bims-crepig Biomed News
on Chromatin regulation and epigenetics in cell fate and cancer
Issue of 2023‒10‒01
twenty-one papers selected by
Connor Rogerson, University of Cambridge

  1. Nat Commun. 2023 Sep 28. 14(1): 6051
      The ability of transcription factors to discriminate between different classes of binding sites associated with specific biological functions underpins effective gene regulation in development and homeostasis. How this is achieved is poorly understood. The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor MITF is a lineage-survival oncogene that plays a crucial role in melanocyte development and melanoma. MITF suppresses invasion, reprograms metabolism and promotes both proliferation and differentiation. How MITF distinguishes between differentiation and proliferation-associated targets is unknown. Here we show that compared to many transcription factors MITF exhibits a very long residence time which is reduced by p300/CBP-mediated MITF acetylation at K206. While K206 acetylation also decreases genome-wide MITF DNA-binding affinity, it preferentially directs DNA binding away from differentiation-associated CATGTG motifs toward CACGTG elements. The results reveal an acetylation-mediated switch that suppresses differentiation and provides a mechanistic explanation of why a human K206Q MITF mutation is associated with Waardenburg syndrome.
  2. Sci Adv. 2023 Sep 29. 9(39): eadg1936
      Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are of fundamental relevance in regenerative medicine. Naïve hPSCs hold promise to overcome some of the limitations of conventional (primed) hPSCs, including recurrent epigenetic anomalies. Naïve-to-primed transition (capacitation) follows transcriptional dynamics of human embryonic epiblast and is necessary for somatic differentiation from naïve hPSCs. We found that capacitated hPSCs are transcriptionally closer to postimplantation epiblast than conventional hPSCs. This prompted us to comprehensively study epigenetic and related transcriptional changes during capacitation. Our results show that CpG islands, gene regulatory elements, and retrotransposons are hotspots of epigenetic dynamics during capacitation and indicate possible distinct roles of specific epigenetic modifications in gene expression control between naïve and primed hPSCs. Unexpectedly, PRC2 activity appeared to be dispensable for the capacitation. We find that capacitated hPSCs acquire an epigenetic state similar to conventional hPSCs. Significantly, however, the X chromosome erosion frequently observed in conventional female hPSCs is reversed by resetting and subsequent capacitation.
  3. Cell Rep. 2023 Sep 25. pii: S2211-1247(23)01189-0. [Epub ahead of print]42(10): 113177
      Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can undergo lineage-specific differentiation, giving rise to different cell types that constitute an organism. Although roles of transcription factors and chromatin modifiers in these cells have been described, how the alternative splicing (AS) machinery regulates their expression has not been sufficiently explored. Here, we show that the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)-associated protein TOBF1 modulates the AS of transcripts necessary for maintaining stem cell identity in mouse ESCs. Among the genes affected is serine/arginine splicing factor 1 (SRSF1), whose AS leads to global changes in splicing and expression of a large number of downstream genes involved in the maintenance of ESC pluripotency. By overlaying information derived from TOBF1 chromatin occupancy, the distribution of its pluripotency-associated OCT-SOX binding motifs, and transcripts undergoing differential expression and AS upon its knockout, we describe local nuclear territories where these distinct events converge. Collectively, these contribute to the maintenance of mouse ESC identity.
    Keywords:  CP: Stem cell research; CRISPR interference; OCT-SOX; Panct1; SRSF1; TOBF1; alternative splicing; mESCs; pluripotency
  4. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2023 Sep 28.
      To understand how the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex regulates enhancers and enhancer-promoter interactions, we have developed an approach to segment and extract key biophysical parameters from live-cell three-dimensional single-molecule trajectories. Unexpectedly, this has revealed that NuRD binds to chromatin for minutes, decompacts chromatin structure and increases enhancer dynamics. We also uncovered a rare fast-diffusing state of enhancers and found that NuRD restricts the time spent in this state. Hi-C and Cut&Run experiments revealed that NuRD modulates enhancer-promoter interactions in active chromatin, allowing them to contact each other over longer distances. Furthermore, NuRD leads to a marked redistribution of CTCF and, in particular, cohesin. We propose that NuRD promotes a decondensed chromatin environment, where enhancers and promoters can contact each other over longer distances, and where the resetting of enhancer-promoter interactions brought about by the fast decondensed chromatin motions is reduced, leading to more stable, long-lived enhancer-promoter relationships.
