bims-imicid Biomed News
on Immunometabolism of infection, cancer and immune-mediated disease
Issue of 2022‒10‒02
29 papers selected by
Dylan Ryan
University of Cambridge

  1. Elife. 2022 Sep 29. pii: e74690. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Macrophages are a highly adaptive population of innate immune cells. Polarization with IFNγ and LPS into the 'classically activated' M1 macrophage enhances pro-inflammatory and microbicidal responses, important for eradicating bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. By contrast, 'alternatively activated' M2 macrophages, polarized with IL-4, oppose bactericidal mechanisms and allow mycobacterial growth. These activation states are accompanied by distinct metabolic profiles, where M1 macrophages favor near exclusive use of glycolysis, whereas M2 macrophages up-regulate oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Here we demonstrate that activation with IL-4 and IL-13 counterintuitively induces protective innate memory against mycobacterial challenge. In human and murine models, prior activation with IL-4/13 enhances pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to a secondary stimulation with mycobacterial ligands. In our murine model, enhanced killing capacity is also demonstrated. Despite this switch in phenotype, IL-4/13 trained murine macrophages do not demonstrate M1-typical metabolism, instead retaining heightened use of OXPHOS. Moreover, inhibition of OXPHOS with oligomycin, 2-deoxy glucose or BPTES all impeded heightened pro-inflammatory cytokine responses from IL-4/13 trained macrophages. Lastly, this work identifies that IL-10 attenuates protective IL-4/13 training, impeding pro-inflammatory and bactericidal mechanisms. In summary, this work provides new and unexpected insight into alternative macrophage activation states in the context of mycobacterial infection.
    Keywords:  immunology; inflammation; mouse
  2. Nature. 2022 Sep 28.
      CD4+ T cell differentiation requires metabolic reprogramming to fulfil the bioenergetic demands of proliferation and effector function, and enforce specific transcriptional programmes1-3. Mitochondrial membrane dynamics sustains mitochondrial processes4, including respiration and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism5, but whether mitochondrial membrane remodelling orchestrates CD4+ T cell differentiation remains unclear. Here we show that unlike other CD4+ T cell subsets, T helper 17 (TH17) cells have fused mitochondria with tight cristae. T cell-specific deletion of optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), which regulates inner mitochondrial membrane fusion and cristae morphology6, revealed that TH17 cells require OPA1 for its control of the TCA cycle, rather than respiration. OPA1 deletion amplifies glutamine oxidation, leading to impaired NADH/NAD+ balance and accumulation of TCA cycle metabolites and 2-hydroxyglutarate-a metabolite that influences the epigenetic landscape5,7. Our multi-omics approach revealed that the serine/threonine kinase liver-associated kinase B1 (LKB1) couples mitochondrial function to cytokine expression in TH17 cells by regulating TCA cycle metabolism and transcriptional remodelling. Mitochondrial membrane disruption activates LKB1, which restrains IL-17 expression. LKB1 deletion restores IL-17 expression in TH17 cells with disrupted mitochondrial membranes, rectifying aberrant TCA cycle glutamine flux, balancing NADH/NAD+ and preventing 2-hydroxyglutarate production from the promiscuous activity of the serine biosynthesis enzyme phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH). These findings identify OPA1 as a major determinant of TH17 cell function, and uncover LKB1 as a sensor linking mitochondrial cues to effector programmes in TH17 cells.
  3. Science. 2022 Sep 30. 377(6614): 1519-1529
      Gain-of-function mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in human cancers result in the production of d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG), an oncometabolite that promotes tumorigenesis through epigenetic alterations. The cancer cell-intrinsic effects of d-2HG are well understood, but its tumor cell-nonautonomous roles remain poorly explored. We compared the oncometabolite d-2HG with its enantiomer, l-2HG, and found that tumor-derived d-2HG was taken up by CD8+ T cells and altered their metabolism and antitumor functions in an acute and reversible fashion. We identified the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a molecular target of d-2HG. d-2HG and inhibition of LDH drive a metabolic program and immune CD8+ T cell signature marked by decreased cytotoxicity and impaired interferon-γ signaling that was recapitulated in clinical samples from human patients with IDH1 mutant gliomas.
  4. Science. 2022 Sep 30. 377(6614): 1488-1489
      An oncometabolite blocks T cell killing by inhibiting glycolysis.
