of protein pyrophosphorylation in the regulation of antiviral responses and provide insights into the crosstalk between metabolism and innate immunity.
    Keywords:  IRF3; UAP1; innate immunity; metabolism; post-translational modifications; pyrophosphorylation
  4. Mol Metab. 2022 Dec 28. pii: S2212-8778(22)00230-7. [Epub ahead of print] 101661
      Previous mechanistic studies on immunometabolism have focused on metabolite-based paradigms of regulation, such as itaconate. Here, we combine whole cell quantitative proteomics with gene knockout of AMPKα1, to demonstrate integration of metabolite and kinase-based immunometabolic control. Comparing macrophages with AMPKα1 catalytic subunit deletion with wild-type, inflammatory markers are largely unchanged in unstimulated cells, but with an LPS stimulus, AMPKα1 knockout leads to a striking M1 hyperpolarisation. Deletion of AMPKα1 also resulted in increased expression of rate-limiting enzymes involved in itaconate synthesis, metabolism of glucose, arginine, prostaglandins and cholesterol. Consistent with this, we observed functional changes in prostaglandin synthesis and arginine metabolism. Selective AMPKα1 activation also unlocks additional regulation of IL-6 and IL-12 in M1 macrophages. Together, our results validate AMPK as a pivotal immunometabolic regulator in macrophages.
  5. Cell Metab. 2023 Jan 03. pii: S1550-4131(22)00546-0. [Epub ahead of print]35(1): 3-5
      Metabolic communication in the tumor microenvironment underscores tumor-immune interactions and affects anti-tumor immunity, yet cell-extrinsic signals driving tumor metabolic remodeling are incompletely understood. In this issue, Tsai et al. show that during initial tumorigenesis, T cell-derived IFNγ triggers STAT3 activation and c-Myc-dependent alterations of tumor cell metabolism, which potentiates immune evasion.
  6. Cell Metab. 2023 Jan 03. pii: S1550-4131(22)00540-X. [Epub ahead of print]35(1): 118-133.e7
      Immunoediting sculpts immunogenicity and thwarts host anti-tumor responses in tumor cells during tumorigenesis; however, it remains unknown whether metabolic programming of tumor cells can be guided by immunosurveillance. Here, we report that T cell-mediated immunosurveillance in early-stage tumorigenesis instructs c-Myc upregulation and metabolic reprogramming in tumor cells. This previously unexplored tumor-immune interaction is controlled by non-canonical interferon gamma (IFNγ)-STAT3 signaling and supports tumor immune evasion. Our findings uncover that immunoediting instructs deregulated bioenergetic programs in tumor cells to empower them to disarm the T cell-mediated immunosurveillance by imposing metabolic tug-of-war between tumor and infiltrating T cells and forming the suppressive tumor microenvironment.
    Keywords:  IFNγ; Myc; STAT3; immunoediting; immunosurveillance; tumor immunology
  7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 Jan 10. 120(2): e2218345120
      CD4+ memory T cells are central to long-lasting protective immunity and are involved in shaping the pathophysiology of chronic inflammation. While metabolic reprogramming is critical for the generation of memory T cells, the mechanisms controlling the redox metabolism in memory T cell formation remain unclear. We found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism changed dramatically in T helper-2 (Th2) cells during the contraction phase in the process of memory T cell formation. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip), a regulator of oxidoreductase, regulated apoptosis by scavenging ROS via the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-biliverdin reductase B (Blvrb) pathway. Txnip regulated the pathology of chronic airway inflammation in the lung by controlling the generation of allergen-specific pathogenic memory Th2 cells in vivo. Thus, the Txnip-Nrf2-Blvrb axis directs ROS metabolic reprogramming in Th2 cells and is a potential therapeutic target for intractable chronic inflammatory diseases.
    Keywords:  biliverdin reductase B (Blvrb); memory Th2 cells; nuclear factor-erythroid factor 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2); reactive oxygen species (ROS); thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip)
  8. Methods Mol Biol. 2023 ;2614 109-120
      One method of immune evasion that cancer cells employ is the secretion of immune regulatory metabolites into the tumor microenvironment (TME). These metabolites can promote immunosuppressive cell subsets, while inhibiting key tumor-killing subsets, such as T cells. Thus, the identification of these metabolites may help develop methods for improving cell-based therapy. However, after identifying a potential immune regulatory metabolite, it is crucial to assess the impacts of the metabolite on T cell immunobiology. In this chapter, we describe an in vitro method of testing and analyzing the influence of a specific metabolite on T cell proliferation and function.
