bims-imicid Biomed News
on Immunometabolism of infection, cancer and immune-mediated disease
Issue of 2022‒09‒04
27 papers selected by
Dylan Ryan
University of Cambridge

  1. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2022 Aug 26. pii: S0925-4439(22)00201-0. [Epub ahead of print] 166530
      Macrophages undergo extensive metabolic reprogramming during classical pro-inflammatory polarization (M1-like). The accumulation of itaconate has been recognized as both a consequence and mediator of the inflammatory response. In this study we first examined the specific functions of itaconate inside fractionated mitochondria. We show that M1 macrophages produce itaconate de novo via aconitase decarboxylase 1 (ACOD1) inside mitochondria. The carbon for this reaction is not only supplied by oxidative TCA cycling, but also through the reductive carboxylation of α-ketoglutarate by isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH). While macrophages are capable of sustaining a certain degree of itaconate production during hypoxia by augmenting the activity of IDH-dependent reductive carboxylation, we demonstrate that sufficient itaconate synthesis requires a balance of reductive and oxidative TCA cycle metabolism in mouse macrophages. In comparison, human macrophages increase itaconate accumulation under hypoxic conditions by augmenting reductive carboxylation activity. We further demonstrated that itaconate attenuates reductive carboxylation at IDH2, restricting its own production and the accumulation of the immunomodulatory metabolites citrate and 2-hydroxyglutarate. In line with this, reductive carboxylation is enhanced in ACOD1-depleted macrophages. Mechanistically, the inhibition of IDH2 by itaconate is linked to the alteration of the mitochondrial NADP+/NADPH ratio and competitive succinate dehydrogenase inhibition. Taken together, our findings extend the current model of TCA cycle reprogramming during pro-inflammatory macrophage activation and identified novel regulatory properties of itaconate.
    Keywords:  2-hydroxyglutarate; Mitochondrial metabolism; Proinflammatory macrophage; Redox balance; Reductive carboxylation; TCA cycle
  2. Nat Commun. 2022 Sep 02. 13(1): 5184
      Cellular metabolism underpins immune cell functionality, yet our understanding of metabolic influences in human dendritic cell biology and their ability to orchestrate immune responses is poorly developed. Here, we map single-cell metabolic states and immune profiles of inflammatory and tolerogenic monocytic dendritic cells using recently developed multiparametric approaches. Single-cell metabolic pathway activation scores reveal simultaneous engagement of multiple metabolic pathways in distinct monocytic dendritic cell differentiation stages. GM-CSF/IL4-induce rapid reprogramming of glycolytic monocytes and transient co-activation of mitochondrial pathways followed by TLR4-dependent maturation of dendritic cells. Skewing of the mTOR:AMPK phosphorylation balance and upregulation of OXPHOS, glycolytic and fatty acid oxidation metabolism underpin metabolic hyperactivity and an immunosuppressive phenotype of tolerogenic dendritic cells, which exhibit maturation-resistance and a de-differentiated immune phenotype marked by unique immunoregulatory receptor signatures. This single-cell dataset provides important insights into metabolic pathways impacting the immune profiles of human dendritic cells.
  3. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 ;13 988295
      It is notorious that cancer cells alter their metabolism to adjust to harsh environments of hypoxia and nutritional starvation. Metabolic reprogramming most often occurs in the tumor microenvironment (TME). TME is defined as the cellular environment in which the tumor resides. This includes surrounding blood vessels, fibroblasts, immune cells, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix (ECM). It is increasingly recognized that cancer cells, fibroblasts and immune cells within TME can regulate tumor progression through metabolic reprogramming. As the most significant proportion of cells among all the stromal cells that constitute TME, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are closely associated with tumorigenesis and progression. Multitudinous studies have shown that CAFs participate in and promote tumor metabolic reprogramming and exert regulatory effects via the dysregulation of metabolic pathways. Previous studies have demonstrated that curbing the substance exchange between CAFs and tumor cells can dramatically restrain tumor growth. Emerging studies suggest that CAFs within the TME have emerged as important determinants of metabolic reprogramming. Metabolic reprogramming also occurs in the metabolic pattern of immune cells. In the meanwhile, immune cell phenotype and functions are metabolically regulated. Notably, immune cell functions influenced by metabolic programs may ultimately lead to alterations in tumor immunity. Despite the fact that multiple previous researches have been devoted to studying the interplays between different cells in the tumor microenvironment, the complicated relationship between CAFs and immune cells and implications of metabolic reprogramming remains unknown and requires further investigation. In this review, we discuss our current comprehension of metabolic reprogramming of CAFs and immune cells (mainly glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism) and crosstalk between them that induces immune responses, and we also highlight their contributions to tumorigenesis and progression. Furthermore, we underscore potential therapeutic opportunities arising from metabolism dysregulation and metabolic crosstalk, focusing on strategies targeting CAFs and immune cell metabolic crosstalk in cancer immunotherapy.
