bims-imicid Biomed News
on Immunometabolism of infection, cancer and immune-mediated disease
Issue of 2022‒07‒03
twenty-six papers selected by
Dylan Ryan
University of Cambridge

  1. Sci Adv. 2022 Jul;8(26): eabm9138
      The up-regulation of kynurenine metabolism induces immunomodulatory responses via incompletely understood mechanisms. We report that increases in cellular and systemic kynurenine levels yield the electrophilic derivative kynurenine-carboxyketoalkene (Kyn-CKA), as evidenced by the accumulation of thiol conjugates and saturated metabolites. Kyn-CKA induces NFE2 like bZIP transcription factor 2- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-regulated genes and inhibits nuclear factor κB- and NLR family pyrin domain containing 3-dependent proinflammatory signaling. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary hemolytic condition characterized by basal inflammation and recurrent vaso-occlusive crises. Both transgenic SCD mice and patients with SCD exhibit increased kynurenine and Kyn-CKA metabolite levels. Plasma hemin and kynurenine concentrations are positively correlated, indicating that Kyn-CKA synthesis in SCD is up-regulated during pathogenic vascular stress. Administration of Kyn-CKA abrogated pulmonary microvasculature occlusion in SCD mice, an important factor in lung injury development. These findings demonstrate that the up-regulation of kynurenine synthesis and its metabolism to Kyn-CKA is an adaptive response that attenuates inflammation and protects tissues.
  2. mBio. 2022 Jun 28. e0127422
      In response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, macrophages mount proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses similar to those observed in M1 macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). A metabolic reprogramming to hypoxia-inducible-factor 1 (HIF-1)-mediated uptake of glucose and its metabolism by glycolysis is required for M1-like polarization, but little is known about other metabolic programs driving the M1-like polarization during infection. We report that glutamine serves as a carbon and nitrogen source for the metabolic reprogramming to M1-like macrophages. Widely targeted metabolite screening identified an association of glutamine and/or glutamate with highly affected metabolic pathways of M1-like macrophages. Moreover, stable isotope-assisted metabolomics of U13C glutamine and U13C glucose revealed that glutamine, rather than glucose, is catabolized in both the oxidative and reductive tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycles of M1-like macrophages, thereby generating signaling molecules that include succinate, biosynthetic precursors such as aspartate, and itaconate. U15N glutamine-tracing metabolomics further revealed participation of glutamine nitrogen in synthesis of intermediates of purine and pyrimidine metabolism plus amino acids, including aspartate. These findings were corroborated by diminished M1 polarization from chemical inhibition of glutaminase (GLS), the key enzyme in the glutaminolysis pathway, and by genetic deletion of GLS in infected macrophages. Thus, the catabolism of glutamine is an integral component of metabolic reprogramming in activating macrophages and it coordinates with elevated cytosolic glycolysis to satisfy the cellular demand for bioenergetic and biosynthetic precursors of M1-like macrophages. Knowledge of these new immunometabolic features of M1-like macrophages should advance the development of host-directed therapies for tuberculosis. IMPORTANCE Macrophages play essential roles in determining the progression and final outcome of human infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. While upregulation of hypoxia-inducible-factor 1 (HIF-1) and a metabolic reprogramming to the Warburg Effect-like state are known to be critical for immune cell activation in response to M. tuberculosis infection, our overall knowledge about the immunometabolism of M1-like macrophages is poor. Using widely targeted small-metabolite screening, stable isotope tracing metabolomics, and pharmacological and genetic approaches, we report that, in addition to enhanced glucose catabolism by glycolysis, glutamine is utilized as an important carbon and nitrogen source for the generation of biosynthetic precursors, signaling molecules, and itaconate in M. tuberculosis-induced M1-like macrophages. Recognizing this novel contribution of glutamine to the immunometabolic properties of M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages may facilitate the development of treatments for tuberculosis and stimulate comparable studies with other pathogen-macrophage interactions.