  5. Cell Rep. 2022 Sep 27. pii: S2211-1247(22)01174-3. [Epub ahead of print]40(13): 111346
      Mast cells (MCs) are granulated cells implicated in inflammatory disorders because of their capacity to degranulate, releasing prestored proinflammatory mediators. As MCs have the unique capacity to reform granules following degranulation in vitro, their potential to regranulate in vivo is linked to their pathogenesis. It is not known what factors regulate regranulation, let alone if regranulation occurs in vivo. We report that mice can undergo multiple bouts of MC regranulation following successive anaphylactic reactions. mTORC1, a nutrient sensor that activates protein and lipid synthesis, is necessary for regranulation. mTORC1 activity is regulated by a glucose-6-phosphate transporter, Slc37a2, which increases intracellular glucose-6-phosphate and ATP during regranulation, two upstream signals of mTOR. Additionally, Slc37a2 concentrates extracellular metabolites within endosomes, which are trafficked into nascent granules. Thus, the metabolic switch associated with MC regranulation is mediated by the interactions of a cellular metabolic sensor and a transporter of extracellular metabolites into MC granules.
    Keywords:  CP: Metabolism; Slc37a2; mTOR; mast cell; metabolism; regranulation
  6. Sci Immunol. 2022 Sep 30. 7(75): eabl7641
      Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in nonlymphoid organs provide critical brakes on inflammation and regulate tissue homeostasis. Although so-called "tissue Tregs" are phenotypically and functionally diverse, serving to optimize their performance and survival, up-regulation of pathways related to circadian rhythms is a feature they share. Yet the diurnal regulation of Tregs and its consequences are controversial and poorly understood. Here, we profiled diurnal variations in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and splenic Tregs in the presence and absence of core-clock genes. VAT, but not splenic, Tregs up-regulated their cell-intrinsic circadian program and exhibited diurnal variations in their activation and metabolic state. BMAL1 deficiency specifically in Tregs led to constitutive activation and poor oxidative metabolism in VAT, but not splenic, Tregs. Disruption of core-clock components resulted in loss of fitness: BMAL1-deficient VAT Tregs were preferentially lost during competitive transfers and in heterozygous TregBmal1Δ females. After 16 weeks of high-fat diet feeding, VAT inflammation was increased in mice harboring BMAL1-deficient Tregs, and the remaining cells lost the transcriptomic signature of bona fide VAT Tregs. Unexpectedly, VAT Tregs suppressed adipocyte lipolysis, and BMAL1 deficiency specifically in Tregs abrogated the characteristic diurnal variation in adipose tissue lipolysis, resulting in enhanced suppression of lipolysis throughout the day. These findings argue for the importance of the cell-intrinsic clock program in optimizing VAT Treg function and fitness.
  7. Drug Metab Pers Ther. 2022 Sep 28.
      Viruses are obligatory protein-coated units and often utilize the metabolic functions of the cells they infect. Viruses hijack cellular metabolic functions and cause consequences that can range from minor to devastating, as we have all witnessed during the COVID-19 pandemic. For understanding the virus-driven pathogenesis and its implications on the host, the cellular metabolism needs to be elucidated. How SARS-CoV-2 triggers metabolic functions and rewires the metabolism remains unidentified but the implications of the metabolic patterns are under investigation by several researchers. In this review, we have described the SARS-CoV-2-mediated metabolic alterations from in vitro studies to metabolic changes reported in victims of COVID-19. We have also discussed potential therapeutic targets to diminish the viral infection and suppress the inflammatory response, with respect to evidenced studies based on COVID-19 research. Finally, we aimed to explain how we could extend vaccine-induced immunity in people by targeting the immunometabolism.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; immune therapy; metabolic drugs; metabolism; vaccination
  8. Sci Rep. 2022 Sep 26. 12(1): 16028
      Metabolic programming of the innate immune cells known as dendritic cells (DCs) changes in response to different stimuli, influencing their function. While the mechanisms behind increased glycolytic metabolism in response to inflammatory stimuli are well-studied, less is known about the programming of mitochondrial metabolism in DCs. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-β (IFN-β), which differentially stimulate the use of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), respectively, to identify factors important for mitochondrial metabolism. We found that the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1β (PGC-1β), a transcriptional co-activator and known regulator of mitochondrial metabolism, decreases when DCs are activated with LPS, when OXPHOS is diminished, but not with IFN-β, when OXPHOS is maintained. We examined the role of PGC-1β in bioenergetic metabolism of DCs and found that PGC-1β deficiency indeed impairs their mitochondrial respiration. PGC-1β-deficient DCs are more glycolytic compared to controls, likely to compensate for reduced OXPHOS. PGC-1β deficiency also causes decreased capacity for ATP production at steady state and in response to IFN-β treatment. Loss of PGC-1β in DCs leads to increased expression of genes in inflammatory pathways, and reduced expression of genes encoding proteins important for mitochondrial metabolism and function. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PGC-1β is a key regulator of mitochondrial metabolism and negative regulator of inflammatory gene expression in DCs.