  5. Nat Commun. 2023 Sep 28. 14(1): 6073
      Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are transcribed throughout the genome and provide regulatory inputs to gene expression through their interaction with chromatin. Yet, the genomic targets and functions of most ncRNAs are unknown. Here we use chromatin-associated RNA sequencing (ChAR-seq) to map the global network of ncRNA interactions with chromatin in human embryonic stem cells and the dynamic changes in interactions during differentiation into definitive endoderm. We uncover general principles governing the organization of the RNA-chromatin interactome, demonstrating that nearly all ncRNAs exclusively interact with genes in close three-dimensional proximity to their locus and provide a model predicting the interactome. We uncover RNAs that interact with many loci across the genome and unveil thousands of unannotated RNAs that dynamically interact with chromatin. By relating the dynamics of the interactome to changes in gene expression, we demonstrate that activation or repression of individual genes is unlikely to be controlled by a single ncRNA.
  6. iScience. 2023 Oct 20. 26(10): 107893
      Cell differentiation is achieved by acquiring a cell type-specific transcriptional program and epigenetic landscape. While the cell type-specific patterning of enhancers has been shown to precede cell fate decisions, it remains unclear how regulators of these enhancers are induced to initiate cell specification and how they appropriately restrict cells that differentiate. Here, using embryonic stem cell-derived hematopoietic cell differentiation cultures, we show the activation of some hematopoietic enhancers during arterialization of hemogenic endothelium, a prerequisite for hematopoiesis. We further reveal that ZEB2, a factor involved in the transcriptional regulation of arterial endothelial cells, and a hematopoietic regulator MEIS1 are independently required for activating these enhancers. Concomitantly, ZEB2 or MEIS1 deficiency impaired hematopoietic cell development. These results suggest that multiple regulators expressed from an earlier developmental stage non-redundantly contribute to the establishment of hematopoietic enhancer landscape, thereby restricting cell differentiation despite the unrestricted expression of these regulators to hematopoietic cells.
    Keywords:  Biological sciences; Developmental biology; Natural sciences
  7. J Biochem. 2023 Sep 26. pii: mvad069. [Epub ahead of print]
      Histone H3.8 is a non-allelic human histone H3 variant derived from H3.3. H3.8 reportedly forms an unstable nucleosome, but its structure and biochemical characteristics have not been revealed yet. In the present study, we reconstituted the nucleosome containing H3.8. Consistent with previous results, the H3.8 nucleosome is thermally unstable as compared to the H3.3 nucleosome. The entry/exit DNA regions of the H3.8 nucleosome are more accessible to micrococcal nuclease than those of the H3.3 nucleosome. Nucleosome transcription assays revealed that the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) pausing around the superhelical location (SHL) -1 position, which is about 60 base pairs from the nucleosomal DNA entry site, is drastically alleviated. On the other hand, the RNAPII pausing around the SHL(-5) position, which is about 20 base pairs from the nucleosomal DNA entry site, is substantially increased. The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the H3.8 nucleosome explains the mechanisms of the enhanced accessibility of the entry/exit DNA regions, reduced thermal stability, and altered RNAPII transcription profile.
    Keywords:  Chromatin; Epigenetics; H3.8; Histone variant; Nucleosome
  8. Dev Cell. 2023 Sep 25. pii: S1534-5807(23)00438-0. [Epub ahead of print]58(18): 1701-1715.e8
      Cell fate can be reprogrammed by ectopic expression of lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs). However, the exact cell state transitions during transdifferentiation are still poorly understood. Here, we have generated pancreatic exocrine cells of ductal epithelial identity from human fibroblasts using a set of six TFs. We mapped the molecular determinants of lineage dynamics using a factor-indexing method based on single-nuclei multiome sequencing (FI-snMultiome-seq) that enables dissecting the role of each individual TF and pool of TFs in cell fate conversion. We show that transition from mesenchymal fibroblast identity to epithelial pancreatic exocrine fate involves two deterministic steps: an endodermal progenitor state defined by activation of HHEX with FOXA2 and SOX17 and a temporal GATA4 activation essential for the maintenance of pancreatic cell fate program. Collectively, our data suggest that transdifferentiation-although being considered a direct cell fate conversion method-occurs through transient progenitor states orchestrated by stepwise activation of distinct TFs.