    Keywords:  Tumor microenvironment; cancer-associated fibroblasts; immune cells; immunotherapy; metabolic reprogramming
  4. Cell Mol Immunol. 2022 Sep 02.
      The immune-inflammatory response is associated with increased nitro-oxidative stress. The aim of this mechanistic review is to examine: (a) the role of redox-sensitive transcription factors and enzymes, ROS/RNS production, and the activity of cellular antioxidants in the activation and performance of macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, T-cells, B-cells, and natural killer cells; (b) the involvement of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), paraoxonase-1 (PON1), and oxidized phospholipids in regulating the immune response; and (c) the detrimental effects of hypernitrosylation and chronic nitro-oxidative stress on the immune response. The redox changes during immune-inflammatory responses are orchestrated by the actions of nuclear factor-κB, HIF1α, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinases, 5' AMP-activated protein kinase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. The performance and survival of individual immune cells is under redox control and depends on intracellular and extracellular levels of ROS/RNS. They are heavily influenced by cellular antioxidants including the glutathione and thioredoxin systems, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, and the HDL/ApoA1/PON1 complex. Chronic nitro-oxidative stress and hypernitrosylation inhibit the activity of those antioxidant systems, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, mitochondrial functions, and the metabolism of immune cells. In conclusion, redox-associated mechanisms modulate metabolic reprogramming of immune cells, macrophage and T helper cell polarization, phagocytosis, production of pro- versus anti-inflammatory cytokines, immune training and tolerance, chemotaxis, pathogen sensing, antiviral and antibacterial effects, Toll-like receptor activity, and endotoxin tolerance.
    Keywords:  Antioxidants; Immune response; Inflammation; Oxidative and nitrosative stress; Physiological stress
  5. Front Oncol. 2022 ;12 969563
      The methionine cycle comprises a series of reactions that catabolizes and regenerates methionine. This process is crucial to many cellular functions, including polyamine synthesis, DNA synthesis, redox balance, and DNA and histone methylation. In response to antigens, T cells activate the methionine cycle to support proliferation and differentiation, indicating the importance of the methionine cycle to T cell immunity. In cancer, T cells serve as important effectors of adaptive immunity by directly killing cancerous cells. However, the tumor microenvironment can induce a state of T cell exhaustion by regulating the methionine metabolism of T cells, posing a barrier to both endogenous T cell responses and T cell immunotherapy. Here we review the role of methionine cycle metabolites in regulating the activation and effector function of T cells and explore the mechanism by which tumor cells exploit the methionine pathway as a means of immune evasion. Finally, we discuss new perspectives on reprogramming the methionine cycle of T cells to enhance anti-tumor immunotherapy.
    Keywords:  T cells; cancer; cancer immunotherapy; immunemetabolism; metabolism; the methionine cycle
  6. Int J Cancer. 2022 Sep 02.
      The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) in glioblastoma (GBM) is mainly driven by tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). We explored whether their sustained iron metabolism and immunosuppressive activity were correlated, and whether blocking the central enzyme of the heme catabolism pathway, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), could reverse their tolerogenic activity. To this end, we investigated iron metabolism in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) isolated from GBM specimens and in in vitro-derived macrophages (Mφ) from healthy donor (HD) blood monocytes. We found that HO-1 inhibition abrogated the immunosuppressive activity of both BMDMs and Mφ, and that immunosuppression requires both cell-to-cell contact and soluble factors, as HO-1 inhibition abolished IL-10 release, and significantly reduced STAT3 activation as well as PD-L1 expression. Interestingly, not only did HO-1 inhibition downregulate IDO1 and ARG-2 gene expression, but also reduced IDO1 enzymatic activity. Moreover, T cell activation status affected PD-L1 expression and IDO1 activity, which were upregulated in the presence of activated, but not resting, T cells. Our results highlight the crucial role of HO-1 in the immunosuppressive activity of macrophages in the GBM TME and demonstrate the feasibility of reprogramming them as an alternative therapeutic strategy for restoring immune surveillance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  Iron metabolism; glioblastoma; heme oxygenase-1; macrophages; tumor microenvironment
  7. J Biol Chem. 2022 Aug 25. pii: S0021-9258(22)00861-4. [Epub ahead of print] 102418
      Macrophages (MФ) are an essential immune cell for defense and repair that travel to different tissues and adapt based on local stimuli. A critical factor that may govern their polarization is the cross-talk between metabolism and epigenetics. However, simultaneous measurements of metabolites, epigenetics, and proteins (phenotype) has been a major technical challenge. To address this, we have developed a novel triomics approach using mass spectrometry to comprehensively analyze metabolites, proteins, and histone modifications, in a single sample. To demonstrate this technique, we investigated the metabolic-epigenetic-phenotype axis following polarization of human blood-derived monocytes into either 'pro-inflammatory M1'- or 'anti-inflammatory M2-' MФs. We report here a complex relationship between arginine, tryptophan, glucose, and the citric acid cycle (TCA) metabolism, protein and histone post-translational modifications, and human macrophage polarization that was previously not described. Surprisingly, M1-MФs had globally reduced histone acetylation levels but high levels of acetylated amino acids. This suggests acetyl-CoA was diverted, in part, towards acetylated amino acids. Consistent with this, stable isotope tracing of glucose revealed reduced usage of acetyl-CoA for histone acetylation in M1-MФs. Furthermore, isotope tracing also revealed MФs uncoupled glycolysis from the TCA cycle, as evidenced by poor isotope enrichment of succinate. M2-MФs had high levels of kynurenine and serotonin which are reported to have immune-suppressive effects. Kynurenine is upstream of de novo NAD+ metabolism which is a necessary cofactor for Sirtuin-type histone deacetylases. Taken together, we demonstrate a complex interplay between metabolism and epigenetics that may ultimately influence cell phenotype.