    Keywords:  M1-like polarization; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; TCA cycle; glutaminolysis; immunometabolism; isotope tracing metabolomics
  3. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 ;13 914136
      Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease mediated by T cells and is becoming a serious public health threat. Despite the increasing incidence rate of T1D worldwide, our understanding of why T1D develops and how T cells lose their self-tolerance in this process remain limited. Recent advances in immunometabolism have shown that cellular metabolism plays a fundamental role in shaping T cell responses. T cell activation and proliferation are supported by metabolic reprogramming to meet the increased energy and biomass demand, and deregulation in immune metabolism can lead to autoimmune disorders. Specific metabolic pathways and factors have been investigated to rectify known deficiencies in several autoimmune diseases, including T1D. Most therapeutic strategies have concentrated on aerobic glycolysis to limit T cell responses, whereas glycolysis is the main metabolic pathway for T cell activation and proliferation. The use of metabolic inhibitors, especially glycolysis inhibitors may largely leave T cell function intact but primarily target those autoreactive T cells with hyperactivated metabolism. In this review, we provide an overview of metabolic reprogramming used by T cells, summarize the recent findings of key metabolic pathways and regulators modulating T cell homeostasis, differentiation, and function in the context of T1D, and discuss the opportunities for metabolic intervention to be employed to suppress autoreactive T cells and limit the progression of β-cell destruction.
    Keywords:  T cell; T cell differentiation and function; T cell metabolism; autoimmunity; type 1 diabetes
  4. Endocrinology. 2022 Jun 26. pii: bqac094. [Epub ahead of print]
      Immune cells infiltrate adipose tissue as a function of age, sex, and diet leading to a variety of regulatory processes linked to metabolic disease and dysfunction. Cytokines and chemokines produced by resident macrophages, B cells, T cells and eosinophils play major role(s) in fat cell mitochondrial functions modulating pyruvate oxidation, electron transport and oxidative stress, branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism, fatty acid oxidation and apoptosis. Indeed, cytokine-dependent down regulation of numerous genes affecting mitochondrial metabolism is strongly linked to the development of the metabolic syndrome while in contrast, the potentiation of mitochondrial metabolism represents a counter regulatory process improving metabolic outcomes. In contrast, inflammatory cytokines activate mitochondrially-linked cell death pathways such as apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis and ferroptosis. As such, the adipocyte mitochondrion represents a major intersection point for immunometabolic regulation of central metabolism.
    Keywords:  Adipose; Inflammation; Macrophage; Mitochondria
  5. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022 ;10 856243
      Mast cells are specialized, tissue resident, immune effector cells able to respond to a wide range of stimuli. MCs are involved in the regulation of a variety of physiological functions, including vasodilation, angiogenesis and pathogen elimination. In addition, MCs recruit and regulate the functions of many immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, T cells, B cells and eosinophils through their selective production of multiple cytokines and chemokines. MCs generate and release multi-potent molecules, such as histamine, proteases, prostanoids, leukotrienes, heparin, and many cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors through both degranulation dependent and independent pathways. Recent studies suggested that metabolic shifts dictate the activation and granule content secretion by MCs, however the metabolic signaling promoting these events is at its infancy. Lipid metabolism is recognized as a pivotal immunometabolic regulator during immune cell activation. Peroxisomes are organelles found across all eukaryotes, with a pivotal role in lipid metabolism and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Peroxisomes are one of the emerging axes in immunometabolism. Here we identified the peroxisome as an essential player in MCs activation. We determined that lack of functional peroxisomes in murine MCs causes a significant reduction of interleukin-6, Tumor necrosis factor and InterleukinL-13 following immunoglobulin IgE-mediated and Toll like receptor 2 and 4 activation compared to the Wild type (WT) BMMCs. We linked these defects in cytokine release to defects in free fatty acids homeostasis. In conclusion, our study identified the importance of peroxisomal fatty acids homeostasis in regulating mast cell-mediated immune functions.