    Keywords:  cell fate; direct reprogramming; epigenetics; exocrine pancreas; gene regulation; single-cell multiome sequencing; transcription factor
  9. Nat Biotechnol. 2023 Sep 25.
      Complex gene regulatory mechanisms underlie differentiation and reprogramming. Contemporary single-cell lineage-tracing (scLT) methods use expressed, heritable DNA barcodes to combine cell lineage readout with single-cell transcriptomics. However, reliance on transcriptional profiling limits adaptation to other single-cell assays. With CellTag-multi, we present an approach that enables direct capture of heritable random barcodes expressed as polyadenylated transcripts, in both single-cell RNA sequencing and single-cell Assay for Transposase Accessible Chromatin using sequencing assays, allowing for independent clonal tracking of transcriptional and epigenomic cell states. We validate CellTag-multi to characterize progenitor cell lineage priming during mouse hematopoiesis. Additionally, in direct reprogramming of fibroblasts to endoderm progenitors, we identify core regulatory programs underlying on-target and off-target fates. Furthermore, we reveal the transcription factor Zfp281 as a regulator of reprogramming outcome, biasing cells toward an off-target mesenchymal fate. Our results establish CellTag-multi as a lineage-tracing method compatible with multiple single-cell modalities and demonstrate its utility in revealing fate-specifying gene regulatory changes across diverse paradigms of differentiation and reprogramming.
  10. Nat Commun. 2023 09 25. 14(1): 5979
      Eukaryotic gene regulation and pre-mRNA transcription depend on the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase (Pol) II. Due to its highly repetitive, intrinsically disordered sequence, the CTD enables clustering and phase separation of Pol II. The molecular interactions that drive CTD phase separation and Pol II clustering are unclear. Here, we show that multivalent interactions involving tyrosine impart temperature- and concentration-dependent self-coacervation of the CTD. NMR spectroscopy, molecular ensemble calculations and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate the presence of diverse tyrosine-engaging interactions, including tyrosine-proline contacts, in condensed states of human CTD and other low-complexity proteins. We further show that the network of multivalent interactions involving tyrosine is responsible for the co-recruitment of the human Mediator complex and CTD during phase separation. Our work advances the understanding of the driving forces of CTD phase separation and thus provides the basis to better understand CTD-mediated Pol II clustering in eukaryotic gene transcription.
  11. BMC Genomics. 2023 Sep 27. 24(1): 574
      BACKGROUND: Super-enhancers (SEs), which activate genes involved in cell-type specificity, have mainly been defined as genomic regions with top-ranked enrichment(s) of histone H3 with acetylated K27 (H3K27ac) and/or transcription coactivator(s) including a bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) family protein, BRD4. However, BRD4 preferentially binds to multi-acetylated histone H4, typically with acetylated K5 and K8 (H4K5acK8ac), leading us to hypothesize that SEs should be defined by high H4K5acK8ac enrichment at least as well as by that of H3K27ac.RESULTS: Here, we conducted genome-wide profiling of H4K5acK8ac and H3K27ac, BRD4 binding, and the transcriptome by using a BET inhibitor, JQ1, in three human glial cell lines. When SEs were defined as having the top ranks for H4K5acK8ac or H3K27ac signal, 43% of H4K5acK8ac-ranked SEs were distinct from H3K27ac-ranked SEs in a glioblastoma stem-like cell (GSC) line. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated deletion of the H4K5acK8ac-preferred SEs associated with MYCN and NFIC decreased the stem-like properties in GSCs.
    CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our data highlights H4K5acK8ac's utility for identifying genes regulating cell-type specificity.
