bims-flamet Biomed News
on Cytokines and immunometabolism in metastasis
Issue of 2023‒07‒02
28 papers selected by
Peio Azcoaga
Biodonostia HRI

  1. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2023 Jun 26. pii: S0165-6147(23)00132-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Ferroptosis is a distinct form of cell death driven by the accumulation of peroxidized lipids. Characterized by alterations in redox lipid metabolism, ferroptosis has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including cancer. Induction of ferroptosis is considered a novel way to kill tumor cells, especially cells resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. However, in recent years, a new paradigm has emerged. In addition to promoting tumor cell death, ferroptosis causes potent immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME) by affecting both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this review, we discuss the dual role of ferroptosis in the antitumor and protumorigenic functions of immune cells in cancer. We suggest strategies for targeting ferroptosis, taking onto account its ambiguous role in cancer.
    Keywords:  MDSC; cancer; ferroptosis; macrophages; monocytes; neutrophils
  2. Cell Metab. 2023 Jun 20. pii: S1550-4131(23)00213-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      Metabolic programming in the tumor microenvironment (TME) alters tumor immunity and immunotherapeutic response in tumor-bearing mice and patients with cancer. Here, we review immune-related functions of core metabolic pathways, key metabolites, and crucial nutrient transporters in the TME, discuss their metabolic, signaling, and epigenetic impact on tumor immunity and immunotherapy, and explore how these insights can be applied to the development of more effective modalities to potentiate the function of T cells and sensitize tumor cell receptivity to immune attack, thereby overcoming therapeutic resistance.
    Keywords:  T cell; checkpoint; immunotherapy; metabolism; metabolite; tumor microenvironment
  3. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1183578
      Immunotherapy has revolutionized cancer care in the past decade. Treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors has demonstrated promising clinical activity against tumors. However, only a subset of patients responds to these treatments, limiting their potential benefit. Efforts to understand, predict, and overcome the lack of response in patients, have thus far focused mainly on the tumor immunogenicity and the quantity and characteristics of tumor-infiltrating T cells, since these cells are the main effectors of immunotherapies. However, recent comprehensive analyses of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in the context of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy have revealed critical functions of other immune cells in the effective anti-tumor response, highlighting the need to account for complex cell-cell interaction and communication underlying clinical outputs. In this perspective, I discuss the current understanding of the crucial roles of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the success of T cell-directed immune checkpoint blockade therapies, as well as the present, and the future of clinical trials on combinatorial therapies targeting both cell types.
    Keywords:  cancer; combination therapy; immunotherapy; tumor microenvironment; tumor-associated macrophages
  4. Front Oncol. 2023 ;13 1158857
      Introduction: Tumor progression is driven by intrinsic malignant behaviors caused by gene mutation or epigenetic modulation, as well as crosstalk with the components in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Considering the current understanding of the tumor microenvironment, targeting the immunomodulatory stromal cells such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) could provide a potential therapeutic strategy. Here, we investigated the effect of sulfatinib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of FGFR1, CSF1R, and VEGFR1-3, on the treatment of osteosarcoma (OS).Methods: In vitro, the antitumor effect was tested by clony formation assay and apoptosis assay.The inhibition of tumor migration and invasion was detected by Transwell assay, and the de-polarization of macrophage was detected by flow cytometry.In vivo, subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor models were established to verify antitumor effect, and the underlying mechanism was verified by immunohistochemistry(IHC), immunofluorescence(IF) and flow cytometry.
    Results: Sulfatinib suppressed OS cell migration and invasion by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by blocking the secretion of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in an autocrine manner. In addition, it regulated immune TME via inhibition of the migration of skeletal stem cells (SSCs) to the TME and the differentiation from SSCs to CAFs. Moreover, sulfatinib can suppress OS by modulation of the TME by inhibiting M2 polarization of macrophages. Systemic treatment of sulfatinib can reduce immunosuppression cells M2-TAMs, Tregs, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and increase cytotoxic T-cell infiltration in tumors, the lungs, and the spleens.