    Keywords:  Human T cells; Immunosuppressive; Metabolites; T cell function
  9. Cell Mol Immunol. 2023 Jan 04.
      Polyribonucleotide nucleotidyltransferase 1 (Pnpt1) plays critical roles in mitochondrial homeostasis by controlling mitochondrial RNA (mt-RNA) processing, trafficking and degradation. Pnpt1 deficiency results in mitochondrial dysfunction that triggers a type I interferon response, suggesting a role in inflammation. However, the role of Pnpt1 in inflammasome activation remains largely unknown. In this study, we generated myeloid-specific Pnpt1-knockout mice and demonstrated that Pnpt1 depletion enhanced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) secretion in a mouse sepsis model. Using cultured peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages, we demonstrated that Pnpt1 regulated NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent IL-1β release in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), followed by nigericin, ATP or poly (I:C) treatment. Pnpt1 deficiency in macrophages increased glycolysis after LPS administration and mt-reactive oxygen species (mt-ROS) after NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Pnpt1 activation of the inflammasome was dependent on increased glycolysis and the expression of mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) but not NF-κB signaling. Collectively, these data suggest that Pnpt1 is an important mediator of inflammation, as shown by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in murine sepsis and cultured macrophages.
    Keywords:  Inflammasome; Macrophage; Mitochondria; Pnpt1
  10. J Immunol. 2023 Jan 04. pii: ji2200325. [Epub ahead of print]
      The activation of lymphocytes in patients with lupus and in mouse models of the disease is coupled with an increased cellular metabolism in which glucose plays a major role. The pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) reversed the expansion of follicular helper CD4+ T cells and germinal center B cells in lupus-prone mice, as well as the production of autoantibodies. The response of foreign Ags was however not affected by 2DG in these mice, suggesting that B and CD4+ T cell activation by autoantigens is uniquely sensitive to glycolysis. In this study, we tested this hypothesis with monoclonal B cells and CD4+ T cells specific for lupus-relevant autoantigens. AM14 Vκ8R (AM14) transgenic B cells are activated by IgG2a/chromatin immune complexes and they can receive cognate help from chromatin-specific 13C2 CD4+ T cells. We showed that activation of AM14 B cells by their cognate Ag PL2-3 induced glycolysis, and that the inhibition of glycolysis reduced their activation and differentiation into Ab-forming cells, in the absence or presence of T cell help. The dependency of autoreactive B cells on glycolysis is in sharp contrast with the previously reported dependency of 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl-specific B cells on fatty acid oxidation. Contrary to AM14 B cells, the activation and differentiation of 13C2 T cells into follicular helper CD4+ T cells was not altered by 2DG, which differs from polyclonal CD4+ T cells from lupus-prone mice. These results further define the role of glycolysis in the production of lupus autoantibodies and demonstrate the need to evaluate the metabolic requirements of Ag-specific B and T cells.
  11. Int J Biol Sci. 2023 ;19(1): 242-257
      The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a pro-inflammatory immune receptor potentiating acute lung injury (ALI). However, the mechanism of TREM-1-triggered inflammation response remains poorly understood. Here, we showed that TREM-1 blocking attenuated NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and glycolysis in LPS-induced ALI mice. Then, we observed that TREM-1 activation enhanced glucose consumption, induced glycolysis, and inhibited oxidative phosphorylation in macrophages. Specifically, inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose diminished NLRP3 inflammasome activation of macrophages triggered by TREM-1. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a critical transcriptional regulator of glycolysis. We further found that TREM-1 activation facilitated HIF-1α accumulation and translocation to the nucleus via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Inhibiting mTOR or HIF-1α also suppressed TREM-1-induced metabolic reprogramming and NLRP3/caspase-1 activation. Overall, the mTOR/HIF-1α/glycolysis pathway is a novel mechanism underlying TREM-1-governed NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Therapeutic targeting of the mTOR/HIF-1α/glycolysis pathway in TREM-1-activated macrophages could be beneficial for treating or preventing inflammatory diseases, such as ALI.
