bims-curels Biomed News
on Leigh syndrome
Issue of 2024‒04‒14
four papers selected by
Cure Mito Foundation

  1. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2024 Mar 28. pii: S1090-3798(24)00038-2. [Epub ahead of print]50 31-40
      Mitochondrial diseases have a heterogeneous phenotype and can result from mutations in the mitochondrial or nuclear genomes, constituting a diagnostically and therapeutically challenging group of disorders. We report our center's experience with mitochondrial encephalopathies and myopathies with a cohort of 50 genetically and phenotypically diverse patients followed in the Neurology clinic over the last ten years. Seventeen patients had mitochondrial DNA mutations, presented over a wide range of ages with seizures, feeding difficulties, extraocular movements abnormalities, and had high rates of stroke-like episodes and regression. Twenty-seven patients had nuclear DNA mutations, presented early in life with feeding difficulty, failure-to-thrive, and seizures, and had high proportions of developmental delay, wheelchair dependence, spine abnormalities and dystonia. In six patients, a mutation could not be identified, but they were included for having mitochondrial disease confirmed by histopathology, enzyme analysis and clinical features. These patients had similar characteristics to patients with nuclear DNA mutations, suggesting missed underlying mutations in the nuclear genome. Management was variable among patients, but outcomes were universally poor with severe disability in all cases. Therapeutic entryways through elucidation of disease pathways and remaining unknown genes are acutely needed.
    Keywords:  Cohort; Encephalopathy; Mitochondrial disease; Mitochondrial gene mutation; Myopathy
  2. Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Mar 24. pii: 3629. [Epub ahead of print]25(7):
      MELAS syndrome, characterized by mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes, represents a devastating mitochondrial disease, with the stroke-like episodes being its primary manifestation. Arginine supplementation has been used and recommended as a treatment for these acute attacks; however, insufficient evidence exists to support this treatment for MELAS. The mechanisms underlying the effect of arginine on MELAS pathophysiology remain unclear, although it is hypothesized that arginine could increase nitric oxide availability and, consequently, enhance blood supply to the brain. A more comprehensive understanding of these mechanisms is necessary to improve treatment strategies, such as dose and regimen adjustments; identify which patients could benefit the most; and establish potential markers for follow-up. This review aims to analyze the existing evidence concerning the mechanisms through which arginine supplementation impacts MELAS pathophysiology and provide the current scenario and perspectives for future investigations.
    Keywords:  MELAS; arginine; mitochondria; mitochondrial DNA; nitric oxide; oxidative stress
  3. Pharmacol Res. 2024 Apr 08. pii: S1043-6618(24)00124-5. [Epub ahead of print] 107180
      Primary mitochondrial diseases (PMD) are amongst the most common inborn errors of metabolism causing fatal outcomes within the first decade of life. With marked heterogeneity in both inheritance patterns and physiological manifestations, these conditions present distinct challenges for targeted drug therapy, where effective therapeutic countermeasures remain elusive within the clinic. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-based therapeutics may offer a new option for patient treatment, having been proposed as a conserved mitochondrial substrate and post-translational regulator across species, displaying therapeutic effects in age-related mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegenerative models of mitochondrial disease. H2S can stimulate mitochondrial respiration at sites downstream of common PMD-defective subunits, augmenting energy production, mitochondrial function and reducing cell death. Here, we highlight the primary signalling mechanisms of H2S in mitochondria relevant for PMD and outline key cytoprotective proteins/pathways amenable to post-translational restoration via H2S-mediated persulfidation. The mechanisms proposed here, combined with the advent of potent mitochondria-targeted sulfide delivery molecules, could provide a framework for H2S as a countermeasure for PMD disease progression.
    Keywords:  Hydrogen sulfide; mitochondria; persulfidation; primary mitochondrial disease; therapeutics
  4. Heliyon. 2024 Apr 15. 10(7): e28808
      Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I is an important component of the oxidative respiratory chain, with the mitochondrially encoded NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 1 (MT-ND1) being one of the core subunits. MT-ND1 plays a role in the assembly of complex I and its enzymatic function. MT-ND1 gene mutation affects pathophysiological processes, such as interfering with the early assembly of complex I, affecting the ubiquinone binding domain and proton channel of complex I, and affecting oxidative phosphorylation, thus leading to the occurrence of diseases. The relationship between MT-ND1 gene mutation and disease has been has received increasing research attention. Therefore, this article reviews the impact of MT-ND1 mutations on disease progression, focusing on the impact of such mutations on diseases and their possible mechanisms, as well as the application of targeting MT-ND1 gene mutations in disease diagnosis and treatment. We aim to provide a new perspective leading to a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between MT-ND1 gene mutations and diseases.
    Keywords:  LHON; MT-ND1; Mitochondrial complex I; Mutation; Pathological mutation; Type 2 diabetes