    Discussion: Our preclinical experiments have shown that sulfatinib can inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OS by playing a dual role on tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment simultaneously and systematically reverse immunosuppression to immune activation status, which could be translated into clinical trials.
    Keywords:  cancer-associated fibroblast; osteosarcoma; sulfatinib; targeted therapy; tumor microenvironment; tumor-associated macrophage
  5. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2023 Jun 26.
      Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease at the molecular level thus, it can be hypothesized that different molecular subtypes differ in their tumor microenvironment (TME) also. Understanding the TME heterogeneity may provide new prognostic biomarkers and new targets for cancer therapy. For deciphering heterogeneity in the TME, immunohistochemistry for immune markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, CD163, and programmed death-ligand 1), Cancer-associated fibroblast markers [anti-fibroblast activating protein α (FAP-α), platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFR-α), S100A4, Neuron-glial antigen 2, and Caveolin-1], and angiogenesis (CD31) was performed on tissue microarrays of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. High CD3+ T cells were noted in the Luminal B subtype (P=0.002) of which the majority were CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. Programmed death-ligand 1 expression in immune cells was highest in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2)-positive and Luminal B subtypes compared with the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype (P=0.003). Her-2 subtype is rich in M2 tumor-associated macrophages (P=0.000) compared with TNBC and Luminal B subtypes. M2 immune microenvironment correlated with high tumor grade and high Ki-67. Her-2 and TNBC subtypes are rich in extracellular matrix remodeling (FAP-α, P=0.003), angiogenesis-promoting (PDGFR-α; P=0.000) and invasion markers (Neuron-glial antigen 2, P=0.000; S100A4, P=0.07) compared with Luminal subtypes. Mean Microvessel density showed an increasing trend: Luminal A>Luminal B>Her-2 positive>TNBC; however, this difference was not statistically significant. The cancer-associated fibroblasts (FAP-α, PDGFR-α, and Neuron-glial antigen 2) showed a positive correlation with lymph node metastasis in specific subtypes. Immune cells, tumor-associated macrophage, and cancer-associated fibroblast-related stromal markers showed higher expression in Luminal B, Her-2 positive, and TNBC respectively. This differential expression of different components of TME indicates heterogeneity of the TME across molecular subtypes of breast cancer.
  6. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2023 ;11 1211687
      Adoptive cell immunotherapy, especially chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cells therapy, has made great progress in the clinical treatment of hematological malignancies. However, restricted by the complex tumor microenvironment, the potential efficiency of T-cell infiltration and activated immune cells are limited, thus failure prevented the progression of the solid tumor. Alternatively, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), one sustentacular and heterogeneous cellular population within the tumor microenvironment, are regarded as potential therapeutic targets. Recently, CARs have shown tremendous promise in treating malignancies by equipping macrophages. This novel therapeutic strategy circumvents the tumor microenvironment's limitations and provides a safer therapeutic approach. Meanwhile, nanobiomaterials as gene delivery carriers not only substantially reduce the treatment cost of this novel therapeutic strategy, but also set the foundation for in vivo CAR-M therapy. Here, we highlight the major strategies prepared for CAR-M, emphasizing the challenges and opportunities of these approaches. First, the common therapeutic strategies for macrophages are summarized in clinical and preclinical trials. Namely, TAM-targeted therapeutic strategies: 1) Inhibit monocyte or macrophage recruitment into tumors, 2) deplete TAMs, and 3) reprogramme TAMs to antitumor M1 phenotype. Second, the current development and progress of CAR-M therapy are reviewed, including the researchers' attempts in CAR structure design, cell origin, and gene delivery vectors, especially nanobiomaterials as an alternative to viral vectors, as well as some challenges faced by current CAR-M therapy are also summarized and discussed. Finally, the field of genetically engineered macrophages integration with nanotechnology for the future in oncology has been prospected.