    Keywords:  IgE; TLR; free fatty acids; mast cell; peroxisome
  6. iScience. 2022 Jul 15. 25(7): 104561
      ACOD1 (also known as IRG1) has emerged as a regulator of immunometabolism that operates by producing metabolite itaconate. Here, we report a key role of STING1 (also known as STING and TMEM173) in mediating ACOD1 expression in myeloid cells in response to toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. The activation of STING1 through exogenous cyclic dinucleotides (e.g., 3'3'-cGAMP) or endogenous gain-of-function mutation (e.g., V155M) enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced ACOD1 expression and itaconate production in macrophages and monocytes, whereas the deletion of STING1 blocks this process. The adaptor protein MYD88, instead of DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (CGAS), favors STING1-dependent ACOD1 expression. Mechanistically, MYD88 directly blocks autophagic degradation of STING1 and causes subsequent IRF3/JUN-mediated ACOD1 gene transcription. Consequently, the conditional deletion of STING1 in myeloid cells fails to produce ACOD1 and itaconate, thereby protecting mice against endotoxemia and polymicrobial sepsis. Our results, therefore, establish a direct link between TLR4 signaling and ACOD1 expression through the STING1-MYD88 complex during septic shock.
    Keywords:  Biological sciences; Immune response; Immunology
  7. J Biol Chem. 2022 Jun 25. pii: S0021-9258(22)00635-4. [Epub ahead of print] 102193
      Macrophages respond to their environment by adopting a predominantly inflammatory or anti-inflammatory profile, depending on the context. The polarization of the subsequent response is regulated by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic signals and is associated with alterations in macrophage metabolism. Although macrophages are important producers of Wnt ligands, the role of Wnt signaling in regulating metabolic changes associated with macrophage polarization remains unclear. Wnt4 upregulation has been shown to be associated with tissue repair and suppression of age-associated inflammation, which led us to generate Wnt4-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) to investigate its role in metabolism. We show that loss of Wnt4 led to modified mitochondrial structure, enhanced oxidative phosphorylation, and depleted intracellular lipid reserves, as the cells depended on fatty acid oxidation to fuel their mitochondria. Further we found that enhanced lipolysis was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated activation of lysosomal acid lipase in Wnt4-deficient BMDMs. Although not irreversible, these metabolic changes promoted parasite survival during infection with Leishmania donovani. In conclusion, our results indicate that enhanced macrophage fatty acid oxidation impairs the control of intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania. We further suggest that Wnt4 may represent a potential target in atherosclerosis, which is characterized by lipid storage in macrophages leading to them becoming foam cells.
    Keywords:  BMDM; Leishmania; Wnt4 signaling; fatty acid oxidation; lipid droplet; macrophage
  8. STAR Protoc. 2022 Sep 16. 3(3): 101480
      The communication between macrophage and adipocyte plays a critical role in the initiation and development of metabolic inflammation, which is difficult to study in vivo. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol using differentiated cells to investigate the paracrine effects of classically activated macrophage on beige adipocyte metabolism in vitro. This protocol uses bone-marrow-derived macrophage and SVF-derived UCP1+ beige adipocyte in a culture model to study immune regulation of adipocyte metabolism by western blot analyses. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Yao et al. (2021).
