bims-curels Biomed News
on Leigh syndrome
Issue of 2023‒06‒18
eleven papers selected by
Cure Mito Foundation

  1. J Family Med Prim Care. 2023 Apr;12(4): 792-795
      Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a mitochondrial encephalopathic disorder. Because mitochondria are ubiquitous organelles that are present in almost every human tissue, their dysfunction can affect nearly any organ system and give rise to a wide range of clinical characteristics. 1: As is the case with most diseases associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, the clinical features of KSS were defined before modern molecular genetic classifications emerged. 2: The exact prevalence of KSS is unknown; however, estimates place it at about 1:100,000 people. Although it is a rather rare syndrome, the ability to recognize or consider KSS as part of a differential diagnosis is crucial. Reported here are two case reports: 1) a 30-year-old Caucasian female patient who presented for evaluation to her primary care physician's office and, and 2) A 57-year-old Caucasian female patient long-term C care resident. Guidelines are listed for management as a primary care physician as well as signs and symptoms that are often associated with Kearns-Sayre syndrome and other mitochondrial disorders.
    Keywords:  Encephalopathy; Kearns–Sayre syndrome; mitochondrial DNA; mitochondrial disease
  2. Res Involv Engagem. 2023 Jun 12. 9(1): 41
      As six patient partners in Canada, we aim to contribute to learning and to provide an opportunity to reflect on patient engagement (PE) in research and healthcare environments. Patient engagement refers to "meaningful and active collaboration in governance, priority setting, conducting research and knowledge translation" with patient partners as members of teams, rather than participants in research or clinical care. While much has been written about the benefits of patient engagement, it is important to accurately document and share what we term 'patient engagement gone wrong.' These examples have been anonymized and presented as four statements: patient partners as a check mark, unconscious bias towards patient partners, lack of support to fully include patient partners, and lack of recognizing the vulnerability of patient partners. The examples provided are intended to demonstrate that patient engagement gone wrong is more common than discussed openly, and to simply bring this to light. This article is not intending to lay blame, rather to evolve and improve patient engagement initiatives. We ask those who interact with patient partners to reflect so we can all work towards improving patient engagement. Lean into the discomfort with these conversations as that is the only way to change these all too recognizable examples, and which will lead to better project outcomes and experiences for all team members.
    Keywords:  Family engagement; Patient and public involvement; Patient engagement; Patient partner; Power dynamics in healthcare; Power imbalance; Tokenism
  3. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Jun 02. pii: 9698. [Epub ahead of print]24(11):
      Mitochondrial diseases represent the most common inherited neurometabolic disorders, for which no effective therapy currently exists for most patients. The unmet clinical need requires a more comprehensive understanding of the disease mechanisms and the development of reliable and robust in vivo models that accurately recapitulate human disease. This review aims to summarise and discuss various mouse models harbouring transgenic impairments in genes that regulate mitochondrial function, specifically their neurological phenotype and neuropathological features. Ataxia secondary to cerebellar impairment is one of the most prevalent neurological features of mouse models of mitochondrial dysfunction, consistent with the observation that progressive cerebellar ataxia is a common neurological manifestation in patients with mitochondrial disease. The loss of Purkinje neurons is a shared neuropathological finding in human post-mortem tissues and numerous mouse models. However, none of the existing mouse models recapitulate other devastating neurological phenotypes, such as refractory focal seizures and stroke-like episodes seen in patients. Additionally, we discuss the roles of reactive astrogliosis and microglial reactivity, which may be driving the neuropathology in some of the mouse models of mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as mechanisms through which cellular death may occur, beyond apoptosis, in neurons undergoing mitochondrial bioenergy crisis.