    Keywords:  cancer immunotherapy; chimeric antigen receptor; genetic engineering; nanobiomaterials; tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs)
  7. Pharmaceutics. 2023 Jun 09. pii: 1692. [Epub ahead of print]15(6):
      Tumor development, progression, and resistance to therapies are influenced by the interactions between tumor cells and the surrounding microenvironment, comprising fibroblasts, immune cells, and extracellular matrix proteins. In this context, mast cells (MCs) have recently emerged as important players. Yet, their role is still controversial, as MCs can exert pro- or anti-tumor functions in different tumor types depending on their location within or around the tumor mass and their interaction with other components of the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we describe the main aspects of MC biology and the different contribution of MCs in promoting or inhibiting cancer growth. We then discuss possible therapeutic strategies aimed at targeting MCs for cancer immunotherapy, which include: (1) targeting c-Kit signaling; (2) stabilizing MC degranulation; (3) triggering activating/inhibiting receptors; (4) modulating MC recruitment; (5) harnessing MC mediators; (6) adoptive transferring of MCs. Such strategies should aim to either restrain or sustain MC activity according to specific contexts. Further investigation would allow us to better dissect the multifaceted roles of MCs in cancer and tailor novel approaches for an "MC-guided" personalized medicine to be used in combination with conventional anti-cancer therapies.
    Keywords:  cancer; immunotherapy; mast cells; tumor microenvironment
  8. J Cell Sci. 2023 Jun 26. pii: jcs.260419. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have distinct roles within the tumor microenvironment, which may impact the mode and efficacy of tumor cell migration. CAFs are known to increase invasion of less-aggressive breast cancer cells through matrix remodeling and leader-follower dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that CAFs communicate with breast cancer cells through the formation of contact-dependent tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) that allow for the exchange of cargo between cell types. The transferring of CAF mitochondria is an integral cargo component, and CAF mitochondria are sufficient to increase the 3D migration of cancer cells. This cargo transfer results in an increase in mitochondrial ATP production in cancer cells while having negligible impact on glycolytic ATP production. Manually increasing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by providing extra substrates for OXPHOS fails to enhance cancer cell migration unless glycolysis is maintained at a constant level. Together, these data indicate that tumor-stromal crosstalk via TNTs and the associated metabolic symbiosis is a finely controlled mechanism by which tumor cells co-opt their microenvironment to promote cancer progression and may become a potential therapeutic target.
    Keywords:  ATP production.; Bioenergetics; CAF; Reverse Warburg effect; Tumor microenvironment; Tumor spheroid; Tunneling nanotube
  9. Biology (Basel). 2023 Jun 15. pii: 862. [Epub ahead of print]12(6):
      Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is a lymphoid neoplasm composed of rare neoplastic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells surrounded by a reactive tumor microenvironment (TME) with suppressive properties against anti-tumor immunity. TME is mainly composed of T cells (CD4 helper, CD8 cytotoxic and regulatory) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), but the impact of these cells on the natural course of the disease is not absolutely understood. TME contributes to the immune evasion of neoplastic HRS cells through the production of various cytokines and/or the aberrant expression of immune checkpoint molecules in ways that have not been fully understood yet. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of findings regarding the cellular components and the molecular features of the immune TME in cHL, its correlation with treatment response and prognosis, as well as the potential targeting of the TME with novel therapies. Among all cells, macrophages appear to be a most appealing target for immunomodulatory therapies, based on their functional plasticity and antitumor potency.
    Keywords:  CD169+ macrophages; Hodgkin lymphoma; immune evasion; immunosuppression; tumor associated macrophages; tumor microenvironment
  10. Pathol Res Pract. 2023 Jun 13. pii: S0344-0338(23)00316-3. [Epub ahead of print]248 154616
      Colorectal cancer (CRC) is comprised of transformed cells and non-malignant cells including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), endothelial vasculature cells, and tumor-infiltrating cells. These nonmalignant cells, as well as soluble factors (e.g., cytokines), and the extracellular matrix (ECM), form the tumor microenvironment (TME). In general, the cancer cells and their surrounding TME can crosstalk by direct cell-to-cell contact and via soluble factors, such as cytokines (e.g., chemokines). TME not only promotes cancer progression through growth-promoting cytokines but also provides resistance to chemotherapy. Understanding the mechanisms of tumor growth and progression and the roles of chemokines in CRC will likely suggest new therapeutic targets. In this line, a plethora of reports has evidenced the critical role of chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)/C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12 or SDF-1) axis in CRC pathogenesis. In the current review, we take a glimpse into the role of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in CRC growth, metastasis, angiogenesis, drug resistance, and immune escape. Also, a summary of recent reports concerning targeting CXCR4/CXCL12 axis for CRC management and therapy has been delivered.
