bims-hypusi Biomed News
on Hypusine and eIF5A
Issue of 2023‒02‒26
four papers selected by
Sebastian J. Hofer
University of Graz

  1. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2023 Jan 29. pii: 52. [Epub ahead of print]10(2):
      Cardiac fibrosis is a primary contributor to heart failure (HF), and is considered to be a targetable process for HF therapy. Cardiac fibroblast (CF) activation accompanied by excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) production is central to the initiation and maintenance of fibrotic scarring in cardiac fibrosis. However, therapeutic compounds targeting CF activation remain limited in treating cardiac fibrosis. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), upon being hypusinated, is essential for the translation elongation of proline-codon rich mRNAs. In this study, we found that increased hypusinated eIF5A protein levels were associated with cardiac fibrosis and heart dysfunction in myocardial infarction (MI) mouse models. Ciclopirox (CPX), an FDA-approved antifungal drug, inhibits the deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) enzyme required for eIF5A hypusination. Results from preventive and reversal mouse models suggest that CPX treatment significantly reduced MI-driven cardiac fibrosis and improved cardiac function. In vitro studies of isolated mouse primary CFs revealed that inhibition of eIF5A hypusination using CPX significantly abolished TGFβ induced CF proliferation, activation, and collagen expression. Proteomic analysis from mouse CFs reveals that CPX downregulates the expression of proline-rich proteins that are enriched in extracellular matrix and cell adhesion pathways. Our findings are relevant to human heart disease, as increased hypusinated eIF5A levels were observed in heart samples of ischemic heart failure patients compared to healthy subjects. Together, these results suggest that CPX can be repurposed to treat cardiac fibrosis and ischemic heart failure.
    Keywords:  ECM; ciclopirox; collagen; eIF5A; fibroblast; fibrosis; heart failure; translational control
  2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 Feb 28. 120(9): e2214165120
      Viruses produce more viruses by manipulating the metabolic and replication systems of their host cells. Many have acquired metabolic genes from ancestral hosts and use the encoded enzymes to subvert host metabolism. The polyamine spermidine is required for bacteriophage and eukaryotic virus replication, and herein, we have identified and functionally characterized diverse phage- and virus-encoded polyamine metabolic enzymes and pathways. These include pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), pyruvoyl-dependent ODC and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), arginase, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC/speD), spermidine synthase, homospermidine synthase, spermidine N-acetyltransferase, and N-acetylspermidine amidohydrolase. We identified homologs of the spermidine-modified translation factor eIF5a encoded by giant viruses of the Imitervirales. Although AdoMetDC/speD is prevalent among marine phages, some homologs have lost AdoMetDC activity and have evolved into pyruvoyl-dependent ADC or ODC. The pelagiphages that encode the pyruvoyl-dependent ADCs infect the abundant ocean bacterium Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique, which we have found encodes a PLP-dependent ODC homolog that has evolved into an ADC, indicating that infected cells would contain both PLP- and pyruvoyl-dependent ADCs. Complete or partial spermidine or homospermidine biosynthetic pathways are found encoded in the giant viruses of the Algavirales and Imitervirales, and in addition, some viruses of the Imitervirales can release spermidine from the inactive N-acetylspermidine. In contrast, diverse phages encode spermidine N-acetyltransferase that can sequester spermidine into its inactive N-acetyl form. Together, the virome-encoded enzymes and pathways for biosynthesis and release or biochemical sequestration of spermidine or its structural analog homospermidine consolidate and expand evidence supporting an important and global role of spermidine in virus biology.
    Keywords:  bacteriophage; polyamine; putrescine; spermidine; virus
  3. bioRxiv. 2023 Feb 16. pii: 2023.02.15.528768. [Epub ahead of print]
      A translating ribosome is typically thought to follow the reading frame defined by the selected start codon. Using super-resolution ribosome profiling, here we report pervasive out-of-frame translation immediately from the start codon. The start codon-associated ribosome frameshifting (SCARF) stems from the slippage of ribosomes during the transition from initiation to elongation. Using a massively paralleled reporter assay, we uncovered sequence elements acting as SCARF enhancers or repressors, implying that start codon recognition is coupled with reading frame fidelity. This finding explains thousands of mass spectrometry spectra unannotated from human proteome. Mechanistically, we find that the eukaryotic initiation factor 5B (eIF5B) maintains the reading frame fidelity by stabilizing initiating ribosomes. Intriguingly, amino acid starvation induces SCARF by proteasomal degradation of eIF5B. The stress-induced SCARF protects cells from starvation by enabling amino acid recycling and selective mRNA translation. Our findings illustrate a beneficial effect of translational "noise" in nutrient stress adaptation.
  4. Mol Cell. 2023 Feb 16. pii: S1097-2765(23)00072-2. [Epub ahead of print]83(4): 607-621.e4
      Ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) is a conserved process degrading potentially toxic truncated nascent peptides whose malfunction underlies neurodegeneration and proteostasis decline in aging. During RQC, dissociation of stalled ribosomes is followed by elongation of the nascent peptide with alanine and threonine residues, driven by Rqc2 independently of mRNA, the small ribosomal subunit and guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-hydrolyzing factors. The resulting CAT tails (carboxy-terminal tails) and ubiquitination by Ltn1 mark nascent peptides for proteasomal degradation. Here we present ten cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures, revealing the mechanistic basis of individual steps of the CAT tailing cycle covering initiation, decoding, peptidyl transfer, and tRNA translocation. We discovered eIF5A as a crucial eukaryotic RQC factor enabling peptidyl transfer. Moreover, we observed dynamic behavior of RQC factors and tRNAs allowing for processivity of the CAT tailing cycle without additional energy input. Together, these results elucidate key differences as well as common principles between CAT tailing and canonical translation.
    Keywords:  Listerin; Ltn1; NEMF; Rqc1; Rqc2; eIF5A; peptidyl transfer, P/P(∗) tRNA; ribosome-associated quality control; translation