bims-celmim Biomed News
on Cellular and mitochondrial metabolism
Issue of 2024‒03‒03
thirty papers selected by
Marc Segarra Mondejar, University of Cologne

  1. Acta Neuropathol. 2024 Feb 28. 147(1): 48
      Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a multisystem genetic disorder characterized by the development of benign tumors in various organs, including the brain, and is often accompanied by epilepsy, neurodevelopmental comorbidities including intellectual disability and autism. A key hallmark of TSC is the hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which induces alterations in cortical development and metabolic processes in astrocytes, among other cellular functions. These changes could modulate seizure susceptibility, contributing to the progression of epilepsy and its associated comorbidities. Epilepsy is characterized by dysregulation of calcium (Ca2+) channels and intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. These factors contribute to hyperexcitability, disrupted synaptogenesis, and altered synchronization of neuronal networks, all of which contribute to seizure activity. This study investigates the intricate interplay between altered Ca2+ dynamics, mTOR pathway dysregulation, and cellular metabolism in astrocytes. The transcriptional profile of TSC patients revealed significant alterations in pathways associated with cellular respiration, ER and mitochondria, and Ca2+ regulation. TSC astrocytes exhibited lack of responsiveness to various stimuli, compromised oxygen consumption rate and reserve respiratory capacity underscoring their reduced capacity to react to environmental changes or cellular stress. Furthermore, our study revealed significant reduction of store operated calcium entry (SOCE) along with strong decrease of basal mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration and Ca2+ influx in TSC astrocytes. In addition, we observed alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential, characterized by increased depolarization in TSC astrocytes. Lastly, we provide initial evidence of structural abnormalities in mitochondria within TSC patient-derived astrocytes, suggesting a potential link between disrupted Ca2+ signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our findings underscore the complexity of the relationship between Ca2+ signaling, mitochondria dynamics, apoptosis, and mTOR hyperactivation. Further exploration is required to shed light on the pathophysiology of TSC and on TSC associated neuropsychiatric disorders offering further potential avenues for therapeutic development.
    Keywords:  Astrocytes; Calcium signaling; Epilepsy; Mitochondria; Tuberous sclerosis complex; mTOR
  2. Nat Metab. 2024 Feb 28.
      Reproductive ageing is one of the earliest human ageing phenotypes, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to oocyte quality decline; however, it is not known which mitochondrial metabolic processes are critical for oocyte quality maintenance with age. To understand how mitochondrial processes contribute to Caenorhabditis elegans oocyte quality, we characterized the mitochondrial proteomes of young and aged wild-type and long-reproductive daf-2 mutants. Here we show that the mitochondrial proteomic profiles of young wild-type and daf-2 worms are similar and share upregulation of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism pathway enzymes. Reduction of the BCAA catabolism enzyme BCAT-1 shortens reproduction, elevates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels, and shifts mitochondrial localization. Moreover, bcat-1 knockdown decreases oocyte quality in daf-2 worms and reduces reproductive capability, indicating the role of this pathway in the maintenance of oocyte quality with age. Notably, oocyte quality deterioration can be delayed, and reproduction can be extended in wild-type animals both by bcat-1 overexpression and by supplementing with vitamin B1, a cofactor needed for BCAA metabolism.
  3. Redox Biol. 2024 Jan 17. pii: S2213-2317(24)00013-2. [Epub ahead of print]71 103037
      Mitochondrial respiration extends beyond ATP generation, with the organelle participating in many cellular and physiological processes. Parallel changes in components of the mitochondrial electron transfer system with respiration render it an appropriate hub for coordinating cellular adaption to changes in oxygen levels. How changes in respiration under functional hypoxia (i.e., when intracellular O2 levels limit mitochondrial respiration) are relayed by the electron transfer system to impact mitochondrial adaption and remodeling after hypoxic exposure remains poorly defined. This is largely due to challenges integrating findings under controlled and defined O2 levels in studies connecting functions of isolated mitochondria to humans during physical exercise. Here we present experiments under conditions of hypoxia in isolated mitochondria, myotubes and exercising humans. Performing steady-state respirometry with isolated mitochondria we found that oxygen limitation of respiration reduced electron flow and oxidative phosphorylation, lowered the mitochondrial membrane potential difference, and decreased mitochondrial calcium influx. Similarly, in myotubes under functional hypoxia mitochondrial calcium uptake decreased in response to sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release for contraction. In both myotubes and human skeletal muscle this blunted mitochondrial adaptive responses and remodeling upon contractions. Our results suggest that by regulating calcium uptake the mitochondrial electron transfer system is a hub for coordinating cellular adaption under functional hypoxia.