    Keywords:  CXCL12 or SDF-1; CXCR4; Colorectal cancer (CRC); Growth; Metastasis
  11. Cells. 2023 06 11. pii: 1606. [Epub ahead of print]12(12):
      Adoptive cell therapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology is one of the most advanced engineering platforms for cancer immunotherapy. CAR-T cells have shown remarkable efficacy in the treatment of hematological malignancies. However, their limitations in solid tumors include an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), insufficient tumor infiltration, toxicity, and the absence of tumor-specific antigens. Although recent advances in CAR-T cell design-such as the incorporation of co-stimulatory domains and the development of armored CAR-T cells-have shown promising results in treating solid tumors, there are still challenges that need to be addressed. To overcome these limitations, other immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages (M), have been developed as attractive options for efficient cancer immunotherapy of solid tumors. CAR-NK cells exhibit substantial clinical improvements with "off-the-shelf" availability and low toxicity. CAR-M cells have promising therapeutic potential because macrophages can infiltrate the TME of solid tumors. Here, we review the recent advances and future perspectives associated with engineered immune cell-based cancer immunotherapies for solid tumors. We also summarize ongoing clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of engineered immune cells, such as CAR-T, CAR-NK, and CAR-M, for targeting solid tumors.
    Keywords:  CAR-M; CAR-NK; CAR-T; cancer immunotherapy
  12. Cell Death Discov. 2023 Jun 30. 9(1): 205
      The failure of melanoma immunotherapy can be mediated by immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME), and insufficient activation of effector T cells against the tumor. Here, we show that inhibition of galectin-3 (gal-3) enhances the infiltration of T cells in TME and improves the sensitivity of anti-PD-L1 therapy. We identify that RNF8 downregulated the expression of gal-3 by K48-polyubiquitination and promoted gal-3 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. RNF8 deficiency in the host but sufficiency in implanted melanoma results in immune exclusion and tumor progression due to the upregulation of gal-3. Upregulation of gal-3 decreased the immune cell infiltration by restricting IL-12 and IFN-γ. Inhibition of gal-3 reverses immunosuppression and induces immune cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment. Moreover, gal-3 inhibitor treatment can increase the sensitivity of PD-L1 inhibitors via increasing immune cell infiltration and enhancing immune response in tumors. This study reveals a previously unrecognized immunoregulation function of RNF8 and provides a promising strategy for the therapy of "cold" tumors. Tremendous effects of melanoma treatment can be achieved by facilitating immune cell infiltration combined with anti-PD-L1 treatment.
  13. Pharmaceutics. 2023 Jun 12. pii: 1711. [Epub ahead of print]15(6):
      New therapeutic strategies are required in cancer therapy. Considering the prominent role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the development and progression of cancer, the re-education of TAMs in the tumor microenvironment (TME) could represent a potential approach for cancer immunotherapy. TAMs display an irregular unfolded protein response (UPR) in their endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to endure environmental stress and ensure anti-cancer immunity. Therefore, nanotechnology could be an attractive tool to modulate the UPR in TAMs, providing an alternative strategy for TAM-targeted repolarization therapy. Herein, we developed and tested polydopamine-coupled magnetite nanoparticles (PDA-MNPs) functionalized with small interfering RNAs (siRNA) to downregulate the protein kinase R (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) expression in TAM-like macrophages derived from murine peritoneal exudate (PEMs). After the evaluation of the cytocompatibility, the cellular uptake, and the gene silencing efficiency of PDA-MNPs/siPERK in PEMs, we analyzed their ability to re-polarize in vitro these macrophages from M2 to the M1 inflammatory anti-tumor phenotype. Our results indicate that PDA-MNPs, with their magnetic and immunomodulator features, are cytocompatible and able to re-educate TAMs toward the M1 phenotype by PERK inhibition, a UPR effector contributing to TAM metabolic adaptation. These findings can provide a novel strategy for the development of new tumor immunotherapies in vivo.