  8. J Cell Physiol. 2022 Sep 02.
      This perspective review highlights the impact of physical exercise on immunometabolic responses in the past 5 years. Understanding immunometabolism as a part of immunological research is essential. Furthermore, the roles of both acute and chronic effects of physical exercise on health, aging, and chronic diseases in immunometabolic changes should be elaborated. In immune cells, β2 adrenergic signaling stimulates the preferential mobilization of inflammatory phenotypes, such as CD16+ monocytes and CD8+ T cells, into the bloodstream after a physical exercise session. The mobilization of immune cells is closely related to the availability of energetic substrates for the cell and mechanisms associated with the uptake and oxidation of fatty acids and glucose. These cells, especially senescent T cells, are mobilized to the peripheral tissues and undergo apoptotic signaling, stimulating the creation of a "vacant space" where new cells will be matured and replaced in the circulation. This results in the upregulation of the expression and secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1ra), leading to increased regulatory immune cells that provide immunoregulatory properties. Thus, we suggest that a significant nutrient available to the cell will favor oxidative metabolism, augment ATP production, and consequently maintain the immune cells in their quiescent state, as well as promote rapid activation function. Therefore, based on the studies discussed in this perspective review, we highlight the importance of performing moderate-intensity continuous and high-intensity intermittent aerobic exercises, due to a higher magnitude of energetic demand and release of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-10).
    Keywords:  exercise; immune system; immunometabolic response; metabolic pathway
  9. Ann Transl Med. 2022 Aug;10(15): 837
      Background: A major challenge of psoriasis is its dysfunctional immune niche. Remarkable gaps remain in understanding how immune cell state transitions are linked to clinical outcomes in psoriasis. Thus, there is a pressing need to discover immunomodulatory programs governing psoriasis progression.Methods: Here, by using the state-of-the-art single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data, we observed the unique immune cell profile inside the psoriasis niche compared with the normal skins.
    Results: In detail, the immunosuppressive T cells such as regulatory T (Treg) cells and CTLA4+ CD8 T cells showed higher infiltration in the psoriasis niche, indicating the immunosuppressive state was imprinted by such disease. Interestingly, unbiased trajectory and pathway enrichment analysis showed that those suppressive T cells potentially showed developmental and metabolic abnormalities. Intercellular crosstalk modeling shows that exhausted CTLA4+ CD8 T cells can send out cytokine signaling via utilizing CXCL13-CXCR3 ligand-receptor pair. We finally quantified the metabolism profile of T cells and strikingly observed their enhanced metabolic activity.
    Conclusions: Taken together, these data highlight cell-type specific reprogramming within the psoriasis microenvironment and provide evidence for immune-related biomarkers of psoriasis clinical outcome. Our work not only revealed the unique immune ecosystem of psoriasis, but also opened new opportunities for targeting immunometabolism in treating such skin diseases.
    Keywords:  Psoriasis; immune metabolism; immune suppression; single-cell RNA-sequencing (single-cell RNA-seq)
  10. Exp Hematol Oncol. 2022 Sep 01. 11(1): 48
      BACKGROUND: Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease. Some ITP patients are associated with pathogen infection undetected with conventional technologies. Investigating the changes of T cells and potential metabolic mechanism are important for better understanding of ITP.METHODS: The study enrolled 75 newly diagnosed ITP patients. The pathogens of patients were detected by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS). Plasma lipids were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). CD4 T cell and CD8 T cell were analyzed using flow cytometry. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured by flow cytometry. Seahorse XF real-time ATP rate assay was used to investigate the change of cellular metabolism.