  9. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 918747
      Macrophages are innate immune cells with high phenotypic plasticity. Depending on the microenvironmental cues they receive, they polarize on a spectrum with extremes being pro- or anti-inflammatory. As well as responses to microenvironmental cues, cellular metabolism is increasingly recognized as a key factor influencing macrophage function. While pro-inflammatory macrophages mostly use glycolysis to meet their energetic needs, anti-inflammatory macrophages heavily rely on mitochondrial respiration. The relationship between macrophage phenotype and macrophage metabolism is well established, however its precise directionality is still under question. Indeed, whether cellular metabolism per se influences macrophage phenotype or whether macrophage polarization dictates metabolic activity is an area of active research. In this short perspective article, we sought to shed light on this area. By modulating several metabolic pathways in bone marrow-derived macrophages, we show that disruption of cellular metabolism does per se influence cytokine secretion profile and expression of key inflammatory genes. Only some pathways seem to be involved in these processes, highlighting the need for specific metabolic functions in the regulation of macrophage phenotype. We thus demonstrate that the intact nature of cellular metabolism influences macrophage phenotype and function, addressing the directionality between these two aspects of macrophage biology.
    Keywords:  Inflammation; energetics; macrophage; metabolism; mitochondria
  10. Elife. 2022 09 26. pii: e76721. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Chlamydia trachomatis (Ctr) can persist over extended times within their host cell and thereby establish chronic infections. One of the major inducers of chlamydial persistence is interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) released by immune cells as a mechanism of immune defence. IFN-γ activates the catabolic depletion of L-tryptophan (Trp) via indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), resulting in persistent Ctr. Here, we show that IFN-γ induces the downregulation of c-Myc, the key regulator of host cell metabolism, in a STAT1-dependent manner. Expression of c-Myc rescued Ctr from IFN-γ-induced persistence in cell lines and human fallopian tube organoids. Trp concentrations control c-Myc levels most likely via the PI3K-GSK3β axis. Unbiased metabolic analysis revealed that Ctr infection reprograms the host cell tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to support pyrimidine biosynthesis. Addition of TCA cycle intermediates or pyrimidine/purine nucleosides to infected cells rescued Ctr from IFN-γ-induced persistence. Thus, our results challenge the longstanding hypothesis of Trp depletion through IDO as the major mechanism of IFN-γ-induced metabolic immune defence and significantly extends the understanding of the role of IFN-γ as a broad modulator of host cell metabolism.
    Keywords:  Chlamydia trachomatis; c-Myc; infectious disease; interferon-gamma; microbiology; persistence
  11. Sci Adv. 2022 Sep 30. 8(39): eabo4250
      Metabolic alterations could profoundly affect immune functions and influence the progression and outcome of autoimmune diseases. However, the detailed mechanisms and their therapeutic potential remain to be defined. Here, we show that phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase interacting protein 1 (Pik3ip1), a newly identified negative immune regulator, is notably down-regulated in several major autoimmune diseases through a previously unidentified mechanism mediated by interleukin-21/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/a disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 (ADAM17) pathway. Down-regulation of Pik3ip1 in T cells causes a major metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation toward aerobic glycolysis, leading to their overactivation and aggressive disease progression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model. Suppression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif1α) or pharmacologic inhibition of glycolysis could reverse these phenotypes and largely mitigate EAE severity. Our study reveals a previously unrecognized role of Pik3ip1 in metabolic regulation that substantially affects the inflammatory loop in the autoimmune setting and identifies the Pik3ip1/Hif1α/glycolysis axis as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of autoimmune diseases.