    Keywords:  UPR response; macrophage polarization; magnetic nanoparticles; siRNA; tumor-associated macrophages
  14. FASEB J. 2023 Jul;37(7): e23055
      Tumor cells are known for being able to evade immune system surveillance, a hallmark of malignancy. Complicated immune escape mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment (TME) provide favorable conditions for tumor invasion, metastasis, treatment resistance, and recurrence. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is closely related to the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and the co-existence of EBV-infected NPC cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes represents a distinctive, highly heterogeneous, and suppressive TME that supports immune escape and promotes tumorigenesis. Understanding the complex interaction between EBV and NPC host cells and focusing on the immune escape mechanism of TME may help to identify specific immunotherapy targets and to develop effective immunotherapy drugs.
    Keywords:  EBV; NPC; TME; immune escape; immunotherapy
  15. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1175920
      Chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy has become an important immunotherapeutic tool for overcoming cancers. However, the efficacy of CAR-T cell therapy in solid tumors is relatively poor due to the complexity of the tumor microenvironment and inhibitory immune checkpoints. TIGIT on the surface of T cells acts as an immune checkpoint by binding to CD155 on the tumor cells' surface, thereby inhibiting tumor cell killing. Blocking TIGIT/CD155 interactions is a promising approach in cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we generated anti-MLSN CAR-T cells in combination with anti-α-TIGIT for solid tumors treatment. The anti-α-TIGIT effectively enhanced the efficacy of anti-MLSN CAR-T cells on the killing of target cells in vitro. In addition, we genetically engineered anti-MSLN CAR-T cells with the capacity to constitutively produce TIGIT-blocking single-chain variable fragments. Our study demonstrated that blocking TIGIT significantly promoted cytokine release to augment the tumor-killing effect of MT CAR-T cells. Moreover, the self-delivery of TIGIT-blocking scFvs enhanced the infiltration and activation of MT CAR-T cells in the tumor microenvironments to achieve better tumor regression in vivo. These results suggest that blocking TIGIT effectively enhances the anti-tumor effect of CAR-T cells and suggest a promising strategy of combining CAR-T with immune checkpoints blockade in the treatment of solid tumors.
    Keywords:  CAR-T cell; MSLN; TIGIT; immunotherapy; solid tumors
  16. Cancers (Basel). 2023 Jun 07. pii: 3090. [Epub ahead of print]15(12):
      Prostaglandins, the bioactive lipids generated from the metabolism of arachidonic acid through cyclooxygenases, have potent effects on many constituents of tumor microenvironments. In this review, we will describe the formation and activities of prostaglandins in the context of the tumor microenvironment. We will discuss the regulation of cancer-associated fibroblasts and immune constituents by prostaglandins and their roles in immune escapes during tumor progression. The review concludes with future perspectives on improving the efficacy of immunotherapy through repurposing non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and other prostaglandin modulators.
    Keywords:  PD-L1; PD1; PGE2; cyclooxygenase; eicosanoids; immunotherapy; non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs; prostaglandins; tumor microenvironment
  17. Sci Adv. 2023 Jun 30. 9(26): eadg3736
      Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy is effective against many cancers for a subset of patients; a large percentage of patients remain unresponsive to this therapy. One contributing factor to ICI resistance is accumulation of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs), a subset of innate immune cells with potent immunosuppressive activity against T lymphocytes. Here, using lung, melanoma, and breast cancer mouse models, we show that CD73-expressing M-MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment (TME) exhibit superior T cell suppressor function. Tumor-derived PGE2, a prostaglandin, directly induces CD73 expression in M-MDSCs via both Stat3 and CREB. The resulting CD73 overexpression induces elevated levels of adenosine, a nucleoside with T cell-suppressive activity, culminating in suppression of antitumor CD8+ T cell activity. Depletion of adenosine in the TME by the repurposed drug PEGylated adenosine deaminase (PEG-ADA) increases CD8+ T cell activity and enhances response to ICI therapy. Use of PEG-ADA can therefore be a therapeutic option to overcome resistance to ICIs in cancer patients.
