bims-hypusi Biomed News
on Hypusine and eIF5A
Issue of 2023‒10‒22
one paper selected by
Sebastian J. Hofer, University of Graz

  1. Infect Immun. 2023 Oct 20. e0023623
      Clostridioides difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial gastrointestinal tract bacterial infections. We lack fully effective reliable treatments for this pathogen, and there is a critical need to better understand how C. difficile interacts with our immune system. Group 3 innate lymphocytes (ILC3s) are rare immune cells localized within mucosal tissues that protect against bacterial infections. Upon activation, ILC3s secrete high levels of the cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22), which is a critical regulator of tissue responses during infection. C. difficile toxin B (TcdB), the major virulence factor, directly activates ILC3s, resulting in high IL-22 levels. We previously reported that polyamines are important in the activation of ILC3s by the innate cytokine interleukin-23 (IL-23) but did not identify a specific mechanism. In this study, we examine how a pathogen impacts a metabolic pathway important for immune cell function and hypothesized that polyamines are important in TcdB-mediated ILC3 activation. We show that TcdB upregulates the polyamine biosynthesis pathway, and the inhibition of the pathway decreases TcdB-mediated ILC3 activation. Two polyamines, putrescine and spermidine, are involved. Spermidine is the key polyamine in the hypusination of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), and the inhibition of eIF5A reduced ILC3 activation. Thus, there is potential to leverage polyamines in ILC3s to promote activation of ILC3s during C. difficile infection and other bacterial infections where ILC3s serve a protective role.
    Keywords:  Clostridioides difficile; bacterial toxins; cytokines; innate lymphocytes; polyamines