  12. J Reprod Immunol. 2022 Sep 16. pii: S0165-0378(22)00279-0. [Epub ahead of print]154 103750
      Energy metabolism plays a crucial role in the immune system. In addition to providing vital energy for cell growth, reproduction and other cell activities, the metabolism of nutrients such as glucose and lipids also have significant effects on cell function through metabolites, metabolic enzymes, and changing metabolic status. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), as a pleiotropic regulator, can be secreted by a diverse set of cells and can also participate in regulating the functions of various cells, thereby playing an essential role in the formation and maintenance of immune tolerance in pregnancy. Studies on the regulatory effects and mechanisms of IL-10 on immune cells are extensive; however, research from a metabolic perspective is relatively negligible. Here, we have discussed old and new data on the relationship between IL-10 and metabolism. The data show that alterations in cellular metabolism and specific metabolites regulate IL-10 production of immune cells. Moreover, IL-10 regulates immune cell phenotypes and functions by modulating oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis. This review summarizes some earlier observations regarding IL-10 and its relationship with immune cells in pregnancy, and also presents recent research on the link between IL-10 and metabolism, highlighting the potential relationship between IL-10, immune cells, and energy metabolism during pregnancy.
    Keywords:  IL-10; Immune cells; Immune homeostasis; Metabolism; Pregnancy
  13. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2022 Sep 21.
      Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the organ-specific autoimmune diseases in which immune cells invade the neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) due to loss of tolerance to self-antigens. Consequently, inflammation and demyelination take place in the central nervous system. The pathogenesis of MS is not completely understood. However, it seems that T cells, especially Th17 cells, have an important role in the disease development. In recent years, studies on manipulation of metabolic pathways with therapeutic targets have received increasing attention and have had promising results in some diseases such as cancers. Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway and plays an important role in the differentiation of T CD4+ cell toward its subsets, especially the Th17 cells. This suggests that manipulation of glycolysis, by for example using appropriate safe inhibitors of this pathway, can represent a means to affect the differentiation of T CD4+, thus reducing inflammation and disease activity in MS patients. Hence, in this study we aimed to discuss evidence showing that using inhibitors of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3(PFKFB3), as the main regulator of glycolysis, may exert beneficial effects on MS patients.
    Keywords:  Multiple sclerosis; PFKB3; TH17 cells; autoimmunity; glycolysis; inflammation
  14. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 968366
      Excessive dietary cholesterol is preferentially stored in the liver, favoring the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), characterized by progressive hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Emerging evidence indicates a critical contribution of hepatic macrophages to NASH severity. However, the impact of cholesterol on these cells in the setting of NASH remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the dietary cholesterol content directly affects hepatic macrophage global gene expression. Our findings suggest that the modifications triggered by prolonged high cholesterol intake induce long-lasting hepatic damage and support the expansion of a dysfunctional pro-fibrotic restorative macrophage population even after cholesterol reduction. The present work expands the understanding of the modulatory effects of cholesterol on innate immune cell transcriptome and may help identify novel therapeutic targets for NASH intervention.
    Keywords:  Kupffer cells; RNAseq; cholesterol; innate immunity; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); tissue macrophages
  15. Diabetes. 2022 Sep 28. pii: db211099. [Epub ahead of print]
      The phenotypic and functional plasticity of adipose tissue macrophages during obesity play a crucial role in orchestration of adipose and systemic inflammation. Tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP, also called NFAT5) is a stress protein that mediates cellular responses to a range of metabolic insults. Here, we show that myeloid cell-specific TonEBP depletion reduced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity, but did not affect adiposity. This phenotype was associated with a reduced accumulation and a reduced pro-inflammatory phenotype of metabolically activated macrophages; decreased expression of inflammatory factors related to insulin resistance; and enhanced insulin sensitivity. TonEBP expression was elevated in the adipose tissue macrophages of obese mice, and Sp1 was identified as a central regulator of TonEBP induction. TonEBP depletion in macrophages decreased induction of insulin resistance-related genes and promoted induction of insulin sensitivity-related genes under obesity-mimicking conditions, and thereby improved insulin signaling and glucose uptake in adipocytes. mRNA expression of TonEBP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was positively correlated with blood glucose levels in mice and humans. These findings suggest that TonEBP in macrophages promotes obesity-associated systemic insulin resistance and inflammation, and downregulation of TonEBP may induce a healthy metabolic state during obesity.