  18. Cell Commun Signal. 2023 06 27. 21(1): 161
      BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the second most frequent type of cancer in the world and most common among women, configuring a major challenge to global health. BC is a complex and heterogeneous disease that can be subdivided into distinct tumor types based on the expression of molecular markers predicting patient outcomes and response to therapy. A growing number of studies have tried to expand the known markers by investigating the association of altered lipid metabolism with BC immune escape, progression, and metastasis. In this review, we describe the metabolic peculiarities of each BC subtype, understanding how this influences its aggressiveness and identifying whether these intrinsic vulnerabilities of each subtype can play a role in therapeutic management and may affect immune system cells in the tumor microenvironment.CONCLUSION: The evidence suggests so far that when changes occur in lipid pathways, it can affect the availability of structural lipids for membrane synthesis, lipid synthesis, and degradation that contribute to energy homeostasis and cell signaling functions. These findings will guide the next steps on the path to understanding the mechanisms underlying how lipids alterations are related to disparities in chemotherapeutic response and immune escape in BC. Video Abstract.
    Keywords:  Breast cancer; Immune escape; Lipid metabolism; Tumorigenesis
  19. Cells. 2023 06 06. pii: 1560. [Epub ahead of print]12(12):
      Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal malignancy with a majority of patients presenting with unresectable or metastatic disease, resulting in a poor 5-year survival rate. This, in turn, is due to a highly complex tumor microenvironment and the presence of cancer stem cells, both of which induce therapy resistance and tumor relapse. Therefore, understanding and targeting the tumor microenvironment and cancer stem cells may be key strategies for designing effective PDAC therapies. In the present review, we summarized recent advances in the role of tumor microenvironment in pancreatic neoplastic progression.
    Keywords:  PDAC; cancer stem cells; tumor microenvironment (TME)
  20. J Biomed Sci. 2023 Jun 28. 30(1): 48
      Myeloid immune cells (MICs) are potent innate immune cells serving as first responders to invading pathogens and internal changes to cellular homeostasis. Cancer is a stage of altered cellular homeostasis that can originate in response to different pathogens, chemical carcinogens, and internal genetic/epigenetic changes. MICs express several pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on their membranes, cytosol, and organelles, recognizing systemic, tissue, and organ-specific altered homeostasis. cGAS/STING signaling is a cytosolic PRR system for identifying cytosolic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in a sequence-independent but size-dependent manner. The longer the cytosolic dsDNA size, the stronger the cGAS/STING signaling activation with increased type 1 interferon (IFN) and NF-κB-dependent cytokines and chemokines' generation. The present article discusses tumor-supportive changes occurring in the tumor microenvironment (TME) or tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) MICs, specifically emphasizing cGAS/STING signaling-dependent alteration. The article further discusses utilizing MIC-specific cGAS/STING signaling modulation as critical tumor immunotherapy to alter TIME.
    Keywords:  Cancer; DCs; MDSCs; MIC; Macrophages; STING; TIME; TME; cGAS
  21. Biomolecules. 2023 05 27. pii: 897. [Epub ahead of print]13(6):
      The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an important role in the development and progression of hematological malignancies. In recent years, studies have focused on understanding how tumor cells communicate within the TME. In addition to several factors, such as growth factors, cytokines, extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, etc., a growing body of evidence has indicated that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a crucial role in the communication of tumor cells within the TME, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. The present review focuses on how EVs derived from tumor cells interact with the cells in the TME, such as immune cells, stromal cells, endothelial cells, and ECM components, and vice versa, in the context of various hematological malignancies. EVs recovered from the body fluids of cancer patients often carry the bioactive molecules of the originating cells and hence can be considered new predictive biomarkers for specific types of cancer, thereby also acting as potential therapeutic targets. Here, we discuss how EVs influence hematological tumor progression via tumor-host crosstalk and their use as biomarkers for hematological malignancies, thereby benefiting the development of potential therapeutic targets.