    Keywords:  Acute lung injury; HIF-1α; NLRP3 inflammasome; TREM-1; glycolysis; macrophages
  12. Nat Rev Cancer. 2023 Jan 03.
      Reprogrammed metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. However, the metabolic dependency of cancer, from tumour initiation through disease progression and therapy resistance, requires a spectrum of distinct reprogrammed cellular metabolic pathways. These pathways include aerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species generation, de novo lipid synthesis, fatty acid β-oxidation, amino acid (notably glutamine) metabolism and mitochondrial metabolism. This Review highlights the central roles of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins, notably STAT3, STAT5, STAT6 and STAT1, in orchestrating the highly dynamic metabolism not only of cancer cells but also of immune cells and adipocytes in the tumour microenvironment. STAT proteins are able to shape distinct metabolic processes that regulate tumour progression and therapy resistance by transducing signals from metabolites, cytokines, growth factors and their receptors; defining genetic programmes that regulate a wide range of molecules involved in orchestration of metabolism in cancer and immune cells; and regulating mitochondrial activity at multiple levels, including energy metabolism and lipid-mediated mitochondrial integrity. Given the central role of STAT proteins in regulation of metabolic states, they are potential therapeutic targets for altering metabolic reprogramming in cancer.
  13. Burns Trauma. 2022 ;10 tkac041
      Background: Alternative (M2)-activated macrophages drive the anti-inflammatory response against sepsis, a leading cause of death in patients suffering from burn injury. Macrophage M2 polarization is intrinsically linked with dominant oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Glutamine serves as a major anaplerotic source to fuel OXPHOS, but it remains unknown whether glutamine can modulate metabolic checkpoints in OXPHOS that favour M2 polarization. The study aims to explore whether glutamine essentially supports M2 polarization in IL-4-stimulated murine macrophages by sustaining the activity of PDH and whether glutamine augments macrophage M2 polarization and thus alleviates inflammation and organ injury in a murine burn sepsis model.Methods: To understand how glutamine promotes M2 activation in interleukin (IL-4)-treated murine macrophages, we detected glutamine-dependent M2 polarization and its relationship with the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex by RT-PCR, flow cytometry and western blot. To explore how glutamine modulates PDH activity and thus supports M2 polarization, we compared the expression, phosphorylation and succinylation status of PDHA1 and then examined sirtuin SIRT5-dependent desuccinylation of PDHA1 and the effects of SIRT5 overexpression on M2 polarization by RT-PCR, flow cytometry and western blot. To determine whether glutamine or its metabolites affect M2 polarization, macrophages were cocultured with metabolic inhibitors, and then SIRT5 expression and M2 phenotype markers were examined by RT-PCR, flow cytometry and western blot. Finally, to confirm the in vivo effect of glutamine, we established a burn sepsis model by injecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa into burn wounds and observing whether glutamine alleviated proinflammatory injuries by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, western blot, immunofluorescent staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay.
    Results: We showed that consumption of glutamine supported M2 activation in IL-4-treated murine macrophages by upregulating the activity of PDH. Mechanistically, glutamine did not affect the expression or alter the phosphorylation status of PDHA1 but instead downregulated the expression of SIRT5 and repressed SIRT5-dependent desuccinylation on PDHA1, which in turn recovered PDH activity and supported M2 polarization. This effect was implemented by its secondary metabolite α-ketoglutarate (αKG) rather than glutamine itself. Finally, we demonstrated that glutamine promoted macrophage M2 polarization in a murine burn sepsis model, thereby repressing excessive inflammation and alleviating organ injury in model mice.
    Conclusions: Glutamine mitigates murine burn sepsis by essentially supporting macrophage M2 polarization, with a mechanism involving the repression of the SIRT5-mediated desuccinylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase that replenishes OXPHOS and sustains M2 macrophages.
    Keywords:  Burn, Sepsis; Desuccinylation; Glutamine; Macrophages polarization; PDH; SIRT5
  14. Ann Rheum Dis. 2023 Jan 02. pii: ard-2022-223284. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVES: Syntenin-1, a novel endogenous ligand, was discovered to be enriched in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) specimens compared with osteoarthritis synovial fluid and normal synovial tissue (ST). However, the cellular origin, immunoregulation and molecular mechanism of syntenin-1 are undescribed in RA.METHODS: RA patient myeloid and lymphoid cells, as well as preclinical models, were used to investigate the impact of syntenin-1/syndecan-1 on the inflammatory and metabolic landscape.