  16. Sci China Life Sci. 2022 Sep 22.
      Although glucorticosteroids (GCs) are the standard first-line therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD), nearly 50% of aGvHD patients have no response to GCs. The role of T cell metabolism in murine aGvHD was recently reported. However, whether GCs and metabolism regulators could cooperatively suppress T cell alloreactivity and ameliorate aGvHD remains to be elucidated. Increased glycolysis, characterized by elevated 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3), and higher rates of glucose consumption and lactate production were found in T cells from aGvHD patients. Genetic upregulation of PFKFB3 induced T cell proliferation and differentiation into proinflammatory cells. In a humanized mouse model, PFKFB3-overexpressing or PFKFB3-silenced T cells aggravated or prevented aGvHD, respectively. Importantly, our integrated data from patient samples in vitro, in a humanized xenogeneic murine model of aGvHD and graft-versus-leukaemia (GVL) demonstrate that GCs combined with a glycolysis inhibitor could cooperatively reduce the alloreactivity of T cells and ameliorate aGvHD without loss of GVL effects. Together, the current study indicated that glycolysis is critical for T cell activation and induction of human aGvHD. Therefore, the regulation of glycolysis offers a potential pathogenesis-oriented therapeutic strategy for aGvHD patients. GCs combined with glycolysis inhibitors promises to be a novel first-line combination therapy for aGvHD patients.
    Keywords:  T cells; allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation; glycolysis; graft versus host disease; human
  17. Cell Mol Immunol. 2022 Sep 30.
      Serine metabolism is reportedly involved in immune cell functions, but whether and how serine metabolism regulates macrophage polarization remain largely unknown. Here, we show that suppressing serine metabolism, either by inhibiting the activity of the key enzyme phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase in the serine biosynthesis pathway or by exogenous serine and glycine restriction, robustly enhances the polarization of interferon-γ-activated macrophages (M(IFN-γ)) but suppresses that of interleukin-4-activated macrophages (M(IL-4)) both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, serine metabolism deficiency increases the expression of IGF1 by reducing the promoter abundance of S-adenosyl methionine-dependent histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation. IGF1 then activates the p38-dependent JAK-STAT1 axis to promote M(IFN-γ) polarization and suppress STAT6-mediated M(IL-4) activation. This study reveals a new mechanism by which serine metabolism orchestrates macrophage polarization and suggests the manipulation of serine metabolism as a therapeutic strategy for macrophage-mediated immune diseases.
    Keywords:  IGF1; Macrophage polarization; PHGDH; SAM; Serine metabolism; p38
  18. J Cell Mol Med. 2022 Sep 29.
      The dysregulation of lipid metabolic pathways (cholesterol uptake and efflux) in macrophages results in the formation of lipid-dense macrophages, named foam cells, that participate in plaque formation. NPY binding to NPY receptors in macrophages can modulate cell functions and affect the process of atherosclerotic plaques. The present study aimed to determine whether NPY affects the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells and its underlying mechanisms in macrophages. THP-1-derived macrophages were incubated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and treated with different concentrations of NPY. We analysed the relative levels of proteins related to cholesterol uptake and efflux. We found that NPY effectively increased cholesterol uptake and intracellular cholesterol content via the Y1 and Y5 receptors, and this effect was blocked by Y1 and Y5 antagonists. Mechanistically, NPY enhanced the expression of SRA and CD36 via the PKC/PPARγ pathways, promoting macrophage cholesterol uptake. Moreover, NPY significantly decreased cholesterol efflux to the extracellular cholesterol acceptors ApoA1 and HDL in macrophages. NPY mediated decreases in ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI expression through the inhibition of the JAK/STAT3 pathways. Our results suggest that NPY binding to the Y1 and Y5 receptors enhances foam cell formation by regulating cholesterol uptake and efflux in macrophages.
