bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2023‒09‒17
four papers selected by
Gavin McStay, Liverpool John Moores University

  1. IUBMB Life. 2023 Sep 15.
      The complexes mediating oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the inner mitochondrial membrane consist of proteins encoded in the nuclear or the mitochondrial DNA. The mitochondrially encoded membrane proteins (mito-MPs) represent the catalytic core of these complexes and follow complicated pathways for biogenesis. Owing to their overall hydrophobicity, mito-MPs are co-translationally inserted into the inner membrane by the Oxa1 insertase. After insertion, OXPHOS biogenesis factors mediate the assembly of mito-MPs into complexes and participate in the regulation of mitochondrial translation, while protein quality control factors recognize and degrade faulty or excess proteins. This review summarizes the current understanding of these early steps occurring during the assembly of mito-MPs by concentrating on results obtained in the model organism baker's yeast.
    Keywords:  eukaryotic gene expression; mitochondria; protein folding; protein synthesis
  2. J Am Chem Soc. 2023 Sep 11.
      Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a large membrane-bound hemeprotein that catalyzes the reduction of dioxygen to water. Unlike classical dioxygen binding hemeproteins with a heme b group in their active sites, CcO has a unique binuclear center (BNC) composed of a copper atom (CuB) and a heme a3 iron, where O2 binds and is reduced to water. CO is a versatile O2 surrogate in ligand binding and escape reactions. Previous time-resolved spectroscopic studies of the CO complexes of bovine CcO (bCcO) revealed that photolyzing CO from the heme a3 iron leads to a metastable intermediate (CuB-CO), where CO is bound to CuB, before it escapes out of the BNC. Here, with a pump-probe based time-resolved serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography, we detected a geminate photoproduct of the bCcO-CO complex, where CO is dissociated from the heme a3 iron and moved to a temporary binding site midway between the CuB and the heme a3 iron, while the locations of the two metal centers and the conformation of Helix-X, housing the proximal histidine ligand of the heme a3 iron, remain in the CO complex state. This new structure, combined with other reported structures of bCcO, allows for a clearer definition of the ligand dissociation trajectory as well as the associated protein dynamics.
  3. Front Neurosci. 2023 ;17 1243527
      Introduction: This is the first study mapping the duration of action of in vivo photobiomodulation (PBM) on cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO). In cellular bioenergetics, CCO is the terminal rate-limiting enzyme in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which catalyzes oxygen utilization for aerobic energy production. PBM using transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) is a promising intervention for non-invasively modulating CCO in the brain. TILS of the human prefrontal cortex directly causes CCO photo-oxidation, which is associated with increased cerebral oxygenation and improved cognition.Methods: This experiment aimed to map the duration of action of in vivo PBM on CCO activity in discrete neuroanatomic locations within rat brains up to 4 weeks after a single TILS session (50 s, 1064 nm CW, 250 mW/cm2). Control brains from rats treated with a sham session without TILS (laser off) were compared to brains from TILS-treated rats that were collected 1 day, 2 weeks, or 4 weeks post-TILS. Cryostat sections of the 36 collected brains were processed using quantitative enzyme histochemistry and digitally imaged. Densitometric readings of 28 regions of interest were recorded and converted to CCO activity units of oxygen utilization using calibration standards. Data analysis (ANCOVA) compared each laser-treated group to sham with whole-brain average as a covariate.
    Results: The prefrontal infralimbic cortex showed the earliest significant increase in CCO activity between 1-day post-TILS and sham groups, which continued elevated for 2-4 weeks post-TILS. Significant differences in CCO activity between 2-weeks and sham groups were also found in the lateral septum, accumbens core, CA3 of the hippocampus, and the molecular layer of the hippocampus. The medial amygdala showed a significant decrease in CCO activity between 4-weeks and sham. Further analyses showed significant inter-regional CCO activity correlations among the brain regions as the result of TILS, with the most pronounced changes at 4-weeks post-stimulation.
    Discussion: The time course of changes in CCO activity and network connectivity suggested that TILS caused different neuroplasticity types of bioenergetic changes at different time scales, depending on brain region and its depth from the cortex. In conclusion, this controlled CCO histochemical study demonstrated a long-lasting duration of action of PBM in the rat brain.
    Keywords:  brain cytochrome c oxidase; enzyme histochemistry; hormesis; in vivo photobiomodulation; low-level laser therapy; neuroenergetics; prefrontal cortex; transcranial infrared laser stimulation
  4. J Biol Chem. 2023 Sep 08. pii: S0021-9258(23)02269-X. [Epub ahead of print] 105241
      Respiratory complexes and cardiolipins have exceptionally long lifetimes. The fact that they co-localize in mitochondrial cristae raises the questions of whether their longevities have a common cause and whether the longevity of OXPHOS proteins is dependent on cardiolipin. To address these questions, we developed a method to measure side-by-side the half-lives of proteins and lipids in wildtype Drosophila and cardiolipin deficient mutants. We fed adult flies with stable isotope-labeled precursors (13C615N2-lysine or 13C6-glucose) and determined the relative abundance of heavy isotopomers in protein and lipid species by mass spectrometry. To minimize confounding effects of tissue regeneration, we restricted our analysis to the thorax, the bulk of which consists of post-mitotic flight muscles. Analysis of 680 protein and 45 lipid species showed that the subunits of respiratory complexes I-V and the carriers for phosphate and ADP/ATP were among the longest-lived proteins (average half-life of 48±16 days) while the molecular species of cardiolipin were the longest-lived lipids (average half-life of 27±6 days). The remarkable longevity of these crista residents was not shared by all mitochondrial proteins, especially not by those residing in the matrix and the inner boundary membrane. Ablation of cardiolipin synthase, which causes replacement of cardiolipin by phosphatidylglycerol, and ablation of tafazzin, which causes partial replacement of cardiolipin by monolyso-cardiolipin, decreased the lifetimes of the respiratory complexes. Ablation of tafazzin also decreased the lifetimes of the remaining cardiolipin species. These data suggest that an important function of cardiolipin in mitochondria is to protect respiratory complexes from degradation.
    Keywords:  Insect; isotopic tracer; lipid-protein interaction; membrane biogenesis; mitochondrial respiratory chain complex