    Keywords:  Immunology; Metabolism
  9. Front Oncol. 2022 ;12 816504
      Therapeutic targeting of tumor vulnerabilities is emerging as a key area of research. This review is focused on exploiting the vulnerabilities of tumor cells and the immune cells in the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME), including tumor hypoxia, tumor acidity, the bidirectional proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) of lactate, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and redox enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Cancer cells use glucose for energy even under normoxic conditions. Although cancer cells predominantly rely on glycolysis, many have fully functional mitochondria, suggesting that mitochondria are a vulnerable target organelle in cancer cells. Thus, one key distinction between cancer and normal cell metabolism is metabolic reprogramming. Mitochondria-targeted small molecule inhibitors of OXPHOS inhibit tumor proliferation and growth. Another hallmark of cancer is extracellular acidification due lactate accumulation. Emerging results show that lactate acts as a fuel for mitochondrial metabolism and supports tumor proliferation and growth. Metabolic reprogramming occurs in glycolysis-deficient tumor phenotypes and in kinase-targeted, drug-resistant cancers overexpressing OXPHOS genes. Glycolytic cancer cells located away from the vasculature overexpress MCT4 transporter to prevent overacidification by exporting lactate, and the oxidative cancer cells located near the vasculature express MCT1 transporter to provide energy through incorporation of lactate into the tricarboxylic acid cycle. MCTs are, therefore, a vulnerable target in cancer metabolism. MCT inhibitors exert synthetic lethality in combination with metformin, a weak inhibitor of OXPHOS, in cancer cells. Simultaneously targeting multiple vulnerabilities within mitochondria shows synergistic antiproliferative and antitumor effects. Developing tumor-selective, small molecule inhibitors of OXPHOS with a high therapeutic index is critical to fully exploiting the mitochondrial vulnerabilities. We and others developed small-molecule inhibitors containing triphenylphosphonium cation that potently inhibit OXPHOS in tumor cells and tissues. Factors affecting tumor cell vulnerabilities also impact immune cells in the TIME. Glycolytic tumor cells supply lactate to the tumor-suppressing regulatory T cells overexpressing MCTs. Therapeutic opportunities for targeting vulnerabilities in tumor cells and the TIME, as well as the implications on cancer health disparities and cancer treatment, are addressed.
    Keywords:  Mitochondrial drugs; metabolic reprogramming; monocarboxylate transporters; oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS); tumor microenvironment
  10. Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2497 269-280
      During lymphocyte maturation and differentiation, cells undergo a series of proliferative stages interrupted with stages of low activity. The rapid proliferation stages are marked by changes in metabolic outputs-adapting to energy demands by either hindering or utilizing metabolic pathways. As such, it is necessary to view these changes in real time; however, current strategies for metabolomics are time consuming and very rarely provide a holistic profile of the cellular metabolism while also characterizing mitochondrial metabolism. Here, we devised a fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) strategy to image mitochondrial metabolic profiles in lymphocytes as they go through changes in metabolic activity. Our method provides not only a comprehensive view of cellular metabolism but also narrow in mitochondrial contributions while also efficiently excluding non-viable cells with and without the use of a viability dye. Our novel imaging strategy offers a reliable tool to study changes in mitochondrial metabolism.
    Keywords:  FLIM; Immunology; Immunometabolism; Lymphocytes; Microscopy; Mitochondria
  11. Free Radic Biol Med. 2022 Jun 23. pii: S0891-5849(22)00462-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      5-methoxy tryptophan (5-MTP) is an anti-fibrotic metabolite made by fibroblasts and epithelial cells, present in a micromolar concentrations in human blood, and is associated with the progression of fibrotic kidney disease, but the mechanism is unclear. Here, we show by microscopy and functional assays that 5-MTP influences mitochondria in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages. As a result, the mitochondrial membranes are more rigid, more branched, and are protected against oxidation. The macrophages also change their metabolism by reducing mitochondrial import of acyl-carnitines, intermediates of fatty acid metabolism, driving glucose import. Moreover, 5-MTP increases the endocytosis of collagen by macrophages, and experiments with inhibition of glucose uptake showed that this is a direct result of their altered metabolism. However, 5-MTP does not affect the macrophages following pathogenic stimulation, due to 5-MTP degradation by induced expression of indole-amine oxygenase-1 (IDO-1). Thus, 5-MTP is a fibrosis-protective metabolite that, in absence of pathogenic stimulation, promotes collagen uptake by anti-inflammatory macrophages by altering the physicochemical properties of their mitochondrial membranes.