    Keywords:  Coenzyme Q; Exercise; Membrane potential; Respirometry; Skeletal muscle
  4. Methods Mol Biol. 2024 ;2761 49-55
      High-resolution mitochondrial respirometry is a modern technique that enables to measure mitochondrial respiration in various cell types. It contains chambers with oxygen sensors that measure oxygen concentration via polarography and calculate its consumption. The chamber contains plastic stoppers with injection ports that allow the injection of samples and different substrates, inhibitors, and uncoupler substances to measure mitochondrial respiration with high efficiency. These substances act on the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and help to assess the mitochondrial ATP production capacity and oxidative phosphorylation. The respirograph obtained with the help of software represents the oxygen consumption in each stage after adding different reagents.
    Keywords:  ATP; High-resolution respirometry; Mitochondria; OXPHOS; Respiratory control ratio; SUIT protocol
  5. Nat Commun. 2024 Feb 28. 15(1): 1799
      In the liver, mitochondria are exposed to different concentrations of nutrients due to their spatial positioning across the periportal and pericentral axis. How the mitochondria sense and integrate these signals to respond and maintain homeostasis is not known. Here, we combine intravital microscopy, spatial proteomics, and functional assessment to investigate mitochondrial heterogeneity in the context of liver zonation. We find that periportal and pericentral mitochondria are morphologically and functionally distinct; beta-oxidation is elevated in periportal regions, while lipid synthesis is predominant in the pericentral mitochondria. In addition, comparative phosphoproteomics reveals spatially distinct patterns of mitochondrial composition and potential regulation via phosphorylation. Acute pharmacological modulation of nutrient sensing through AMPK and mTOR shifts mitochondrial phenotypes in the periportal and pericentral regions, linking nutrient gradients across the lobule and mitochondrial heterogeneity. This study highlights the role of protein phosphorylation in mitochondrial structure, function, and overall homeostasis in hepatic metabolic zonation. These findings have important implications for liver physiology and disease.
  6. iScience. 2024 Mar 15. 27(3): 109157
      In the embryonic heart, the activation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) coincides with the closure of the cyclophilin D (CypD) regulated mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). However, it remains to be established whether the absence of CypD has a regulatory effect on mitochondria during cardiac development. Using a variety of assays to analyze cardiac tissue from wildtype and CypD knockout mice from embryonic day (E)9.5 to adult, we found that mitochondrial structure, function, and metabolism show distinct transitions. Deletion of CypD altered the timing of these transitions as the mPTP was closed at all ages, leading to coupled ETC activity in the early embryo, decreased citrate synthase activity, and an altered metabolome particularly after birth. Our results suggest that manipulating CypD activity may control myocyte proliferation and differentiation and could be a tool to increase ATP production and cardiac function in immature hearts.
    Keywords:  Biological sciences; Cell biology; Metabolomics; Physiology
  7. Cell Chem Biol. 2024 Feb 26. pii: S2451-9456(24)00075-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      The immune system shapes tumor development and progression. Although immunotherapy has transformed cancer treatment, its overall efficacy remains limited, underscoring the need to uncover mechanisms to improve therapeutic effects. Metabolism-associated processes, including intracellular metabolic reprogramming and intercellular metabolic crosstalk, are emerging as instructive signals for anti-tumor immunity. Here, we first summarize the roles of intracellular metabolic pathways in controlling immune cell function in the tumor microenvironment. How intercellular metabolic communication regulates anti-tumor immunity, and the impact of metabolites or nutrients on signaling events, are also discussed. We then describe how targeting metabolic pathways in tumor cells or intratumoral immune cells or via nutrient-based interventions may boost cancer immunotherapies. Finally, we conclude with discussions on profiling and functional perturbation methods of metabolic activity in intratumoral immune cells, and perspectives on future directions. Uncovering the mechanisms for metabolic rewiring and communication in the tumor microenvironment may enable development of novel cancer immunotherapies.