    Keywords:  biomarker; drug resistance; endothelial cells; extracellular matrix; extracellular vesicles; hematological malignancy; immune cells; lymphatic system; stromal cells; tumor microenvironment
  22. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2023 Jun;11(6): e872
      OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune myocarditis is caused by both innate and adaptive immune responses. Many studies have found that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) suppress T-cell responses and reduce immune tolerance, while MDSCs may serve as a key player in inflammatory responses and pathogenesis in variety of autoimmune diseases. However, research into the role of MDSCs in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) remains lacking.METHODS AND RESULTS: We discovered that the expansion of MDSCs in EAM was closely related to the severity of myocardial inflammation. At an early stage of EAM, both adoptive transfer (AT) and selective depletion of MDSCs could inhibit the expression of IL-17 in CD4+ cells and downregulate the Th17/Treg ratio, alleviating excessive inflammation of EAM myocarditis. In another experiment, in addition, MDSCs transferred after selective depletion could increase IL-17 and Foxp3 expressions in CD4+ cells, as well as the Th17/Treg ratio, contributing to the aggravation of myocardial inflammation. MDSCs promoted the Th17 cell induction under Th17-polarizing conditions in vitro but suppressed Treg expansion.
    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that MDSCs play a plastic role in sustaining mild inflammation in EAM by shifting Th17/Treg balance.
    Keywords:  Th17 cells; Treg; autoimmune myocarditis in experiment; balance; inflammation; myeloid-derived suppressor cells
  23. Biology (Basel). 2023 Jun 08. pii: 832. [Epub ahead of print]12(6):
      The tumor microenvironment (TME), where the tumor cells incite the surrounding normal cells to create an immune suppressive environment, reduces the effectiveness of immune responses during cancer development. Sialylation, a type of glycosylation that occurs on cell surface proteins, lipids, and glycoRNAs, is known to accumulate in tumors and acts as a "cloak" to help tumor cells evade immunological surveillance. In the last few years, the role of sialylation in tumor proliferation and metastasis has become increasingly evident. With the advent of single-cell and spatial sequencing technologies, more research is being conducted to understand the effects of sialylation on immunity regulation. This review provides updated insights into recent research on the function of sialylation in tumor biology and summarizes the latest developments in sialylation-targeted tumor therapeutics, including antibody-mediated and metabolic-based sialylation inhibition, as well as interference with sialic acid-Siglec interaction.
    Keywords:  Siglecs; immune checkpoint; sialylation; tumor microenvironment; tumors
  24. Biomed Pharmacother. 2023 Jun 27. pii: S0753-3322(23)00881-8. [Epub ahead of print]165 115090
      Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are key components of tumor immune microenvironment and play a dual role in promoting tumor growth and anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, regulating TAMs has become a promising method in cancer immunotherapy. NF- κB pathway is the key regulatory pathway of TAMs. Targeting this pathway has shown the potential to improve tumor immune microenvironment. At present, there are still some controversies and the idea of combined therapy in this field. This article reviews the progress in the field of immunotherapy in improving tumor immune microenvironment by exploring the mechanism of regulating TAMs (including promoting M1 polarization, inhibiting M2 polarization and regulating TAMs infiltration).