    Keywords:  5-Methoxy tryptophan; Fibrosis; IDO; Inflammation; Macrophage; Metabolism; Mitochondria
  12. Nat Commun. 2022 Jul 01. 13(1): 3799
      Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease driven by hypercholesterolemia. During aging, T cells accumulate cholesterol, potentially affecting inflammation. However, the effect of cholesterol efflux pathways mediated by ATP-binding cassette A1 and G1 (ABCA1/ABCG1) on T cell-dependent age-related inflammation and atherosclerosis remains poorly understood. In this study, we generate mice with T cell-specific Abca1/Abcg1-deficiency on the low-density-lipoprotein-receptor deficient (Ldlr-/-) background. T cell Abca1/Abcg1-deficiency decreases blood, lymph node, and splenic T cells, and increases T cell activation and apoptosis. T cell Abca1/Abcg1-deficiency induces a premature T cell aging phenotype in middle-aged (12-13 months) Ldlr-/- mice, reflected by upregulation of senescence markers. Despite T cell senescence and enhanced T cell activation, T cell Abca1/Abcg1-deficiency decreases atherosclerosis and aortic inflammation in middle-aged Ldlr-/- mice, accompanied by decreased T cells in atherosclerotic plaques. We attribute these effects to T cell apoptosis downstream of T cell activation, compromising T cell functionality. Collectively, we show that T cell cholesterol efflux pathways suppress T cell apoptosis and senescence, and induce atherosclerosis in middle-aged Ldlr-/- mice.
  13. Nat Cardiovasc Res. 2022 Mar;1(3): 211-222
      Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasing in prevalence worldwide, already accounting for at least half of all heart failure (HF). As most patients with HFpEF are obese with metabolic syndrome, metabolic stress has been implicated in syndrome pathogenesis. Recently, compelling evidence for bidirectional crosstalk between metabolic stress and chronic inflammation has emerged, and alterations in systemic and cardiac immune responses are held to participate in HFpEF pathophysiology. Indeed, based on both preclinical and clinical evidence, comorbidity-driven systemic inflammation, coupled with metabolic stress, have been implicated together in HFpEF pathogenesis. As metabolic alterations impact immune function(s) in HFpEF, major changes in immune cell metabolism are also recognized in HFpEF and in HFpEF-predisposing conditions. Both arms of immunity - innate and adaptive - are implicated in the cardiomyocyte response in HFpEF. Indeed, we submit that crosstalk among adipose tissue, the immune system, and the heart represents a critical component of HFpEF pathobiology. Here, we review recent evidence in support of immunometabolic mechanisms as drivers of HFpEF pathogenesis, discuss pivotal biological mechanisms underlying the syndrome, and highlight questions requiring additional inquiry.
    Keywords:  HFpEF; immune system; metabolism
  14. Nat Metab. 2022 Jun;4(6): 775-790
      Obesity induces chronic inflammation resulting in insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. Cold exposure can improve insulin sensitivity in humans and rodents, but the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we find that cold resolves obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance and improves glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice. The beneficial effects of cold exposure on improving obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance depend on brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver. Using targeted liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, we discovered that cold and β3-adrenergic stimulation promote BAT to produce maresin 2 (MaR2), a member of the specialized pro-resolving mediators of bioactive lipids that play a role in the resolution of inflammation. Notably, MaR2 reduces inflammation in obesity in part by targeting macrophages in the liver. Thus, BAT-derived MaR2 could contribute to the beneficial effects of BAT activation in resolving obesity-induced inflammation and may inform therapeutic approaches to combat obesity and its complications.
