bims-imicid Biomed News
on Immunometabolism of infection, cancer and immune-mediated disease
Issue of 2022‒04‒10
twenty-one papers selected by
Dylan Ryan
University of Cambridge

  1. Nat Commun. 2022 Apr 04. 13(1): 1789
      The metabolic principles underlying the differences between follicular and marginal zone B cells (FoB and MZB, respectively) are not well understood. Here we show, by studying mice with B cell-specific ablation of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclc), that glutathione synthesis affects homeostasis and differentiation of MZB to a larger extent than FoB, while glutathione-dependent redox control contributes to the metabolic dependencies of FoB. Specifically, Gclc ablation in FoB induces metabolic features of wild-type MZB such as increased ATP levels, glucose metabolism, mTOR activation, and protein synthesis. Furthermore, Gclc-deficient FoB have a block in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) due to diminished complex I and II activity and thereby accumulate the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolite succinate. Finally, Gclc deficiency hampers FoB activation and antibody responses in vitro and in vivo, and induces susceptibility to viral infections. Our results thus suggest that Gclc is required to ensure the development of MZB, the mitochondrial ETC integrity in FoB, and the efficacy of antiviral humoral immunity.
  2. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2022 Apr 07.
      Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) exist in multiple phenotypes across the spectrum, defined by an M1 antitumorigenic phenotype and an M2 pro-tumorigenic phenotype on two ends of the spectrum. A largely immunosuppressive tumor-microenvironment aids the polarization of the infiltrating macrophages to a pro-tumorigenic M2 phenotype that promotes tumor progression and metastasis. Recent developments in macrophage immunotherapy have focused on strategies to re-educate TAMs from an M2 to M1 phenotype. Recent findings in the realm of immuno-metabolism have indicated that distinct metabolic signatures accompany macrophages based on their polarization states (M1-Glycolysis and M2-TCA cycle). These metabolites are important drivers of cellular signaling responsible for acquiring these polarization states, with evidence showing that metabolism is essential to facilitate the energy requirements of immune cells and regulate immune cell response. We hypothesized that TAMs could be reprogrammed metabolically by co-delivery of drugs using a supramolecular nanoparticle system that could effectively rewire macrophage metabolism by simultaneous inhibition of the TCA cycle and upregulation of the glycolytic metabolic pathway. TLR7/8 agonist and Fatty Acid Oxidation (FAO) inhibitor loaded metabolic supramolecular nanoparticles (MSNPs) were synthesized. In vitro assays showed macrophages treated with MSNPs were reprogrammed from an M2 phenotype to an M1 phenotype while significantly upregulating phagocytosis. When injected in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice, MSNPs treatment reduced tumor growth progression more than other treatments. Hence, the delivery of TLR7/8 agonist combined with an FAO inhibitor can enhance antitumor efficacy through metabolic reprogramming of tumor-associated macrophages.
    Keywords:  cancer; combination; immunotherapy; macrophage; metabolic reprogramming
  3. Immunometabolism. 2022 ;pii: e220007. [Epub ahead of print]4(2):
      Programmed Death-1 (PD-1; CD279) is an inhibitory receptor induced in several activated immune cells and, after engagement with its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2, serves as a key mediator of peripheral tolerance. However, PD-1 signaling also has detrimental effects on T cell function by posing breaks on antitumor and antiviral immunity. PD-1 blocking immunotherapy either alone or in combination with other therapeutic modalities has shown great promise in cancer treatment. However, it is unclear why only a small fraction of patients responds to this type of therapy. For this reason, efforts to better understand the mechanisms of PD-1 function have recently been intensified, with the goal to reveal new strategies to overcome current limitations. The signaling pathways that are inhibited by PD-1 impact key regulators of metabolism. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge about the effects of PD-1 on metabolic reprogramming of immune cells and their consequences on systemic metabolism.
    Keywords:  PD-1; T cell exhaustion; T cells; adaptive and innate immunity; immunometabolism; metabolic reprogramming
  4. Front Allergy. 2022 ;3 825931
    Keywords:  Warburg; allergy; immune effector molecules; immune metabolism; metabolic state
  5. Cancer Discov. 2022 Apr 01. 12(4): 883
      Microbial metabolites promote pancreatic tumor growth through effects on macrophage polarization.