    Keywords:  MicroRNAs; NF-κB; Tumor immune microenvironment; Tumor-associated macrophages
  25. Cancers (Basel). 2023 Jun 11. pii: 3147. [Epub ahead of print]15(12):
      The role of the tumor microenvironment in tumor growth and therapy has recently attracted more attention in research and drug development. The ability of the microenvironment to trigger tumor maintenance, progression, and resistance is the main cause for treatment failure and tumor relapse. Accumulated evidence indicates that the maintenance and progression of tumor cells is determined by components of the microenvironment, which include stromal cells (endothelial cells, fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells, and immune cells), extracellular matrix (ECM), and soluble molecules (chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, and extracellular vesicles). As a solid tumor, melanoma is not only a tumor mass of monolithic tumor cells, but it also contains supporting stroma, ECM, and soluble molecules. Melanoma cells are continuously in interaction with the components of the microenvironment. In the present review, we focus on the role of the tumor microenvironment components in the modulation of tumor progression and treatment resistance as well as the impact of the tumor microenvironment as a therapeutic target in melanoma.
    Keywords:  chronic inflammation; melanoma resistance; stromal cells; targeted therapy; tumor microenvironment
  26. J Clin Med. 2023 Jun 07. pii: 3888. [Epub ahead of print]12(12):
      Globally, clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) represents the most prevalent type of kidney cancer. Surgery plays a key role in the treatment of this cancer, although one third of patients are diagnosed with metastatic ccRCC and about 25% of patients will develop a recurrence after nephrectomy with curative intent. Molecular-target-based agents, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), are recommended for advanced cancers. In addition to cancer cells, the tumor microenvironment (TME) includes non-malignant cell types embedded in an altered extracellular matrix (ECM). The evidence confirms that interactions among cancer cells and TME elements exist and are thought to play crucial roles in the development of cancer, making them promising therapeutic targets. In the TME, an unfavorable pH, waste product accumulation, and competition for nutrients between cancer and immune cells may be regarded as further possible mechanisms of immune escape. To enhance immunotherapies and reduce resistance, it is crucial first to understand how the immune cells work and interact with cancer and other cancer-associated cells in such a complex tumor microenvironment.
    Keywords:  angiogenesis; metabolism; renal cell carcinoma; therapy; tumor microenvironment
  27. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1180997
      Checkpoint inhibition (CPI) therapy and adoptive cell therapy with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL-based ACT) are the two most effective immunotherapies for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. While CPI has been the dominating therapy in the past decade, TIL-based ACT is beneficial for individuals even after progression on previous immunotherapies. Given that notable differences in response have been made when used as a subsequent treatment, we investigated how the qualities of TILs changed when the ex vivo microenvironment of intact tumor fragments were modulated with checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4). Initially, we show that unmodified TILs from CPI-resistant individuals can be produced, are overwhelmingly terminally differentiated, and are capable of responding to tumor. We then investigate these properties in ex vivo checkpoint modulated TILs finding that that they retain these qualities. Lastly, we confirmed the specificity of the TILs to the highest responding tumor antigens, and identified this reactivity resides largely in CD39+CD69+ terminally differentiated populations. Overall, we found that anti-PD-1 will alter the proliferative capacity while anti-CTLA4 will influence breadth of antigen specificity.
    Keywords:  DNA Barcoding; adoptive cell immunotherapy; cancer immunotherapy; checkpoint inhibition; metastatic melanoma; tumor microenevironment; tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)
  28. Ageing Res Rev. 2023 Jun 26. pii: S1568-1637(23)00152-6. [Epub ahead of print] 101993
      Macrophages are crucial in the progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In the atherosclerotic lesions, macrophages play a central role in maintaining inflammatory response, promoting plaque development, and facilitating thrombosis. Increasing studies indicate that metabolic reprogramming and immune response mediate macrophage functional changes in all stages of atherosclerosis. In this review article, we explain how metabolic changes in glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid synthesis, fatty acid oxidation, and cholesterol metabolism regulate macrophage function in atherosclerosis. We discuss how immune response to oxidized lipids regulate macrophage function in atherosclerosis. Additionally, we explore how abnormal metabolism leads to macrophage mitochondrial dysfunction in atherosclerosis.
    Keywords:  Atherosclerosis; Immune response; Immunometabolism; Macrophage; Oxidation-specific epitopes