  15. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2022 Jul;10(7): e647
      Mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAM) are specialized subcellular compartments that are shaped by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subdomains placed side by side to the outer membrane of mitochondria (OMM) being connected by tethering proteins in mammalian cells. Studies showed that MAM has multiple physiological functions. These include regulation of lipid synthesis and transport, Ca2+ transport and signaling, mitochondrial dynamics, apoptosis, autophagy, and formation and activation of an inflammasome. However, alterations of MAM integrity lead to deleterious effects due to an increased generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) via increased Ca2+ transfer from the ER to mitochondria. This, in turn, causes mitochondrial damage and release of mitochondrial components into the cytosol as damage-associated molecular patterns which rapidly activate MAM-resident Nod-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome components. This complex induces the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that initiate low-grade chronic inflammation that subsequently causes the development of metabolic diseases. But, the mechanisms of how MAM is involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases are not exhaustively reviewed. Therefore, this review was aimed to highlight the contribution of MAM to a variety of cellular functions and consider its significance pertaining to the pathogenesis of inflammation-mediated metabolic diseases.
    Keywords:  ER-stress; MAM; NLRP3-inflammasome; inflammatory mediated metabolic diseases
  16. Microbiol Spectr. 2022 Jun 29. 10(3): e0071822
      Manipulating mitochondrial homeostasis is essential for host defense against infection and pathogen survival in cells. This study reports for the first time that Y. pestis infection caused mitochondria damage that subsequently leads to the activation of Pink1/Parkin-independent mitophagy in macrophage, and the effector YopH from the type III secretion system was required for these effects. The generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) by damaged mitochondria enhances the antibacterial activity of macrophages against Y. pestis and promotes apoptosis of the infected cells. Therefore, Y. pestis-induced mitophagy was employed to eliminate dysfunctional mitochondria and relieve the mROS accumulation. This study reveals a novel role for YopH of Y. pestis in damaging host macrophage mitochondria during plague infection and underlines the vital role of mitophagy in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis by clearing bacteria-damaged mitochondria. The results show that mitophagy or mitochondrial fission manipulation could be used as a new strategy to treat plague. IMPORTANCE Y. pestis, the pathogen of plague, also known as the "Black Death," has caused millions of deaths throughout history. This study reports that Y. pestis infection induces mitochondrial fragmentation and abnormal mROS accumulation, and releases mitochondrial contents into the cytoplasm in macrophages. mROS promotes the antibacterial activity of macrophages against Y. pestis and increases apoptosis of the infected cells. PINK-Parkin-independent mitophagy is activated to balance mitochondrial homeostasis and mROS-induced bactericidal activity in Y. pestis-infected macrophages. These findings deepen the understanding of Y. pestis pathogenesis on mitochondria damage to disturb the host cellular immune elimination. Manipulating mitophagic activity or mitochondrial fission may be a novel therapeutic approach to treat plague.
    Keywords:  Yersinia pestis; YopH; mROS; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitophagy; plague
  17. J Immunol. 2022 Jun 29. pii: ji2100855. [Epub ahead of print]
      Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are implicated in host defense and inflammatory pathologies alike. A wide range of pathogen- and host-derived factors are known to induce NETs, yet the knowledge about specific receptor-ligand interactions in this response is limited. We previously reported that macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) regulates NET formation. In this article, we identify glycosphingolipid β-glucosylceramide (β-GlcCer) as a specific NET-inducing ligand of Mincle. We found that purified β-GlcCer induced NETs in mouse primary neutrophils in vitro and in vivo, and this effect was abrogated in Mincle deficiency. Cell-free β-GlcCer accumulated in the lungs of pneumonic mice, which correlated with pulmonary NET formation in wild-type, but not in Mincle-/-, mice infected intranasally with Klebsiella pneumoniae Although leukocyte infiltration by β-GlcCer administration in vivo did not require Mincle, NETs induced by this sphingolipid were important for bacterial clearance during Klebsiella infection. Mechanistically, β-GlcCer did not activate reactive oxygen species formation in neutrophils but required autophagy and glycolysis for NET formation, because ATG4 inhibitor NSC185058, as well as glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose, abrogated β-GlcCer-induced NETs. Forced autophagy activation by tamoxifen could overcome the inhibitory effect of glycolysis blockage on β-GlcCer-mediated NET formation, suggesting that autophagy activation is sufficient to induce NETs in response to this metabolite in the absence of glycolysis. Finally, β-GlcCer accumulated in the plasma of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and its levels correlated with the extent of systemic NET formation in these patients. Overall, our results posit β-GlcCer as a potent NET-inducing ligand of Mincle with diagnostic and therapeutic potential in inflammatory disease settings.