    Keywords:  cerebellar ataxia; inhibitory neurons; neurodegeneration
  4. J Clin Med. 2023 May 31. pii: 3797. [Epub ahead of print]12(11):
      Acute encephalopathy is a critical medical condition that typically affects previously healthy children and young adults and often results in death or severe neurological sequelae. Inherited metabolic diseases that can cause acute encephalopathy include urea cycle disorders, amino acid metabolism disorders, organic acid metabolism disorders, fatty acid metabolism disorders, mutations in the thiamine-transporter gene, and mitochondrial diseases. Although each inherited metabolic disease is rare, its overall incidence is reported as 1 in 800-2500 patients. This narrative review presents the common inherited metabolic diseases that cause acute encephalopathy. Since diagnosing inherited metabolic diseases requires specific testing, early metabolic/metanolic screening tests are required when an inherited metabolic disease is suspected. We also describe the symptoms and history associated with suspected inherited metabolic diseases, the various tests that should be conducted in case of suspicion, and treatment according to the disease group. Recent advancements made in the understanding of some of the inherited metabolic diseases that cause acute encephalopathy are also highlighted. Acute encephalopathy due to inherited metabolic diseases can have numerous different causes, and recognition of the possibility of an inherited metabolic disease as early as possible, obtaining appropriate specimens, and proceeding with testing and treatment in parallel are crucial in the management of these diseases.
    Keywords:  THTR2 (SLC19A3) gene mutation; acute encephalopathy; amino acid metabolism disorders; enoyl-CoA hydratase short-chain 1; fatty acid metabolism disorders; homocystinuria; inherited metabolic disease; liver transplantation; mitochondrial diseases; urea cycle disorders
  5. J Patient Exp. 2023 ;10 23743735231174759
      The patient's financial experience is often complex and confusing.Recent regulations support bringing more transparency to healthcare billing processes.A patient journey map illustrates the patient experience in a healthcare process helping to identify improvement opportunities to better support patient-centered care.Price transparency can be increased by communicating the patient's financial responsibility early in the care process as well as simplifying patient communications.Digital health applications can help improve the patient financial experience and ultimately engagement in the payment process.Greater clarity and improved processes may occur if the patient's journey is visualized.
    Keywords:   healthcare billing; digital health; digital health applications; patient financial experience; patient journey map; price transparency
  6. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2023 Jun 10. pii: S0925-4439(23)00153-9. [Epub ahead of print]1869(7): 166787
      Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) are idiopathic, with unknown aetiology and genetic background. However, approximately 10 % of cases are caused by defined genetic mutations, among which mutations in the parkin gene are the most common. There is increasing evidence of the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of both idiopathic and genetic PD. However, the data on mitochondrial changes reported by different studies are inconsistent, which can reflect the variability in genetic background of the disease. Mitochondria, as a plastic and dynamic organelles, are the first place in the cell to respond to external and internal stress. In this work, we characterized mitochondrial function and dynamics (network morphology and turnover regulation) in primary fibroblasts from PD patients with parkin mutations. We performed clustering analysis of the obtained data to compare the profiles of mitochondrial parameters in PD patients and healthy donors. This allowed to extract the features characteristic for PD patients fibroblasts, which were a smaller and less complex mitochondrial network and decreased levels of mitochondrial biogenesis regulators and mitophagy mediators. The approach we used allowed a comprehensive characteristics of elements common for mitochondrial dynamics remodelling accompanying pathogenic mutation. This may be helpful in the deciphering key pathomechanisms of the PD disease.
    Keywords:  Mitochondria; Parkin; Parkinson's disease
  7. Health Expect. 2023 Jun 12.
      INTRODUCTION: Growing evidence supports patient engagement (PE) in health implementation research to improve the quality, relevance and uptake of research. However, more guidance is needed to plan and operationalize PE before and throughout the research process. The aim of the study was to develop a logic model illustrating the causal links between context, resources, activities, outcomes and impact of PE in an implementation research programme.METHODS: The Patient Engagement in Health Implementation Research Logic Model (hereafter the Logic Model) was developed using a descriptive qualitative design with a participatory approach, in the context of the PriCARE programme. This programme aims to implement and evaluate case management for individuals who frequently use healthcare services in primary care clinics across five Canadian provinces. Participant observation of team meetings was performed by all team members involved in the programme and in-depth interviews were conducted by two external research assistants with team members (n = 22). A deductive thematic analysis using components of logic models as coding categories was conducted. Data were pooled in the first version of the Logic Model, which was refined in research team meetings with patient partners. The final version was validated by all team members.