    Keywords:  NPY; THP-1; foam cell; macrophage
  19. Cell Rep. 2022 Sep 27. pii: S2211-1247(22)01278-5. [Epub ahead of print]40(13): 111437
      Ketone bodies are increasingly understood to have regulatory effects on immune cell function, with β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) exerting a predominantly anti-inflammatory response. Dietary strategies to increase endogenous ketone body availability such as the ketogenic diet (KD) have recently been shown to alleviate inflammation of the respiratory tract. However, the role of BHB has not been addressed. Here, we observe that BHB suppresses group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2)-mediated airway inflammation. Central to this are mast cells, which support ILC2 proliferation through interleukin-2 (IL-2). Suppression of the mast cell/IL-2 axis by BHB attenuates ILC2 proliferation and the ensuing type 2 cytokine response and immunopathology. Mechanistically, BHB directly inhibits mast cell function in part through GPR109A activation. Similar effects are achieved with either the KD or 1,3-butanediol. Our data reveal the protective role of BHB in ILC2-driven airway inflammation, which underscores the potential therapeutic value of ketone body supplementation for the management of asthma.
    Keywords:  BHB; CP: Immunology; CP: Metabolism; IL-2; ILC2; allergic asthma; ketogenic diet; mast cells
  20. Nat Commun. 2022 Sep 24. 13(1): 5606
      Decreased adipose tissue regulatory T cells contribute to insulin resistance in obese mice, however, little is known about the mechanisms regulating adipose tissue regulatory T cells numbers in humans. Here we obtain adipose tissue from obese and lean volunteers. Regulatory T cell abundance is lower in obese vs. lean visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and associates with reduced insulin sensitivity and altered adipocyte metabolic gene expression. Regulatory T cells numbers decline following high-fat diet induction in lean volunteers. We see alteration in major histocompatibility complex II pathway in adipocytes from obese patients and after high fat ingestion, which increases T helper 1 cell numbers and decreases regulatory T cell differentiation. We also observe increased expression of inhibitory co-receptors including programmed cell death protein 1 and OX40 in visceral adipose tissue regulatory T cells from patients with obesity. In human obesity, these global effects of interferon gamma to reduce regulatory T cells and diminish their function appear to instigate adipose inflammation and suppress adipocyte metabolism, leading to insulin resistance.
  21. Nat Commun. 2022 Sep 26. 13(1): 5644
      Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. However, IDO1 inhibitors have shown disappointing therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials, mainly because of the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Here, we show a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism of IDO1 regulated by a proteasome-associated deubiquitinating enzyme, USP14, in colorectal cancer (CRC). Overexpression of USP14 promotes tryptophan metabolism and T-cell dysfunction by stabilizing the IDO1 protein. Knockdown of USP14 or pharmacological targeting of USP14 decreases IDO1 expression, reverses suppression of cytotoxic T cells, and increases responsiveness to anti-PD-1 in a MC38 syngeneic mouse model. Importantly, suppression of USP14 has no effects on AhR activation induced by the IDO1 inhibitor. These findings highlight a relevant role of USP14 in post-translational regulation of IDO1 and in the suppression of antitumor immunity, suggesting that inhibition of USP14 may represent a promising strategy for CRC immunotherapy.
  22. Cell Rep. 2022 Sep 27. pii: S2211-1247(22)01250-5. [Epub ahead of print]40(13): 111409
      The intestinal mucosa exists in a state of "physiologic hypoxia," where oxygen tensions are markedly lower than those in other tissues. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have evolved to maintain homeostasis in this austere environment through oxygen-sensitive transcription factors, including hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Using an unbiased chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) screen for HIF-1 targets, we identify autophagy as a major pathway induced by hypoxia in IECs. One important function of autophagy is to defend against intracellular pathogens, termed "xenophagy." Analysis reveals that HIF is a central regulator of autophagy and that in vitro infection of IECs with Salmonella Typhimurium results in induction of HIF transcriptional activity that tracks with the clearance of intracellular Salmonella. Work in vivo demonstrates that IEC-specific deletion of HIF compromises xenophagy and exacerbates bacterial dissemination. These results reveal that the interaction between hypoxia, HIF, and xenophagy is an essential innate immune component for the control of intracellular pathogens.