  6. Cell Rep. 2022 Apr 05. pii: S2211-1247(22)00357-6. [Epub ahead of print]39(1): 110609
      Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major cellular component in the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, the relationship between the phenotype and metabolic pattern of TAMs remains poorly understood. We performed single-cell transcriptome profiling on hepatic TAMs from mice bearing liver metastatic tumors. We find that TAMs manifest high heterogeneity at the levels of transcription, development, metabolism, and function. Integrative analyses and validation experiments indicate that increased purine metabolism is a feature of TAMs with pro-tumor and terminal differentiation phenotypes. Like mouse TAMs, human TAMs are highly heterogeneous. Human TAMs with increased purine metabolism exhibit a pro-tumor phenotype and correlate with poor therapeutic efficacy to immune checkpoint blockade. Altogether, our work demonstrates that TAMs are developmentally, metabolically, and functionally heterogeneous and purine metabolism may be a key metabolic feature of a pro-tumor macrophage population.
    Keywords:  CP: Cancer; CP: Metabolism; cancer; checkpoint; immunosuppression; immunotherapy; liver; macrophage; metabolism; purine; single-cell RNA sequencing; tumor microenvironment
  7. Cell Metab. 2022 Apr 05. pii: S1550-4131(22)00095-X. [Epub ahead of print]34(4): 503-505
      In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Hochrein et al. identify a metabolic checkpoint controlling the transcriptional programming of effector CD4+ T cells. The authors show that GLUT3-mediated glucose import and ACLY-dependent acetyl-CoA generation control histone acetylation and, hence, the epigenetic imprinting of effector gene expression in differentiated effector CD4+ T cells. These findings suggest a novel therapeutic target for inflammation-associated diseases.
  8. Cardiovasc Res. 2022 Apr 07. pii: cvac058. [Epub ahead of print]
      The influence of cellular metabolism on epigenetic pathways are well documented but misunderstood. Scientists have long known of the metabolic impact on epigenetic determinants. More often than not, that title role for DNA methylation was portrayed by the metabolite SAM or S-adenosylmethionine. Technically speaking there are many other metabolites that drive epigenetic processes that instruct seemingly distant - yet highly connect pathways - and none more so than our understanding of the cancer epigenome. Recent studies have shown that available energy link the extracellular environment to influence cellular responses. This focused review examines the recent interest in epigenomics and casts cancer, metabolism and immunity in unfamiliar roles - cooperating. There are not only language lessons from cancer research, we have come round to appreciate that reaching into areas previously thought of as too distinct are also object lessons in understanding health and disease. The Warburg effect is one such signature of how glycolysis influences metabolic shift during oncogenesis. That shift in metabolism - now recognised as central to proliferation in cancer biology - influence core enzymes that not only control gene expression but are also central to replication, condensation and the repair of nucleic acid. These nuclear processes rely on metabolism and with glucose at center stage the role of respiration and oxidative metabolism are now synonymous with the mitochondria as the powerhouses of metaboloepigenetics. The emerging evidence for metaboloepigenetics in trained innate immunity has revealed recognisable signalling pathways with antecedent extracellular stimulation. With due consideration to immunometabolism we discuss the striking signalling similarities influencing these core pathways. The immunometabolic-epigenetic axis in cardiovascular disease has deeply etched connections with inflammation and we examine the chromatin template as a carrier of epigenetic indices that determine the expression of genes influencing atherosclerosis and vascular complications of diabetes.
    Keywords:  Metabolism; cardiovascular disease; diabetes; epigenetics; glycolysis; metaboloepigenetics; trained immunity
  9. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2022 Apr 02. 15353702221084632
      The accumulation of free cholesterol in macrophage lysosomes significantly enhances atherogenesis. Our recent study demonstrated that the cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38)/nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP)/Ca2+ signaling pathway plays a critical role in the efflux of lysosomal free cholesterol from macrophages in atherosclerosis. Niacin, known as nicotinic acid, is one of the oldest lipid-lowering medications showing unique anti-atherosclerotic activity. However, it is unknown whether this anti-atherosclerosis activity is associated with the efflux of lysosomal compartmentalized cholesterol in macrophages. In this study, we investigated the anti-atherosclerotic effects of niacin on the reduction of lysosomal free cholesterol via CD38/NAADP signaling in macrophages derived from low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr-/-) mice. Fluorescent filipin and Nile red labeling coupled with confocal microscopy demonstrated that niacin reduced free cholesterol accumulation in lysosomes in a concentration-dependent manner. Transmission electron microscopy also showed that niacin markedly decreased cholesterol crystal formation in lysosomes in oxidized LDL-containing LDLr-/- bone marrow-derived macrophages. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that niacin increased NAADP production in a concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by small interfering RNA interference of CD38. Therefore, niacin may promote the efflux of lysosomal cholesterol from macrophages via the CD38/NAADP signaling pathway.
