bims-ectoca Biomed News
on Epigenetic control of tolerance in cancer
Issue of 2023‒11‒26
three papers selected by
Ankita Daiya, BITS Pilani

  1. J Orthop Surg Res. 2023 Nov 22. 18(1): 892
      BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor, and chemotherapy can effectively improve the prognosis. MicroRNA-331 (MiR-331) is associated with poor cancer outcomes. However, the role of miR-331 in osteosarcoma remains to be explored.METHODS: Drug-resistant osteosarcoma cells were cultured, and their exosomes were purified. The secretion and uptake of exosomes by drug-resistant osteosarcoma and osteosarcoma cells were confirmed using a fluorescence tracking assay and Transwell experiments. The effects of drug-resistant exosomes on cell proliferation were determined using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. siRNA-Drosha and neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitor GW4869 were used to determine the transfer of miRNAs. qRT-PCR and western blotting were used to detect the role of autophagy in the regulation of drug-resistant cell-derived exosomal miR-331-3p.
    RESULTS: Exosomal miR-331-3p levels in drug-resistant cells were higher than in exosomes from osteosarcoma cells. The exosomes secreted by the drug-resistant osteosarcoma cells could be absorbed by osteosarcoma cells, leading to acquired drug resistance in previously non-resistance cells. Inhibition of miRNAs resulted in reduced transmission of drug resistance transmission by exosomes. Exosomes from drug-resistant osteosarcoma cells transfected with siRNA-Drosha or treated by GW4869 could not enhance the proliferation of MG63 and HOS cells. Finally, miR-331-3p in the exosomes secreted by drug-resistant osteosarcoma cells could induce autophagy of osteosarcoma cells, allowing them to acquire drug resistance. The inhibition of miR-331-3p decreased drug resistance of osteosarcoma cells.
    CONCLUSION: Exosomes secreted from chemoresistant osteosarcoma cells promote drug resistance through miR-331-3p and autophagy. Inhibition of miR-331-3p could be used to alleviate drug resistance in osteosarcoma.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Chemoresistance; Chemosensitivity; Exosome; Osteosarcoma; microRNA-331
  2. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2023 Nov 21. e30774
      BACKGROUND: Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) catalyzes the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 via the polycomb recessive complex 2 (PRC2) and plays a time-specific role in normal fetal liver development. EZH2 is overexpressed in hepatoblastoma (HB), an embryonal tumor. EZH2 can also promote tumorigenesis via a noncanonical, PRC2-independent mechanism via proto-oncogenic, direct protein interaction, including β-catenin. We hypothesize that the pathological activation of EZH2 contributes to HB propagation in a PRC2-independent manner.METHODS AND RESULTS: We demonstrate that EZH2 promotes proliferation in HB tumor-derived cell lines through interaction with β-catenin. Although aberrant EZH2 expression occurs, we determine that both canonical and noncanonical EZH2 signaling occurs based on specific gene-expression patterns and interaction with SUZ12, a PRC2 component, and β-catenin. Silencing and inhibition of EZH2 reduce primary HB cell proliferation.
    CONCLUSIONS: EZH2 overexpression promotes HB cell proliferation, with both canonical and noncanonical function detected. However, because EZH2 directly interacts with β-catenin in human tumors and EZH2 overexpression is not equal to SUZ12, it seems that a noncanonical mechanism is contributing to HB pathogenesis. Further mechanistic studies are necessary to elucidate potential pathogenic downstream mechanisms and translational potential of EZH2 inhibitors for the treatment of HB.
    Keywords:  HB tumor-derived cell line; PRC2; organoid; β-catenin
  3. Biomolecules. 2023 Oct 28. pii: 1588. [Epub ahead of print]13(11):
      The coordination of zinc by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), altering the bioavailability of zinc to histone deacetylases (HDACs), is key to HDAC enzyme inhibition. However, the ability of zinc binding groups (ZBGs) to alter intracellular free Zn+2 levels, which may have far-reaching effects, has not been explored. Using two HDACis with different ZBGs, we documented shifts in intracellular free Zn+2 concentrations that correlate with subsequent ROS production. Next, we assayed refolding and reactivation of the R175H mutant p53 protein in vitro to provide greater biological context as the activity of this mutant depends on cellular zinc concentration. The data presented demonstrates the differential activity of HDACi in promoting R175H response element (RE) binding. After cells are treated with HDACi, there are differences in R175H mutant p53 refolding and reactivation, which may be related to treatments. Collectively, we show that HDACis with distinct ZBGs differentially impact the intracellular free Zn+2 concentration, ROS levels, and activity of R175H; therefore, HDACis may have significant activity independent of their ability to alter acetylation levels. Our results suggest a framework for reevaluating the role of zinc in the variable or off-target effects of HDACi, suggesting that the ZBGs of HDAC inhibitors may provide bioavailable zinc without the toxicity associated with zinc metallochaperones such as ZMC1.
    Keywords:  HDAC inhibitors; R175H mutant p53; ROS production; p53 reactivation; zinc bioavailability