    RESULTS: Positive plasma pathogens were detected in seven ITP patients. Of them, 5 (71.4%) positive pathogen-ITP patients were no response (NR) after first-line treatment with corticosteroids. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) increased significantly in positive pathogen-ITP patients compared to negative pathogen-ITP patients and healthy controls (HC). Mitochondrial membrane potential of Th17 and Tregs were decreased in positive pathogen-ITP and negative pathogen-ITP patients, compared to HC (all p < 0.05). The overall metabolism flux of positive pathogen-ITP patients was decreased, as compared to HC (p = 0.004), of them a higher proportion of glycolysis-derived ATP and a smaller proportion of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-derived ATP were found in Tregs. The ATP rate index of Tregs was decreased significantly in positive pathogen-ITP patients compared to negative pathogen-ITP patients and HC (p < 0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: Impaired mitochondria function of Tregs in positive pathogen-ITP patients caused a decrease of OXPHOS-derived ATP and overall metabolism flux that might be the cause of steroid resistance in ITP patients.
    Keywords:  Glycolysis; Immune thrombocytopenia; Oxidative phosphorylation; Pathogens; Tregs (Regulatory T cells)
  11. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 842482
      The protozoan parasite Eimeria bovis is the causative agent of bovine coccidiosis, an enteric disease of global importance that significantly affects cattle productivity. Previous studies showed that bovine NETosis-an important early host innate effector mechanism of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-is elicited by E. bovis stages. So far, the metabolic requirements of E. bovis-triggered NET formation are unknown. We here studied early glycolytic and mitochondrial responses of PMN as well as the role of pH, distinct metabolic pathways, P2 receptor-mediated purinergic signaling, and monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 2 (MCT1, MCT2) in E. bovis sporozoite-induced NET formation. Seahorse-based experiments revealed a rapid induction of both neutrophil oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and early glycolytic responses, thereby reflecting immediate PMN activation and metabolic changes upon confrontation with sporozoites. The impact of these metabolic changes on NET formation was studied via chemical inhibition experiments targeting glycolysis and energy generation by the use of 2-fluor-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucin (DON), sodium dichloroacetate (DCA), oxythiamine (OT), sodium oxamate (OXA), and oligomycin A (OmA) to block glycolysis, glutaminolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and mitochondrial ATP-synthase, respectively. Overall, sporozoite-induced NET formation was significantly diminished via PMN pretreatments with OmA and OXA, thereby indicating a key role of ATP- and lactate-mediated metabolic pathways. Consequently, we additionally studied the effects of extracellular pH, MCT1, MCT2, and purinergic receptor inhibitors (AR-C141900, AR-C155858, theobromine, and NF449, respectively). Pretreatment with the latter inhibitors led to blockage of sporozoite-triggered DNA release from exposed bovine PMN. This report provides first evidence on the pivotal role of carbohydrate-related metabolic pathways and purinergic receptors being involved in E. bovis sporozoite-induced NETosis.
    Keywords:  ECAR; Eimeria bovis; NET formation; PMN; autophagy; cattle; immunometabolism
  12. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2022 Aug 26. pii: S0925-4439(22)00202-2. [Epub ahead of print] 166531
      Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases. In many cases it is preceded by the development of an immune response to allergens such as animal fur, dust, pollens and etc. In human population this disease is heterogeneous, and no selective drugs are available at the moment for some endotypes of asthma. The role of the adaptive immune system in the pathogenesis of asthma was extensively studied, while the role of innate immune cells, in particular myeloid cells, was not sufficiently addressed. Myeloid cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, are characterized by high plasticity, heterogenicity and ability to undergo polarization in response to various pathogenic stimuli, including those engaging innate immune receptors. Recently, special attention was drawn to the link between polarization of macrophages and cell metabolism. We hypothesized that immunometabolic reprogramming of myeloid cells, in particular, of macrophages and dendritic cells during sensitization with an allergen may affect further immune response and asthma development. To test this hypothesis, we generated distinct types of myeloid cells in vitro from murine bone marrow and analyzed their immunometabolic profiles upon activation with house dust mite extract (HDM) and its key active components. We found that the combination of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and beta-glucan is sufficient to upregulate proinflammatory cytokine production as well as respiratory and glycolytic capacity of myeloid cells, comparably to HDM. This specific immunometabolic phenotype was associated with altered mitochondrial morphology and possibly with increased ROS production in macrophages. Moreover, we found that both TNF production and metabolic remodeling of macrophages in response to HDM are TLR4-dependent processes. Altogether, these results expand our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying asthma induction and pathogenesis and may potentially lead to new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this disease.