    Keywords:  Niacin; atherosclerosis; cholesterol; cluster of differentiation 38/nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate; low-density lipoprotein receptor −/− mice; lysosome
  10. J Clin Invest. 2022 Apr 07. pii: e154217. [Epub ahead of print]
      Subendothelial macrophage internalization of modified lipids and foam cell formation are hallmarks of atherosclerosis. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are involved in various cellular activities; however, their role in foam cell formation is not fully understood. Here, using a loss-of-function lipid accumulation screening, we identified ubiquitin-specific peptidase 9 X-linked (USP9X) as a factor that suppressed lipid uptake in macrophages. We found that USP9X expression in lesional macrophages was reduced during atherosclerosis development in both humans and rodents. Atherosclerotic lesions from macrophage USP9X-deficient mice showed increased macrophage infiltration, lipid deposition, and necrotic core content than control apolipoprotein E-knockout (Apoe-/-) mice. Additionally, loss-of-function USP9X exacerbated lipid uptake, foam cell formation and inflammatory responses in macrophages. Mechanistically, the class A1 scavenger receptor (SR-A1) was identified as a USP9X substrate that removed the K63 polyubiquitin chain at the K27 site. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of USP9X increased SR-A1 cell surface internalization following binding of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). The K27R mutation of SR-A1 dramatically attenuated basal and USP9X knockdown-induced ox-LDL uptake. Moreover, blocking binding of USP9X to SR-A1 with a cell-penetrating peptide exacerbated foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. In this study, we identified macrophage USP9X as a beneficial regulator of atherosclerosis and revealed the specific mechanisms for the development of potential therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis.
    Keywords:  Atherosclerosis; Cardiology; Immunology; Macrophages; Ubiquitin-proteosome system
  11. J Immunol. 2022 Apr 06. pii: ji2100356. [Epub ahead of print]
      Several studies have shown an enhanced metabolism in the CD4+ T cells of lupus patients and lupus-prone mice. Little is known about the metabolism of B cells in lupus. In this study, we compared the metabolism of B cells between lupus-prone B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 triple-congenic mice and C57BL/6 controls at steady state relative to autoantibody production, as well as during T cell-dependent (TD) and T cell-independent (TI) immunizations. Starting before the onset of autoimmunity, B cells from triple-congenic mice showed an elevated glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, which were normalized in vivo by inhibiting glycolysis with a 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) treatment. 2DG greatly reduced the production of TI-Ag-specific Abs, but showed minimal effect with TD-Ags. In contrast, the inhibition of glutaminolysis with 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine had a greater effect on TD than TI-Ag-specific Abs in both strains. Analysis of the TI and TD responses in purified B cells in vitro suggests, however, that the glutaminolysis requirement is not B cell-intrinsic. Thus, B cells have a greater requirement for glycolysis in TI than TD responses, as inferred from pharmacological interventions. B cells from lupus-prone and control mice have different intrinsic metabolic requirements or different responses toward 2DG and 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine, which mirrors our previous results obtained with follicular Th cells. Overall, these results predict that targeting glucose metabolism may provide an effective therapeutic approach for systemic autoimmunity by eliminating both autoreactive follicular Th and B cells, although it may also impair TI responses.
  12. Cell Death Dis. 2022 Apr 04. 13(4): 302
      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Although neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are well-recognized features of AD, their correlations with the early molecular events characterizing the pathology are not yet well clarified. Here, we characterize the role of RAGE-TXNIP axis in neuroinflammation in relation to amyloid-beta (Aβ) burden in both in vivo and in vitro models. In the hippocampus of 5xFAD mice microglial activation, cytokine secretion, and glial fibrillary acidic protein-enhanced expression are paralleled with increased TXNIP expression. TXNIP silencing or its pharmacological inhibition prevents neuroinflammation in those mice. TXNIP is also associated with RAGE and Aβ. In particular, RAGE-TXNIP axis is required for targeting Aβ in mitochondria, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Silencing of TXNIP or inhibition of RAGE activation reduces Aβ transport from the cellular surface to mitochondria, restores mitochondrial functionality, and mitigates Aβ toxicity. Furthermore, Aβ shuttling into mitochondria promotes Drp1 activation and exacerbates mitochondrial dysfunction, which induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to secretion of IL-1β and activation of the pyroptosis-associated protein Gasdermin D (GSDMD). Downregulation of RAGE-TXNIP axis inhibits Aβ-induced mitochondria dysfunction, inflammation, and induction of GSDMD. Herein we unveil a new pathway driven by TXNIP that links the mitochondrial transport of Aβ to the activation of Drp1 and the NLRP3 inflammasome, promoting the secretion of IL-1β and the pyroptosis pathway associated with GSDMD cleavage. Altogether these data shed new light on a novel mechanism of action of RAGE-TXNIP axis in microglia, which is intertwined with Aβ and ultimately causes mitochondria dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome cascade activation, suggesting TXNIP as a druggable target to be better deepened for AD.