    RESULTS: Syntenin-1 and syndecan-1 (SDC-1) co-localise on RA ST macrophages (MΦs) and endothelial cells. Intriguingly, blood syntenin-1 and ST SDC-1 transcriptome are linked to cyclic citrullinated peptide, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ST thickness and bone erosion. Metabolic CD14+CD86+GLUT1+MΦs reprogrammed by syntenin-1 exhibit a wide range of proinflammatory interferon transcription factors, monokines and glycolytic factors, along with reduced oxidative intermediates that are downregulated by blockade of SDC-1, glucose uptake and/or mTOR signalling. Inversely, IL-5R and PDZ1 inhibition are ineffective on RA MΦs-reprogrammed by syntenin-1. In syntenin-1-induced arthritis, F4/80+iNOS+RAPTOR+MΦs represent glycolytic RA MΦs, by amplifying the inflammatory and glycolytic networks. Those networks are abrogated in SDC-1-/- animals, while joint prorepair monokines are unaffected and the oxidative metabolites are moderately replenished. In RA cells and/or preclinical model, syntenin-1-induced arthritogenicity is dependent on mTOR-activated MΦ remodelling and its ability to cross-regulate Th1 cells via IL-12 and IL-18 induction. Moreover, RA and joint myeloid cells exposed to Syntenin-1 are primed to transform into osteoclasts via SDC-1 ligation and RANK, CTSK and NFATc1 transcriptional upregulation.
    CONCLUSION: The syntenin-1/SDC-1 pathway plays a critical role in the inflammatory and metabolic landscape of RA through glycolytic MΦ and Th1 cell cross-regulation (graphical abstract).
    Keywords:  Arthritis, Rheumatoid; Inflammation; T-Lymphocyte subsets
  15. JHEP Rep. 2023 Feb;5(2): 100625
      Background & Aims: Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection which affects more than 200 million people globally. Schistosome eggs, but not the adult worms, are mainly responsible for schistosomiasis-specific morbidity in the liver. It is unclear if S. mansoni eggs consume host metabolites, and how this compromises the host parenchyma.Methods: Metabolic reprogramming was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging, liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry, metabolite quantification, confocal laser scanning microscopy, live cell imaging, quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, assessment of DNA damage, and immunohistology in hamster models and functional experiments in human cell lines. Major results were validated in human biopsies.
    Results: The infection with S. mansoni provokes hepatic exhaustion of neutral lipids and glycogen. Furthermore, the distribution of distinct lipid species and the regulation of rate-limiting metabolic enzymes is disrupted in the liver of S. mansoni infected animals. Notably, eggs mobilize, incorporate, and store host lipids, while the associated metabolic reprogramming causes oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in hepatocytes. Administration of reactive oxygen species scavengers ameliorates these deleterious effects.
    Conclusions: Our findings indicate that S. mansoni eggs completely reprogram lipid and carbohydrate metabolism via soluble factors, which results in oxidative stress-induced cell damage in the host parenchyma.
    Impact and implications: The authors demonstrate that soluble egg products of the parasite S. mansoni induce hepatocellular reprogramming, causing metabolic exhaustion and a strong redox imbalance. Notably, eggs mobilize, incorporate, and store host lipids, while the metabolic reprogramming causes oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in hepatocytes, independent of the host's immune response. S. mansoni eggs take advantage of the host environment through metabolic reprogramming of hepatocytes and enterocytes. By inducing DNA damage, this neglected tropical disease might promote hepatocellular damage and thus influence international health efforts.
    Keywords:  DMPE, dimethyl-phosphatidylethanolamine; DNA damage; GS, glycogen synthase; GSH, reduced L-glutathione; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; Lipid; MALDI-MSI, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging; MDA, malondialdehyde; OA, oleic acid; Oxidative stress; PAS, periodic acid-Schiff; PC, phosphatidylcholine; PDH, pyruvate dehydrogenase; PE, phosphatidylethanolamine; PLIN2, perilipin 2; Parasite; ROS, reactive oxygen species; S. japonicum, Schistosoma japonicum; S. mansoni, Schistosoma mansoni; SEA, soluble egg antigens; Schistosomiasis; TG, triglyceride; bs, bisex; flOA, fluorescently labelled OA; hRF, retention factor ∗ 100; ms, monosex; ni, non-infected
  16. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 897193
      Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem and we lack a comprehensive understanding of how Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection impacts host immune responses. We compared the induced immune response to TB antigen, BCG and IL-1β stimulation between latently M. tb infected individuals (LTBI) and active TB patients. This revealed distinct responses between TB/LTBI at transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic levels. At baseline, we identified a novel immune-metabolic association between pregnane steroids, the PPARγ pathway and elevated plasma IL-1ra in TB. We observed dysregulated IL-1 responses after BCG stimulation in TB patients, with elevated IL-1ra responses being explained by upstream TNF differences. Additionally, distinct secretion of IL-1α/IL-1β in LTBI/TB after BCG stimulation was associated with downstream differences in granzyme mediated cleavage. Finally, IL-1β driven signalling was dramatically perturbed in TB disease but was completely restored after successful treatment. This study improves our knowledge of how immune responses are altered during TB disease, and may support the design of improved preventive and therapeutic tools, including host-directed strategies.