    Keywords:  Epigenetics; Histone acetylation; Inhibitor; Nucleosome; Tumorigenesis
  12. Cell. 2023 Sep 28. pii: S0092-8674(23)00974-1. [Epub ahead of print]186(20): 4422-4437.e21
      Recent work has identified dozens of non-coding loci for Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk, but their mechanisms and AD transcriptional regulatory circuitry are poorly understood. Here, we profile epigenomic and transcriptomic landscapes of 850,000 nuclei from prefrontal cortexes of 92 individuals with and without AD to build a map of the brain regulome, including epigenomic profiles, transcriptional regulators, co-accessibility modules, and peak-to-gene links in a cell-type-specific manner. We develop methods for multimodal integration and detecting regulatory modules using peak-to-gene linking. We show AD risk loci are enriched in microglial enhancers and for specific TFs including SPI1, ELF2, and RUNX1. We detect 9,628 cell-type-specific ATAC-QTL loci, which we integrate alongside peak-to-gene links to prioritize AD variant regulatory circuits. We report differential accessibility of regulatory modules in late AD in glia and in early AD in neurons. Strikingly, late-stage AD brains show global epigenome dysregulation indicative of epigenome erosion and cell identity loss.
    Keywords:  ATAC-QTL; Alzheimer’s disease; GWAS; epigenome; epigenome erosion; fine-mapping; multimodal integration; peak-to-gene linking
  13. Commun Biol. 2023 09 23. 6(1): 975
      Novel methods that combine single cell RNA-seq with CRISPR screens enable high-throughput characterization of transcriptional changes caused by genetic perturbations. Dedicated software is however lacking to annotate CRISPR guide RNA (gRNA) libraries and associate them with single cell transcriptomes. Here, we describe a CRISPR droplet sequencing (CROP-seq) dataset. During analysis, we observed that the most commonly used method fails to detect mutant gRNAs. We therefore developed a python tool to identify and characterize intact and mutant gRNAs, called GiRAFR. We show that mutant gRNAs are dysfunctional, and failure to detect and annotate them leads to an inflated estimate of the number of untransformed cells, attenuated downregulation of target genes, as well as an underestimated multiplet frequency. These findings are mirrored in publicly available datasets, where we find that up to 35% of cells are transduced with a mutant gRNA. Applying GiRAFR hence stands to improve the annotation and quality of single cell CRISPR screens.
  14. J Biol Chem. 2023 Sep 23. pii: S0021-9258(23)02317-7. [Epub ahead of print] 105289
      Yeast mRNAs are polyadenylated at multiple sites in their 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs), and poly(A) site usage is regulated by the rate of transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Slow Pol II derivatives favor upstream poly(A) sites, and fast Pol II derivatives favor downstream poly(A) sites. Transcriptional elongation and polyadenylation are linked at the nucleotide level, presumably reflecting Pol II dwell time at each residue that influences the level of polyadenylation. Here, we investigate the effect of Pol II elongation rate on pausing patterns and the relationship between Pol II pause sites and poly(A) sites within 3' UTRs. Mutations that affect Pol II elongation rate alter sequence preferences at pause sites within 3' UTRs, and pausing preferences differ between 3' UTRs and coding regions. In addition, sequences immediately flanking the pause sites show preferences that are largely independent of Pol II speed. In wild-type cells, poly(A) sites are preferentially located < 50 nucleotides upstream from Pol II pause sites, but this spatial relationship is diminished in cells harboring Pol II speed mutants. Based on a random forest classifier, Pol II pause sites are modestly predicted by the distance to poly(A) sites but are better predicted by the chromatin landscape in Pol II speed derivatives. Transcriptional regulatory proteins can influence the relationship between Pol II pausing and polyadenylation, but in a manner distinct from Pol II elongation rate derivatives. These results indicate a complex relationship between Pol II pausing and polyadenylation.