  13. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2022 Apr 01.
      PURPOSE: Chronic exercise training is known to induce metabolic changes, but whether these adaptations extend to lymphocytes and how this may impact immune function remains largely unknown. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which mitochondrial characteristics of naïve T cells differ according to fitness status and to further examine energy production pathways of cells from aerobically trained and inactive participants.METHODS: Blood was collected from 30 aerobically active (>six hours per week) or inactive (<90 min per week) men and women. Naïve T cell mitochondrial mass, membrane potential, and biogenesis were assessed with flow cytometry. Participants completed a treadmill maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak) test and wore a physical activity monitor for one week. In a subset of participants, naïve CD8+ T cell activation-induced glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP production was measured.
    RESULTS: Active participants exhibited 16.7% more naïve CD8+ T cell mitochondrial mass (p = 0.046), 34% greater daily energy expenditure (p < 0.001), and 39.6% higher relative VO2peak (p < 0.001), along with 33.9% lower relative body fatness (p < 0.001). Among all participants, naïve CD8+ T cell mitochondrial mass was correlated with estimated energy expenditure (r = 0.36, p = 0.048) and VO2peak (r = 0.47, p = 0.009). There were no significant differences in ATP production, mitochondrial biogenesis, or mitochondrial membrane potential between active and inactive groups.
    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine the effects of aerobic exercise training status on metabolic parameters within human naïve T cells. Findings suggest that mitochondrial adaptations in certain immune cell types are positively associated with aerobic fitness and energy expenditure. This study provides a foundation for future development of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions targeting specific immune cell subsets to improve the immune response and overall health.
  14. Nat Commun. 2022 Apr 06. 13(1): 1870
      Inflammation, including reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines in tissues amplify various post-translational modifications of self-proteins. A number of post-translational modifications have been identified as autoimmune biomarkers in the initiation and progression of Type 1 diabetes. Here we show the citrullination of pancreatic glucokinase as a result of inflammation, triggering autoimmunity and affecting glucokinase biological functions. Glucokinase is expressed in hepatocytes to regulate glycogen synthesis, and in pancreatic beta cells as a glucose sensor to initiate glycolysis and insulin signaling. We identify autoantibodies and autoreactive CD4+ T cells to glucokinase epitopes in the circulation of Type 1 diabetes patients and NOD mice. Finally, citrullination alters glucokinase biologic activity and suppresses glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Our study define glucokinase as a Type 1 diabetes biomarker, providing new insights of how inflammation drives post-translational modifications to create both neoautoantigens and affect beta cell metabolism.
  15. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2022 ;2022 5210870
      Introduction: Many Asian cohort studies have shown that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), now renamed as metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), increases the risk of osteoporosis, yet the effect of MAFLD on elderly patients with osteopenia (OPe) has not been reported.Objective: This study aimed to explore the influence of MAFLD on the function of macrophages in patients with OPe.
    Methods: A total of 107 elderly OPe patients with or without MAFLD who visited the Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University (Shanghai, China) between January 1st, 2021, and September 30th, 2021, were evaluated for an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, as well as clinical and biological assessments.
    Results: Comparing two groups of elderly patients with the same bone mass level, we found that the six-minute walking distance (P = 0.012) and short physical performance battery (SPPB) score (P = 0.0029) of the elderly OPe patients with MAFLD are worse than those in OPe patients without MAFLD. Our results confirmed that the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) in peripheral blood of OPe patients with MAFLD was significantly higher than those without. We also observed the mitochondrial metabolism level of peripheral blood-derived macrophages in the included patients and peripheral blood macrophages in patients with MAFLD with more unbalanced mitochondrial dynamics of macrophages, more weakened mitochondrial respiratory capacity, and greater mitochondrial microstructure damage, when compared with the elderly patients without MAFLD.
    Conclusions: To conclude, our data revealed that MAFLD itself may aggravate the inflammatory state in elderly OPe people due to mitochondrial homeostasis imbalance of peripheral blood macrophages. Damaged monocyte-macrophages might trigger attenuation of the walking ability of OPe patients.