    Keywords:  Allergy; Asthma; House dust mite; Myeloid cells; TNF
  13. mBio. 2022 Aug 31. e0219422
      Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infections are known to alter the host metabolism for efficient propagation in vitro. However, in vivo metabolic perturbations upon prolonged HSV-1 infection remain poorly understood. We used high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and functional assays to determine the state of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) tissue metabolism upon prolonged corneal HSV-1 infection in a murine model. The metabolomics data indicated significant alterations in the host metabolic profile. After HSV-1 infection, the TG microenvironment assumed downregulation of central carbon metabolism and nucleotide synthesis pathways. We validated our observations using in vitro and ex vivo models through targeted inhibition of crucial metabolic polyamine pathways identified in our metabolomics screen. Our findings collectively suggested that HSV-1 infection altered the host metabolic product regulations that limit the energy and macromolecular precursors required for viral replication. IMPORTANCE The more severe ocular pathologies associated with HSV-1 infection are significant vision loss, ocular morbidity, and herpetic keratitis. The current clinical landscape lacks curative drugs and vaccines against HSV-1, a heavy burden associated with this neurotropic, ubiquitous pathogen. The virus is notoriously successful in establishing latency in the host TG, where it remains dormant with periodic reactivations in response to various stimuli like stress and immunosuppression. Metabolic perturbations in tissue microenvironment likely aid the virus in establishing its latent state along with subsequent reactivations yet remain poorly characterized. Here, we used mass spectrometry coupled with statistical data analysis to study the host metabolome in the TG during HSV-1 infection and identify metabolites that likely regulate infection.
    Keywords:  herpesvirus; latency; metabolomics; polyamines; trigeminal ganglion
  14. Mol Ther. 2022 Aug 30. pii: S1525-0016(22)00505-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Regulatory T cells overwhelm conventional T cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) thanks to a FOXP3-driven metabolic program that allows them to engage different metabolic pathways. Using a melanoma model of adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT), we show that FOXP3 overexpression in mature CD8 T cells improved their antitumor efficacy, favoring their tumor recruitment, proliferation and cytotoxicity. FOXP3-overexpressing (Foxp3UP) CD8 T cells exhibited features of tissue-resident memory-like and effector T cells, but not suppressor activity. Transcriptomic analysis of tumor-infiltrating Foxp3UP CD8 T cells showed positive enrichment in a wide variety of metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis, fatty acid (FA) metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Intratumoral Foxp3UP CD8 T cells exhibited an enhanced capacity for glucose and FA uptake, as well as accumulation of intracellular lipids. Interestingly, Foxp3UP CD8 T cells compensated for the loss of mitochondrial respiration-driven ATP production by activating aerobic glycolysis. Moreover, in limiting nutrient conditions these cells engaged FA oxidation to drive OXPHOS for their energy demands. Importantly, their ability to couple glycolysis and OXPHOS allowed them to sustain proliferation under glucose restriction. Our findings demonstrate a hitherto unknown role for FOXP3 in the adaptation of CD8 T cells to TME that may enhance their efficacy in ACT.
    Keywords:  CD8 T cell response; FOXP3; T cell metabolism; T cell-based cancer immunotherapy
  15. Nat Commun. 2022 Aug 31. 13(1): 5118
      Regulatory T (Treg) cells are central to limit immune responses to allergens. Here we show that PD-L2 deficiency prevents the induction of tolerance to ovalbumin and control of airway hyperreactivity, in particular by limiting pTreg numbers and function. In vitro, PD-1/PD-L2 interactions increase iTreg numbers and stability. In mice lacking PD-L2 we find lower numbers of splenic pTregs at steady state, producing less IL-10 upon activation and with reduced suppressive activity. Remarkably, the numbers of splenic pTregs are restored by adoptively transferring PD-L2high dendritic cells to PD-L2KO mice. Functionally, activated pTregs lacking PD-L2 show lower Foxp3 expression, higher methylation of the Treg-Specific Demethylation Region (TSDR) and a decreased Tricarboxylic Acid (TCA) cycle associated with a defect in mitochondrial function and ATP production. Consequently, pyruvate treatment of PD-L2KO mice partially restores IL-10 production and airway tolerance. Together, our study highlights the importance of the PD-1/PD-L2 axis in the control of metabolic pathways regulating pTreg Foxp3 stability and suppressive functions, opening up avenues to further improve mucosal immunotherapy.
  16. Immunohorizons. 2022 Aug 29. 6(8): 642-659
      Imbalance in lipid homeostasis is associated with discrepancies in immune signaling and is tightly linked to metabolic disorders. The diverse ways in which lipids impact immune signaling, however, remain ambiguous. The phospholipid phosphatidylinositol (PI), which is implicated in numerous immune disorders, is chiefly defined by its phosphorylation status. By contrast, the significance of the two fatty acid chains attached to the PI remains unknown. In this study, by using a mass spectrometry-based assay, we demonstrate a role for PI acyl group chains in regulating both the priming and activation steps of the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in mouse macrophages. In response to NLRP3 stimuli, cells deficient in ABC transporter ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily B Member 1 (ABCB1), which effluxes lipid derivatives, revealed defective inflammasome activation. Mechanistically, Abcb1 deficiency shifted the total PI configuration exhibiting a reduced ratio of short-chain to long-chain PI acyl lipids. Consequently, Abcb1 deficiency initiated the rapid degradation of Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor protein, the TLR adaptor protein that binds PI (4,5)-bisphosphate, resulting in defective TLR-dependent signaling, and thus NLRP3 expression. Moreover, this accompanied increased NLRP3 phosphorylation at the Ser291 position and contributed to blunted inflammasome activation. Exogenously supplementing wild-type cells with linoleic acid (LA), but not arachidonic acid, reconfigured PI acyl chains. Accordingly, LA supplementation increased Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor protein degradation, elevated NLRP3 phosphorylation, and abrogated inflammasome activation. Furthermore, NLRP3 Ser291 phosphorylation was dependent on PGE2-induced protein kinase A signaling because pharmacological inhibition of this pathway in LA-enriched cells dephosphorylated NLRP3. Altogether, our study reveals, to our knowledge, a novel metabolic-inflammatory circuit that contributes to calibrating immune responses.