    Keywords:  IL-1; IL-1ra; immunometabolism; systems immunology; tuberculosis
  17. Nat Commun. 2023 Jan 05. 14(1): 78
      Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) are spreading rapidly in hospital settings. Asymptomatic CPE gut colonisation may be associated with dysbiosis and gut-lung axis alterations, which could impact lung infection outcomes. In this study, in male C57BL/6JRj mice colonised by CPE, we characterise the resulting gut dysbiosis, and analyse the lung immune responses and outcomes of subsequent Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection. Asymptomatic gut colonisation by CPE leads to a specific gut dysbiosis and increases the severity of P. aeruginosa lung infection through lower numbers of alveolar macrophages and conventional dendritic cells. CPE-associated dysbiosis is characterised by a near disappearance of the Muribaculaceae family and lower levels of short-chain fatty acids. Faecal microbiota transplantation restores immune responses and outcomes of lung infection outcomes, demonstrating the involvement of CPE colonisation-induced gut dysbiosis in altering the immune gut-lung axis, possibly mediated by microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids.
  18. J Lipid Res. 2022 Dec 30. pii: S0022-2275(22)00158-4. [Epub ahead of print] 100325
      Lysoplasmalogens are a class of vinyl ether bioactive lipids that have a central role in plasmalogen metabolism and membrane fluidity. The liver X receptor transcription factors (LXR) are important determinants of cellular lipid homeostasis owing to their ability to regulate cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. However, their role in governing the composition of lipid species such as lysoplasmalogens in cellular membranes is less well studied. Here, we mapped the lipidome of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) following LXR activation. We found a marked reduction in the levels of lysoplasmalogen species in the absence of changes in the levels of plasmalogens themselves. Transcriptional profiling of LXR-activated macrophages identified the gene encoding transmembrane protein TMEM86a, an integral endoplasmic reticulum protein, as a previously uncharacterized sterol-regulated gene. We demonstrate that TMEM86a is a direct transcriptional target of LXR in macrophages and microglia and that it is highly expressed in TREM2+/lipid-associated macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques, where its expression positively correlates with other LXR-regulated genes. We further show that both murine and human TMEM86a display active lysoplasmalogenase activity that can be abrogated by inactivating mutations in the predicted catalytic site. Consequently, we demonstrate that overexpression of Tmem86a in BMDM markedly reduces lysoplasmalogen abundance and membrane fluidity, while reciprocally, silencing of Tmem86a increases basal lysoplasmalogen levels and abrogates the LXR-dependent reduction of this lipid species. Collectively, our findings implicate TMEM86a as a sterol-regulated lysoplasmalogenase in macrophages that contributes to sterol-dependent membrane remodeling.
    Keywords:  LXR; atherosclerotic plaques; bone marrow-derived macrophages; lipid metabolism; lipidomics; lysoplasmalogens; membrane fluidity; plasmalogens; sterol; transcriptional regulation
  19. Heliyon. 2022 Dec;8(12): e12304
      Changes in cellular bioenergetics such as mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis may play a role in the pathogenesis of various diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D). We used Seahorse extracellular flux technology to analyse the efficiency of glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from fresh blood samples from fifteen long-term T1D individuals with albuminuria (five females) with an average (±SD) age of 58 (±14) years and 15 age and sex-matched healthy non-diabetic controls. In T1D PBMCs, mitochondrial proton leak was higher (T1D: 21,3 ± 1,46 pmol/min; controls: 17,3 ± 1,24 pmol/min; p = 0,049) and glucose (5 mM) suppressed mitochondrial proton leak more than in healthy controls. Further, PBMCs from T1D individuals had higher glycolysis compared with healthy controls (T1D: 9,68 ± 0,94 mpH/min; controls: 7,07 ± 0,64 mpH/min; p = 0,032). Correlation analysis of circulating inflammatory factors identified Leukaemia Inhibitor factor 1 (LIF) being negatively correlated with PBMC glycolysis. Our results suggest that mitochondrial and glycolytic pathways of PBMCs from long-term T1D individuals with albuminuria might be dysfunctional, possibly due to increased cellular metabolic load and/or oxidative stress in which inflammatory factors could play a role.
    Keywords:  Cellular bioenergetics; Glycolysis; Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation; Mitochondrial proton leak; Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs); Seahorse extracellular flux technology; Type 1 diabetes (T1D)