  16. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 Mar 24. pii: S0006-291X(22)00455-7. [Epub ahead of print]607 103-109
      A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic events play essential roles in the development of liver fibrosis. Immune response gene 1 (IRG1) catalyzes the generation of itaconate, which function as a metabolic checkpoint under several pathological circumstances. In the present study, the hepatic level of IRG1 was determined in mice with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. And then the pathological significance of IRG1 and the pharmacological potential of 4-octyl itaconate (4-OI), a cell-permeable derivate of itaconate, in liver fibrosis were investigated in mice. The results indicated that the hepatic level of IRG1 was upregulated in mice with liver fibrosis. CCl4-induced formation of fibrotic septa and deposition of collagen was aggravated in IRG1 KO mice. IRG1 deletion also resulted in increased expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), enhanced phosphorylation of Smad3, elevated level of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and hydroxyproline, which were associated with compromised activation of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant system and exacerbated oxidative stress. Interestingly, supplementation with 4-OI activated Nrf2 pathway, suppressed TGF-β1 signaling and attenuated fibrogenesis. Our data indicated that upregulation of IRG1 might function as a protective response during the development of liver fibrosis, and 4-OI might have potential value for the pharmacological intervention of liver fibrosis.
    Keywords:  4-Octyl itaconate; Carbon tetrachloride; Immune response gene 1; Itaconate; Liver fibrosis
  17. Sci Rep. 2022 Apr 05. 12(1): 5648
      Essential fatty acids (EFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are unsaturated fatty acids with immune-modulatory effects, yet their synergistic effect is poorly understood in dairy cows. This study aimed at identifying differentially abundant proteins (DAP) and their associated pathways in dairy cows supplied with a combination of EFA and CLA during the transition from antepartum (AP) to early postpartum (PP). Sixteen Holstein cows were abomasally infused with coconut oil as a control (CTRL) or a mixture of EFA (linseed + safflower oil) and CLA (Lutalin, BASF) (EFA + CLA) from - 63 to + 63 days relative to parturition. Label-free quantitative proteomics was performed on plasma samples collected at days - 21, + 1, + 28, and + 63. During the transition time, DAP, consisting of a cluster of apolipoproteins (APO), including APOE, APOH, and APOB, along with a cluster of immune-related proteins, were related to complement and coagulation cascades, inflammatory response, and cholesterol metabolism. In response to EFA + CLA, specific APO comprising APOC3, APOA1, APOA4, and APOC4 were increased in a time-dependent manner; they were linked to triglyceride-enriched lipoprotein metabolisms and immune function. Altogether, these results provide new insights into metabolic and immune adaptation and crosstalk between them in transition dairy cows divergent in EFA + CLA status.
  18. Cell Res. 2022 Apr 04.
      Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs) reside within specialized niches at the crypt base and harbor self-renewal and differentiation capacities. ISCs in the crypt base are sustained by their surrounding niche for precise modulation of self-renewal and differentiation. However, how intestinal cells in the crypt niche and microbiota in enteric cavity coordinately regulate ISC stemness remains unclear. Here, we show that ISCs are regulated by microbiota and niche enteric serotonergic neurons. The gut microbiota metabolite valeric acid promotes Tph2 expression in enteric serotonergic neurons via blocking the recruitment of the NuRD complex onto Tph2 promoter. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in turn activates PGE2 production in a PGE2+ macrophage subset through its receptors HTR2A/3 A; and PGE2 via binding its receptors EP1/EP4, promotes Wnt/β-catenin signaling in ISCs to promote their self-renewal. Our findings illustrate a complex crosstalk among microbiota, intestinal nerve cells, intestinal immune cells and ISCs, revealing a new layer of ISC regulation by niche cells and microbiota.
  19. Elife. 2022 Apr 05. pii: e75424. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Cellular respiration is essential for multiple bacterial pathogens and a validated antibiotic target. In addition to driving oxidative phosphorylation, bacterial respiration has a variety of ancillary functions that obscure its contribution to pathogenesis. We find here that the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes encodes two respiratory pathways which are partially functionally redundant and indispensable for pathogenesis. Loss of respiration decreased NAD+ regeneration, but this could be specifically reversed by heterologous expression of a water-forming NADH oxidase (NOX). NOX expression fully rescued intracellular growth defects and increased L. monocytogenes loads >1,000-fold in a mouse infection model. Consistent with NAD+ regeneration maintaining L. monocytogenes viability and enabling immune evasion, a respiration-deficient strain exhibited elevated bacteriolysis within the host cytosol and NOX expression rescued this phenotype. These studies show that NAD+ regeneration represents a major role of L. monocytogenes respiration and highlight the nuanced relationship between bacterial metabolism, physiology, and pathogenesis.
    Keywords:  biochemistry; chemical biology; infectious disease; microbiology