    Keywords:  RNA polymerase II; RNA synthesis; Transcription; gene regulation; polyadenylation
  15. PLoS Genet. 2023 Sep 25. 19(9): e1010945
      Facultative heterochromatin controls development and differentiation in many eukaryotes. In metazoans, plants, and many filamentous fungi, facultative heterochromatin is characterized by transcriptional repression and enrichment with nucleosomes that are trimethylated at histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3). While loss of H3K27me3 results in derepression of transcriptional gene silencing in many species, additional up- and downstream layers of regulation are necessary to mediate control of transcription in chromosome regions enriched with H3K27me3. Here, we investigated the effects of one histone mark on histone H4, namely H4K20me3, in the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici, a globally important pathogen of wheat. Deletion of kmt5, the gene encoding the sole methyltransferase responsible for H4K20 methylation, resulted in global derepression of transcription, especially in regions of facultative heterochromatin. Derepression in the absence of H4K20me3 not only affected known genes but also a large number of novel, previously undetected transcripts generated from regions of facultative heterochromatin on accessory chromosomes. Transcriptional activation in kmt5 deletion strains was accompanied by a complete loss of Ash1-mediated H3K36me3 and chromatin reorganization affecting H3K27me3 and H3K4me2 distribution in regions of facultative heterochromatin. Strains with H4K20L, M or Q mutations in the single histone H4 gene of Z. tritici recapitulated these chromatin changes, suggesting that H4K20me3 is important for Ash1-mediated H3K36me3. The ∆kmt5 mutants we obtained were more sensitive to genotoxic stressors than wild type and both, ∆kmt5 and ∆ash1, showed greatly increased rates of accessory chromosome loss. Taken together, our results provide insights into an unsuspected mechanism involved in the assembly and maintenance of facultative heterochromatin.
  16. Genome Res. 2023 Sep 26. pii: gr.277947.123. [Epub ahead of print]
    GplusE Consortium
      We herein report the generation of an organism-wide catalogue of 976,813 cis-acting regulatory elements for the bovine detected by the Assay for Transposase Accessible Chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-Seq). We regroup these regulatory elements in 16 components by nonnegative matrix factorization. Correlations between the genome-wide density of peaks and transcription start sites, between peak accessibility and expression of neighboring genes, and enrichment in transcription factor binding motifs supports their regulatory potential. Using a previously established catalogue of 12,736,643 variants, we show that the proportion of single nucleotide polymorphisms mapping to ATAC-seq peaks is higher than expected and that this is due to an ~ 1.3-fold higher mutation rate within than outside peaks. Their site frequency spectrum indicates that variants in ATAC-seq peaks are subject to purifying selection. We generate eQTL datasets for liver and blood and show that variants that drive eQTL fall into liver and blood-specific ATAC-seq peaks more often than expected by chance. We combine ATAC-seq and eQTL data to estimate that the proportion of regulatory variants mapping to ATAC-seq peaks is approximately 1 in 3, and that the proportion of variants mapping to ATAC-seq peaks that are regulatory is approximately 1 in 25. We discuss the implication of these findings on the utility of ATAC-seq information to improve the accuracy of genomic selection.
  17. PLoS Comput Biol. 2023 Sep 29. 19(9): e1011525
      Genetic feedback loops can be used by cells to regulate internal processes or to keep track of time. It is often thought that, for a genetic circuit to display self-sustained oscillations, a degree of cooperativity is needed in the binding and unbinding of actor species. This cooperativity is usually modeled using a Hill function, regardless of the actual promoter architecture. Furthermore, genetic circuits do not operate in isolation and often transcription factors are shared between different promoters. In this work we show how mathematical modelling of genetic feedback loops can be facilitated with a mechanistic fold-change function that takes into account the titration effect caused by competing binding sites for transcription factors. The model shows how the titration effect facilitates self-sustained oscillations in a minimal genetic feedback loop: a gene that produces its own repressor directly without cooperative transcription factor binding. The use of delay-differential equations leads to a stability contour that predicts whether a genetic feedback loop will show self-sustained oscillations, even when taking the bursty nature of transcription into account.
  18. Nat Cell Biol. 2023 Sep 25.
      All eukaryotic cells require a minimal iron threshold to sustain anabolic metabolism. However, the mechanisms by which cells sense iron to regulate anabolic processes are unclear. Here we report a previously undescribed eukaryotic pathway for iron sensing in which molecular iron is required to sustain active histone demethylation and maintain the expression of critical components of the pro-anabolic mTORC1 pathway. Specifically, we identify the iron-binding histone-demethylase KDM3B as an intrinsic iron sensor that regulates mTORC1 activity by demethylating H3K9me2 at enhancers of a high-affinity leucine transporter, LAT3, and RPTOR. By directly suppressing leucine availability and RAPTOR levels, iron deficiency supersedes other nutrient inputs into mTORC1. This process occurs in vivo and is not an indirect effect by canonical iron-utilizing pathways. Because ancestral eukaryotes share homologues of KDMs and mTORC1 core components, this pathway probably pre-dated the emergence of the other kingdom-specific nutrient sensors for mTORC1.