  17. Mucosal Immunol. 2022 Aug 31.
      Helminths are multicellular ancient organisms residing as parasites at mucosal surfaces of their host. Through adaptation and co-evolution with their hosts, helminths have been able to develop tolerance mechanisms to limit inflammation and avoid expulsion. The study of helminth infections as an integral part of tissue immunology allowed us to understand fundamental aspects of mucosal and barrier immunology, which led to the discovery of a new group of tissue-resident immune cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC), over a decade ago. Here, we review the intricate interplay between helminth infections and type 2 ILC (ILC2) biology, discuss the host metabolic adaptation to helminth infections and the metabolic pathways fueling ILC2 responses. We hypothesize that nutrient competition between host and helminths may have prevented chronic inflammation in the past and argue that a detailed understanding of the metabolic restraints imposed by helminth infections may offer new therapeutic avenues in the future.
  18. Front Genet. 2022 ;13 943849
      Background: Tumor-derived lactate can modulate the function of infiltrating immune cells to establish an immunosuppressive microenvironment that favors tumor progression. However, possible effects of lactate-related genes (LRGs) on the tumor microenvironment (TME) of breast cancer (BRCA) are still unknown. Methods: LRGs were comprehensively screened from lactate metabolism-related pathways. We correlated the expression of these LRGs with immune cell infiltrating characteristics in the TME and clinicopathological features of patients. We also established a lactate score for quantifying lactate metabolism patterns of cancers and to predict of recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results: We successfully constructed a lactate score that was an independent prognostic factor in BRCA. A low lactate score, which was associated with immune activation with increased CD8+ T cells infiltration levels, indicated an inflamed TME. Consistently, higher expression levels of inhibitory immune checkpoints, including PD-L1, LAG3, CTLA4, and TIM3, as observed from high lactate score subgroup, suggested an immune-desert phenotype as well as poor prognosis. Moreover, a low lactate score predicted the increased chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity and enhanced anti-PD-1 immunotherapy responses. Conclusion: The present study analyzed the potential roles of LRGs in the TME diversity and prognosis. These results will help to improve our understanding of the characteristics of TME immune cell infiltration and guide the development of more effective immunotherapy strategies.
    Keywords:  breast cancer; chemotherapy; immunotherapy; lactate score; tumor microenvironment
  19. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2022 Sep 01.
      Poor recovery of muscle size and strength with aging coincides with a dysregulated macrophage response during the early stages of regrowth. Immunomodulation in the form of ex vivo cytokine (macrophage-colony stimulating factor) or polarized macrophage delivery has been demonstrated to improve skeletal muscle regeneration. However, it is unclear if these macrophage-promoting approaches would be effective to improve skeletal muscle recovery following disuse in aged animals. Here, we isolated bone marrow-derived macrophages from donor mice of different ages under various experimental conditions and polarized them to pro-inflammatory macrophages. Macrophages were delivered intramuscularly into young adult or aged recipient mice during the early recovery period following a period of hindlimb unloading (HU). Delivery of pro-inflammatory macrophages from donor young adult or aged mice was sufficient to increase muscle function of aged mice during the recovery period. Moreover, pro-inflammatory macrophages derived from aged donor mice collected during recovery were similarly able to increase muscle function of aged mice following disuse. In addition to the delivery of macrophages, we showed that the intramuscular injection of the cytokine, macrophage-colony stimulating factor, to the muscle of aged mice following HU was able to increase muscle macrophage content and muscle force production during recovery. Together, these results suggest that macrophage immunomodulation approaches in the form of ex vivo pro-inflammatory macrophage or macrophage-colony stimulating factor delivery during the early recovery phase following disuse atrophy were sufficient to restore the loss of aged skeletal muscle function.
    Keywords:  Aging; immune cells; inflammation; muscle function; sarcopenia
  20. Sci Immunol. 2022 Sep 02. 7(75): eade5698
      Adipocyte derived SPARC induces pro-inflammatory changes to macrophages, leading to aging that can be reduced by caloric restriction.