  18. Shock. 2022 Jun 01. 57(6): 191-199
      BACKGROUND: Sepsis is the leading cause of death in hospitalized children worldwide. Despite its hypothesized immune-mediated mechanism, targeted immunotherapy for sepsis is not available for clinical use.OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between longitudinal cytometric, proteomic, bioenergetic, and metabolomic markers of immunometabolic dysregulation and pathogen type in pediatric sepsis.
    METHODS: Serial peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were obtained from 14 sepsis patients (34 total samples) and 7 control patients for this observational study. Flow cytometry was used to define immunophenotype, including T cell subset frequency and activation state, and assess intracellular cytokine production. Global immune dysfunction was assessed by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production capacity and monocyte human leukocyte antigen DR (HLA-DR) expression. Mitochondrial function was assessed by bulk respirometry. Plasma cytokine levels were determined via Luminex assay. Metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results were compared by timepoint and pathogen type.
    RESULTS: Sepsis patients were older (15.9 years vs. 10.4 years, P = 0.02) and had higher illness severity by PRISM-III (12.0 vs. 2.0, P < 0.001) compared to controls; demographics were otherwise similar, though control patients were predominately male. Compared to controls, sepsis patients at timepoint 1 demonstrated lower monocyte HLA-DR expression (75% vs. 92%, P = 0.02), loss of peripheral of non-naïve CD4+ T cells (62.4% vs. 77.6%, P = 0.04), and reduced PBMC mitochondrial spare residual capacity (SRC; 4.0 pmol/s/106 cells vs. 8.4 pmol/s/106 cells, P = 0.01). At sepsis onset, immunoparalysis (defined as TNF-α production capacity < 200 pg/mL) was present in 39% of sepsis patients and not identified among controls. Metabolomic findings in sepsis patients were most pronounced at sepsis onset and included elevated uridine and 2-dehydrogluconate and depleted citrulline. Loss of peripheral non-naïve CD4+ T cells was associated with immune dysfunction and reduced cytokine production despite increased T cell activation. CD4+ T cell differentiation and corresponding pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines varied by pathogen.
    CONCLUSION: Pediatric sepsis patients exhibit a complex, dynamic physiologic state characterized by impaired T cell function and immunometabolic dysregulation which varies by pathogen type.
  19. Sci Immunol. 2022 Jul;7(73): eabq6783
      Androgen signaling compromises CD8+ T cell effector functions and contributes to sex-biased outcomes in many forms of cancer (see the related Research Article by Kwon et al.).
  20. Commun Biol. 2022 Jun 29. 5(1): 641
      Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent and chronic disorder that is associated with a substantial social and economic burden. Itaconate, as an important regulator of cellular inflammation, is a metabolite synthesised by an enzyme encoded by immune-responsive gene 1. However, there are few studys regarding the effects of itaconate on OA. Here, we show the effect of the cell-permeable itaconate derivative 4-octyl itaconate (OI) on OA. OI attenuates the chondrocyte apoptosis induced by interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in vitro, indicating that OI protect chondrocytes against apoptosis. Moreover, OI ameliorates the chondrocyte autophagy inhibition induced by IL-1β via the inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway. Finally, OI enhances autophagy and reduces cartilage degradation in a rat model of OA established by destabilization of medial meniscus (DMM). In summary, our findings reveal that OI is involved in regulating the progression of OA. The above results shed light on the treatment of OA.