  19. iScience. 2023 Oct 20. 26(10): 107887
      Neural induction is a process where naive cells are converted into committed cells with neural characteristics, and it occurs at the earliest step during embryogenesis. Although the signaling molecules and chromatin remodeling for neural induction have been identified, the mutual relationships between these molecules are yet to be fully understood. By taking advantage of the neural differentiation system of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, we discovered that the BMP signal regulates the expression of several polycomb repressor complex (PRC) component genes. We particularly focused on Polyhomeotic Homolog 1 (Phc1) and established Phc1-knockout (Phc1-KO) ES cells. We found that Phc1-KO failed to acquire the neural fate, and the cells remained in pluripotent or primitive non-neural states. Chromatin accessibility analysis suggests that Phc1 is essential for chromatin packing. Aberrant upregulation of the BMP signal was confirmed in the Phc1 homozygotic mutant embryos. Taken together, Phc1 is required for neural differentiation through epigenetic modification.
    Keywords:  Epigenetics; Molecular biology; Neuroscience; Stem cells research; Transcriptomics
  20. Mol Cancer Ther. 2023 Sep 23.
      The Hippo pathway and its downstream effectors, the YAP and TAZ transcriptional co-activators, are deregulated in multiple different types of human cancer and are required for cancer cell phenotypes in vitro and in vivo, while largely dispensable for tissue homeostasis in adult mice. YAP/TAZ and their main partner transcription factors, the TEAD1-4 factors, are therefore promising anti-cancer targets. Due to frequent YAP/TAZ hyperactivation caused by mutations in the Hippo pathway components NF2 and LATS2, mesothelioma is one of the prime cancer types predicted to be responsive to YAP/TAZ-TEAD inhibitor treatment. Mesothelioma is a devastating disease for which currently no effective treatment options exist. Here, we describe a novel covalent YAP/TAZ-TEAD inhibitor, SWTX-143, that binds to the palmitoylation pocket of all four TEAD isoforms. SWTX-143 caused irreversible and specific inhibition of the transcriptional activity of YAP/TAZ-TEAD in Hippo-mutant tumor cell lines. More importantly, YAP/TAZ-TEAD inhibitor treatment caused strong mesothelioma regression in subcutaneous xenograft models with human cells and in an orthotopic mesothelioma mouse model. Finally, SWTX-143 also selectively impaired the growth of NF2-mutant kidney cancer cell lines, suggesting that the sensitivity of mesothelioma models to these YAP/TAZ-TEAD inhibitors can be extended to other tumor types with aberrations in Hippo signaling. In brief, we describe a novel and specific YAP/TAZ-TEAD inhibitor that has potential to treat multiple Hippo-mutant solid tumor types.
  21. Bioinform Adv. 2023 ;3(1): vbad121
      Motivation: Kethoxal-assisted ssDNA sequencing (KAS-seq) is rapidly gaining popularity as a robust and effective approach to study the nascent dynamics of transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerases through profiling of genome-wide single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Its latest variant, spKAS-seq, a strand-specific version of KAS-seq, has been developed to map genome-wide R-loop structures by detecting imbalances of ssDNA on two strands. However, user-friendly, open-source computational tools tailored for KAS-seq data are still lacking.Results: Here, we introduce KAS-Analyzer, the first comprehensive computational framework aimed at streamlining and enhancing the analysis and interpretation of KAS-seq and spKAS-seq data. In addition to standard analyses, KAS-Analyzer offers many novel tools specifically designed for KAS-seq data, including, but not limited to: calculation of transcription-related metrics, identification of single-stranded transcribing (SST) enhancers, high-resolution mapping of R-loops, and differential RNA polymerase activity analysis. We provided a detailed overview of KAS-seq data and its diverse applications through the implementation of KAS-Analyzer. Using the example time-course KAS-seq datasets, we further showcase the robust capabilities of KAS-Analyzer for investigating dynamic transcriptional regulatory programs in response to UVB radiation.
    Availability and implementation: KAS-Analyzer is available at