    Keywords:  CP: Immunology; CP: Microbiology; autophagy; chromatin immunoprecipitation; colitis; colonoid; hypoxia; inflammation; innate immunity; mucosa; neutrophil; transcription
  23. Front Aging. 2022 ;3 1016274
    Keywords:  aging; immunity; inflammation; metabolism; obesity
  24. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 929785
      Bcl-3 is an atypical IκB family member that regulates transcription in the nucleus by binding to the p50/p52 homologous dimer subunit. Although various studies illustrate the important role of Bcl-3 in physiological function, its role in metabolism is still unclear. We found that Bcl-3 has a metabolic regulatory effect on autoimmunity. Bcl-3-depleted mice are unable to develop experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The disease resistance was linked to an increase in lactate levels in Th17 cells, and lactate could alleviate EAE development in WT mice. Bcl-3 deficient mice had more differentiated Th17 cells and an increased extracellular acidification rate in these cells. Concurrently, their ultimate respiration rate and respiratory reserve capacity were significantly lower than wild-type mice. However, adding GNE-140 (LADH inhibitor) to Bcl-3-deficient Th17 cells could reverse the phenomenon, and lactate supplementation could increase the glycolysis metabolism of Th17 cells in WT mice. Mechanically, Bcl-3 could interact with Raptor through ANK and RNC domains. Therefore, Bcl-3 regulates Th17 pathogenicity by promoting Raptor mediated energy metabolism, revealing a novel regulation of adaptive immunity.
    Keywords:  Bcl-3; Raptor; Th17; glycolysis metabolism; lactate
  25. Pharmacol Res. 2022 Sep 24. pii: S1043-6618(22)00415-7. [Epub ahead of print]184 106469
      Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death globally. Cumulative evidence has implicated renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathogenesis of COPD. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the first line immune defense in the respiratory system and play a critical role in the lung homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the role of AMs in contributing to the protective effects of angiotensin II type-2 receptor (AT2R) activation in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD. The AM polarization, phagocytosis and metabolism, and the underlying biochemical mechanisms of compound 21 (C21), a selective and potent non-peptide small molecule AT2R agonist, were evaluated in a two-week CS-induced COPD mouse model. C21 restored AM phagocytosis ability, reversing CS-induced AM phagocytosis impairment. CS exposure polarized AMs towards M1 phenotype, whereas, C21 skewed the CS-exposed AMs towards M2 phenotype. C21 reprogrammed CS-exposed AM metabolism from a high glycolysis-driven process to support inflammation energy demand to a high mitochondrial respiration process to limit inflammation. Besides, C21 upregulated AT2R and Mas receptor levels in CS-exposed AMs, favoring the anti-inflammatory Ang II/AT2R axis and Ang 1-7/Mas axis in the RAS. C21 restored the normal levels of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP1) in CS-exposed AMs, leading to the reduction of phospho-p38, phospho-ERK and p65 subunit of NF-κB levels in CS-exposed AMs. We report here for the first time that AT2R agonist C21 acts by boosting the protective functions of AMs against CS-induced COPD, and our results support the development of AT2R agonist for the treatment of COPD.
    Keywords:  Compound 21; Macrophage phenotyping; Metabolic reprogramming; Phagocytosis
  26. Nature. 2022 Sep 29.
      The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain is a key component of immune receptors that identify pathogen invasion in bacteria, plants, and animals1-3. In the bacterial antiphage system Thoeris, as well as in plants, recognition of infection stimulates TIR domains to produce an immune signaling molecule whose molecular structure remained elusive. This molecule binds and activates the Thoeris immune effector, which then executes the immune function1. We identified a large family of phage-encoded proteins, denoted here Thoeris anti-defense 1 (Tad1), that inhibit Thoeris immunity. We found that Tad1 proteins are "sponges" that bind and sequester the immune signaling molecule produced by TIR-domain proteins, thus decoupling phage sensing from immune effector activation and rendering Thoeris inactive. Tad1 can also efficiently sequester molecules derived from a plant TIR-domain protein, and a high-resolution crystal structure of Tad1 bound to a plant-derived molecule revealed a unique chemical structure of 1''-2' glycocyclic ADPR (gcADPR). Our data furthermore suggest that Thoeris TIR proteins produce a closely related molecule, 1''-3' gcADPR, which activates ThsA an order of magnitude more efficiently than the plant-derived 1''-2' gcADPR. Our results define the chemical structure of a central immune signaling molecule, and reveal a new mode of action by which pathogens can suppress host immunity.