  21. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 Jul 05. 119(27): e2121520119
      Activated Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells differentiate into effector Treg (eTreg) cells to maintain peripheral immune homeostasis and tolerance. T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated induction and regulation of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is essential for eTreg cell differentiation and function. However, SOCE regulation in Treg cells remains unclear. Here, we show that inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), which generates inositol tetrakisphosphate and inositol pentakisphosphate, is a pivotal regulator of Treg cell differentiation downstream of TCR signaling. IPMK is highly expressed in TCR-stimulated Treg cells and promotes a TCR-induced Treg cell program. IPMK-deficient Treg cells display aberrant T cell activation and impaired differentiation into RORγt+ Treg cells and tissue-resident Treg cells. Mechanistically, IPMK controls the generation of higher-order inositol phosphates, thereby promoting Ca2+ mobilization and Treg cell effector functions. Our findings identify IPMK as a critical regulator of TCR-mediated Ca2+ influx and highlight the importance of IPMK in Treg cell-mediated immune homeostasis.
    Keywords:  Ca2+ influx; T cell receptor signaling; inositol phosphate; inositol polyphosphate multikinase; regulatory T cells
  22. Int Immunopharmacol. 2022 Jun 28. pii: S1567-5769(22)00478-7. [Epub ahead of print]110 108994
      Growing evidence highlights that glycolysis and tumor-derived lactate could skew tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) toward an immunosuppressive phenotype. However, the updated research has not been systematically summarized yet. TAMs are educated by the tumor microenvironment (TME) and exert immunosuppressive functions and tumorigenic effects via multiple biological processes. It is well known that lactate generated by aerobic glycolysis is significantly accumulated in TME and promotes tumor progression in solid tumors. Moreover, some recent research demonstrated that glycolysis is activated in TAMs to support M2-like polarization, which is absolutely in contrast with the metabolic profile of M2 macrophages in inflammation. Notably, lactate produced by high levels of glycolysis is not only a metabolic by-product but also an oncometabolite. TAMs could access the biological information delivered by lactate and further enhance protumor functions such as immunosuppression and angiogenesis. Here, we outline the connection between glycolysis and TAM phenotype to elucidate the metabolic characteristics of TAMs. Further, insights into the specific molecular mechanisms of lactate-induced TAM polarization and potential therapeutic targets are summarized. We sought to discuss the reciprocal interaction between tumor cells and TAMs mediated by lactate, which will lay a foundation for the research aiming to elucidate the complex functions of TAMs.
    Keywords:  G Protein-Coupled Receptor; Glycolysis; Lactate; Monocarboxylate Transporter; Tumor Microenvironment; Tumor-associated Macrophage
  23. Sci Transl Med. 2022 Jun 29. 14(651): eabg7504
      The role of tissue-resident macrophages during tissue regeneration or fibrosis is not well understood, mainly due to the lack of a specific marker for their identification. Here, we identified three populations of skeletal muscle-resident myelomonocytic cells: a population of macrophages positive for lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor 1 (LYVE1) and T cell membrane protein 4 (TIM4 or TIMD4), a population of LYVE1-TIM4- macrophages, and a population of cells likely representing dendritic cells that were positive for CD11C and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII). Using a combination of parabiosis and lineage-tracing experiments, we found that, at steady state, TIM4- macrophages were replenished from the blood, whereas TIM4+ macrophages locally self-renewed [self-renewing resident macrophages (SRRMs)]. We further showed that Timd4 could be reliably used to distinguish SRRMs from damage-induced infiltrating macrophages. Using a colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) inhibition/withdrawal approach to specifically deplete SRRMs, we found that SRRMs provided a nonredundant function in clearing damage-induced apoptotic cells early after extensive acute injury. In contrast, in chronic mild injury as seen in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, depletion of both TIM4-- and TIM4+-resident macrophage populations through long-term CSF1R inhibition changed muscle fiber composition from damage-sensitive glycolytic fibers toward damage-resistant glycolytic-oxidative fibers, thereby protecting muscle against contraction-induced injury both ex vivo and in vivo. This work reveals a previously unidentified role for resident macrophages in modulating tissue metabolism and may have therapeutic potential given the ongoing clinical testing of CSF1R inhibitors.