    RESULTS: The Logic Model highlights the importance of integrating PE into the project before its commencement, with appropriate support in terms of funding and time allocation. The governance structure and leadership of both principal investigators and patient partners have significant effects on PE activities and outcomes. As an empirical and standardized illustration that facilitates a shared understanding, the Logic Model provides guidance for maximizing the impact of patient partnership in various contexts for research, patients, providers and health care.
    CONCLUSION: The Logic Model will help academic researchers, decision makers and patient partners plan, operationalize, and assess PE in implementation research for optimal outcomes.
    PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Patient partners from the PriCARE research programme contributed to developing the research objectives and designing, developing and validating data collection tools, producing data, developing and validating the Logic Model and reviewing the manuscript.
    Keywords:  health implementation research; logic model; patient engagement; patient involvement; patient partnership in research
  8. J Med Access. 2023 Jan-Dec;7:7 27550834231177507
      The development of novel therapeutics for rare "orphan" diseases has brought a growing tension between the desire to accelerate access to these breakthrough therapies and the need to generate quality evidence regarding their safety and efficacy. Accelerating the pace of drug development and approval may facilitate the rapid delivery of benefits to patients and cost savings for research and development, which theoretically improves affordability of drugs for the health system. However, several ethical challenges arise with expedited approval, compassionate release of drugs, and subsequent study of drugs in "real-world" settings. In this article, we explore the changing landscape of drug approval and the ethical challenges expedited approval creates for patients, caregivers, clinicians, and institutions, and propose tangible strategies to maximize the benefits of "real-world" data acquisition while mitigating risks to patients, clinicians, and institutions.
    Keywords:  Canada; Drug approval; data collection; ethics research; rare diseases; resource allocation
  9. Nurs Stand. 2023 Jun 12.
      Patient experience is a crucial measure of the quality of patient care in healthcare settings. It encompasses all the patient's interactions with staff and their exposure to equipment, procedures, environment and service structure during one care episode. Capturing patient experience is one way of ensuring that patients' voices are heard and can form the basis of an audit or service improvement project designed to evaluate or enhance the patient-centredness of care. Nurses are increasingly involved in audits and service improvement projects, so it is important that they understand what patient experience is, how it differs from patient satisfaction and what approaches can be used to measure it. This article defines patient experience, describes data collection methods and discusses factors to consider when planning to collect patient experience data, notably the validity, reliability and rigour of the data collection tool.
    Keywords:  methodology; outcome measures; patient experience; patient outcomes; patient perceptions; patient satisfaction; patients; professional; research
  10. JRSM Open. 2023 Jun;14(6): 20542704231166621
      Patient-centred trial design and delivery; improves recruitment and retention; increases participant satisfaction; encourages participation by a more representative cohort; and allows researchers to better meet participants' needs. Research in this area mostly focusses on narrow facets of trial participation. We aimed to systematically identify the breadth of patient-centred factors influencing participation and engagement in trials, and collate them into a framework. Through this we hoped to assist researchers to identify factors that could improve patient-centred trial design and delivery. Robust qualitative and mixed methods systematic reviews are becoming increasingly common in health research. The protocol for this review was prospectively registered on PROSPERO, CRD42020184886. We used the SPIDER (Sample, Phenomenon of Interest, Design, Evaluation, Research Type) framework as a standardised systematic search strategy tool. 3 databases were searched as well as references checking, and thematic synthesis was conducted. Screening agreement was performed and code and theme checking were conducted by 2 independent researchers. Data were drawn from 285 peer-reviewed articles. 300 discrete factors were identified, and sorted into 13 themes and subthemes. The full catalogue of factors is included in the Supplementary Material. A summary framework is included in the body of the article. This paper focusses on outlining common ground that themes share, highlighting critical features, and exploring interesting points from the data. Through this, we hope researchers from multiple specialities may be better able to meet patients' needs, protect patients' psychosocial wellbeing, and optimise trial recruitment and retention, with direct positive impact on research time and cost efficiency.
    Keywords:  Clinical trials (epidemiology)<Epidemiology<NON-CLINICAL; effectiveness of care<Evidence based practice<CLINICAL