  21. EMBO J. 2022 Aug 29. e111161
      Phagocytosis is the necessary first step to sense foreign microbes or particles and enables activation of innate immune pathways such as inflammasomes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying how phagosomes modulate inflammasome activity are not fully understood. We show that in murine dendritic cells (DCs), the lysosomal histidine/peptide solute carrier transporter SLC15A4, associated with human inflammatory disorders, is recruited to phagosomes and is required for optimal inflammasome activity after infectious or sterile stimuli. Dextran sodium sulfate-treated SLC15A4-deficient mice exhibit decreased colon inflammation, reduced IL-1β production by intestinal DCs, and increased autophagy. Similarly, SLC15A4-deficient DCs infected with Salmonella typhimurium show reduced caspase-1 cleavage and IL-1β production. This correlates with peripheral NLRC4 inflammasome assembly and increased autophagy. Overexpression of constitutively active mTORC1 rescues decreased IL-1β levels and caspase1 cleavage, and restores perinuclear inflammasome positioning. Our findings support that SLC15A4 couples phagocytosis with inflammasome perinuclear assembly and inhibition of autophagy through phagosomal content sensing. Our data also reveal the previously unappreciated importance of mTORC1 signaling pathways to promote and sustain inflammasome activity.
    Keywords:  SLC15A4; dendritic cells; inflammasomes; mTORC1; phagocytosis
  22. Cancer Res Commun. 2022 Jul;2(7): 639-652
      Metabolic features of the tumor microenvironment (TME) antagonize anti-tumor immunity. We hypothesized that T cell infiltrated tumors with a known antigen should exhibit superior clinical outcomes, though some fare worse given unfavorable metabolic features leveraging T cell-infiltrated (Thi), human papillomavirus-related (HPV+) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSC) to test this hypothesis. Expression of 2,520 metabolic genes were analyzed among Thi HPV+ HNSCs stratified by high-risk molecular subtype. RNAseq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; 10 cancer types), single cell RNAseq data, and an immunotherapy-treated melanoma cohort were used to test the association between metabolic gene expression and clinical outcomes and contribution of tumor versus stromal cells to metabolic gene expression. Polyamine (PA) metabolism genes were overexpressed in high-risk, Thi HPV+ HNSCs. Genes involved in PA biosynthesis and transport were associated with T cell infiltration, recurrent or persistent cancer, overall survival status, primary site, molecular subtype, and MYC genomic alterations. PA biogenesis gene sets were associated with tumor intrinsic features while myeloid cells in HPV+ HNSCs were enriched in PA catabolism, regulatory, transport, putrescine, and spermidine gene set expression. PA gene set expression also correlated with IFNγ or cytotoxic T cell ssGSEA scores across TCGA tumor types. PA transport ssGSEA scores were associated with poor survival whereas putrescine ssGSEA scores portended better survival for several tumor types. Thi melanomas enriched in PA synthesis or combined gene set expression exhibited worse anti-PD-1 responses. These data address hurdles to anti-tumor immunity warranting further investigation of divergent polyamine metabolism in the TME.
    Keywords:  Human papillomavirus; head and neck cancer; immunometabolism; polyamines
  23. Nat Commun. 2022 Aug 30. 13(1): 5089
      Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) adapt to changes in their energetic microenvironment. Caloric excess, in a range from transient to diet-induced obesity, could result in the transition of ATMs from highly oxidative and protective to highly inflammatory and metabolically deleterious. Here, we demonstrate that Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 (IRF5) is a key regulator of macrophage oxidative capacity in response to caloric excess. ATMs from mice with genetic-deficiency of Irf5 are characterised by increased oxidative respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential. Transient inhibition of IRF5 activity leads to a similar respiratory phenotype as genomic deletion, and is reversible by reconstitution of IRF5 expression. We find that the highly oxidative nature of Irf5-deficient macrophages results from transcriptional de-repression of the mitochondrial matrix component Growth Hormone Inducible Transmembrane Protein (GHITM) gene. The Irf5-deficiency-associated high oxygen consumption could be alleviated by experimental suppression of Ghitm expression. ATMs and monocytes from patients with obesity or with type-2 diabetes retain the reciprocal regulatory relationship between Irf5 and Ghitm. Thus, our study provides insights into the mechanism of how the inflammatory transcription factor IRF5 controls physiological adaptation to diet-induced obesity via regulating mitochondrial architecture in macrophages.
  24. Sci Rep. 2022 Sep 02. 12(1): 14929
      Immune cells play an important role in the development of inflammation in type 1 diabetes mellitus, so we want to explore the changes of CD4+ T cells and macrophages in vivo, which can provide an experimental basis for immunotherapy based on CD4+ T cells and macrophages. The intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin was used to induce a type 1 diabetes mellitus mouse model; the blood glucose, body weight, and the expression of inflammatory factors in the kidney were measured. Immunohistochemistry was applied to determine and analyze the infiltration of CD4+ T cells and macrophages in the spleen, pancreas, and kidney. The subtypes of macrophages in the kidney and CD4+ T cells in the spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry. Our study suggests that CD4+ T cells and macrophages increase, while the inflammatory immune response system is activated in the development of T1DM. CD4+ T cells positively correlated with macrophages in the pancreas and kidney of T1DM. CD4+ T cells turn to pro-inflammatory subtypes in the spleen of T1DM, while macrophages turn to pro-inflammatory subtypes in the kidney of T1DM. Therefore, regulation of CD4+ T cells and macrophages may be a potential target for T1DM and kidney complications.
  25. J Exp Med. 2022 Nov 07. pii: e20221085. [Epub ahead of print]219(11):
      Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) chronically produce type I interferon (IFN-I) in autoimmune diseases, including systemic sclerosis (SSc) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We report that the IRE1α-XBP1 branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR) inhibits IFN-α production by TLR7- or TLR9-activated pDCs. In SSc patients, UPR gene expression was reduced in pDCs, which inversely correlated with IFN-I-stimulated gene expression. CXCL4, a chemokine highly secreted in SSc patients, downregulated IRE1α-XBP1-controlled genes and promoted IFN-α production by pDCs. Mechanistically, IRE1α-XBP1 activation rewired glycolysis to serine biosynthesis by inducing phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) expression. This process reduced pyruvate access to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and blunted mitochondrial ATP generation, which are essential for pDC IFN-I responses. Notably, PHGDH expression was reduced in pDCs from patients with SSc and SLE, and pharmacological blockade of TCA cycle reactions inhibited IFN-I responses in pDCs from these patients. Hence, modulating the IRE1α-XBP1-PHGDH axis may represent a hitherto unexplored strategy for alleviating chronic pDC activation in autoimmune disorders.
  26. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Sep 06. 119(36): e2206327119
      Cerebral malaria (CM) is a life-threatening form of Plasmodium falciparum infection caused by brain inflammation. Brain endothelium dysfunction is a hallmark of CM pathology, which is also associated with the activation of the type I interferon (IFN) inflammatory pathway. The molecular triggers and sensors eliciting brain type I IFN cellular responses during CM remain largely unknown. We herein identified the stimulator of interferon response cGAMP interactor 1 (STING1) as the key innate immune sensor that induces Ifnβ1 transcription in the brain of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (Pba). This STING1/IFNβ-mediated response increases brain CXCL10 governing the extent of brain leukocyte infiltration and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and determining CM lethality. The critical role of brain endothelial cells (BECs) in fueling type I IFN-driven brain inflammation was demonstrated in brain endothelial-specific IFNβ-reporter and STING1-deficient Pba-infected mice, which were significantly protected from CM lethality. Moreover, extracellular particles (EPs) released from Pba-infected erythrocytes activated the STING1-dependent type I IFN response in BECs, a response requiring intracellular acidification. Fractionation of the EPs enabled us to identify a defined fraction carrying hemoglobin degradation remnants that activates STING1/IFNβ in the brain endothelium, a process correlated with heme content. Notably, stimulation of STING1-deficient BECs with heme, docking experiments, and in vitro binding assays unveiled that heme is a putative STING1 ligand. This work shows that heme resultant from the parasite heterotrophic activity operates as an alarmin, triggering brain endothelial inflammatory responses via the STING1/IFNβ/CXCL10 axis crucial to CM pathogenesis and lethality.
    Keywords:  CXCL10; IFN beta; STING1; brain endothelium; cerebral malaria
  27. Front Immunol. 2022 ;13 904823
      Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is an effective immunotherapy against hematopoietic malignancies. The infused donor lymphocytes attack malignant cells and normal tissues, termed a graft-verse-leukemia (GVL) effect and graft-verse-host (GVH) response or disease (GVHD), respectively. Although engineering techniques toward donor graft selection have made HCT more specific and effective, primary tumor relapse and GVHD are still major concerns post allo-HCT. High-dose systemic steroids remain to be the first line of GVHD treatment, which may lead to steroid-refractory GVHD with a dismal outcome. Therefore, identifying novel therapeutic strategies that prevent GVHD while preserving GVL activity is highly warranted. Sphingolipid metabolism and metabolites play pivotal roles in regulating T-cell homeostasis and biological functions. In this review, we summarized the recent research progress in this evolving field of sphingolipids with a focus on alloreactive T-cell responses in the context of allo-HCT. We discussed how sphingolipid metabolism regulates T-cell mediated GVH and GVL responses in allo-HCT and presented the rationale and means to target sphingolipid metabolism for the control of GVHD and leukemia relapse.
    Keywords:  T cell; allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation; graft versus host disease; graft versus leukemia response; sphingolipid metabolism