  8. Cell Rep. 2024 Feb 28. pii: S2211-1247(24)00196-7. [Epub ahead of print]43(3): 113868
      Modeling tumor metabolism in vitro remains challenging. Here, we used galactose as an in vitro tool compound to mimic glycolytic limitation. In contrast to the established idea that high glycolytic flux reduces pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (PKM2) activity to support anabolic processes, we have discovered that glycolytic limitation also affects PKM2 activity. Surprisingly, despite limited carbon availability and energetic stress, cells induce a near-complete block of PKM2 to divert carbons toward serine metabolism. Simultaneously, TCA cycle flux is sustained, and oxygen consumption is increased, supported by glutamine. Glutamine not only supports TCA cycle flux but also serine synthesis via distinct mechanisms that are directed through PKM2 inhibition. Finally, deleting mitochondrial one-carbon (1C) cycle reversed the PKM2 block, suggesting a potential formate-dependent crosstalk that coordinates mitochondrial 1C flux and cytosolic glycolysis to support cell survival and proliferation during nutrient-scarce conditions.
    Keywords:  CP: Cancer; CP: Metabolism
  9. J Transl Med. 2024 Feb 27. 22(1): 210
      BACKGROUND: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is a prototypical tumor characterized by metabolic reprogramming, which extends beyond tumor cells to encompass diverse cell types within the tumor microenvironment. Nonetheless, current research on metabolic reprogramming in renal cell carcinoma mostly focuses on either tumor cells alone or conducts analyses of all cells within the tumor microenvironment as a mixture, thereby failing to precisely identify metabolic changes in different cell types within the tumor microenvironment.METHODS: Gathering 9 major single-cell RNA sequencing databases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma, encompassing 195 samples. Spatial transcriptomics data were selected to conduct metabolic activity analysis with spatial localization. Developing scMet program to convert RNA-seq data into scRNA-seq data for downstream analysis.
    RESULTS: Diverse cellular entities within the tumor microenvironment exhibit distinct infiltration preferences across varying histological grades and tissue origins. Higher-grade tumors manifest pronounced immunosuppressive traits. The identification of tumor cells in the RNA splicing state reveals an association between the enrichment of this particular cellular population and an unfavorable prognostic outcome. The energy metabolism of CD8+ T cells is pivotal not only for their cytotoxic effector functions but also as a marker of impending cellular exhaustion. Sphingolipid metabolism evinces a correlation with diverse macrophage-specific traits, particularly M2 polarization. The tumor epicenter is characterized by heightened metabolic activity, prominently marked by elevated tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis while the pericapsular milieu showcases a conspicuous enrichment of attributes associated with vasculogenesis, inflammatory responses, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The scMet facilitates the transformation of RNA sequencing datasets sourced from TCGA into scRNA sequencing data, maintaining a substantial degree of correlation.
    CONCLUSIONS: The tumor microenvironment of clear cell renal cell carcinoma demonstrates significant metabolic heterogeneity across various cell types and spatial dimensions. scMet exhibits a notable capability to transform RNA sequencing data into scRNA sequencing data with a high degree of correlation.
    Keywords:  Clear cell renal cell carcinoma; Deep learning; Metabolic reprogramming; Single-cell RNA sequencing; Spatial transcriptome; Tumor microenvironment
  10. bioRxiv. 2024 Feb 13. pii: 2024.02.12.579959. [Epub ahead of print]
      Hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of microtubule-associated tau is a pathogenic hallmark of tauopathies and a defining feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Pathological tau is targeted by autophagy for clearance, but autophagy dysfunction is indicated in tauopathy. While mitochondrial bioenergetic failure has been shown to precede the development of tau pathology, it is unclear whether energy metabolism deficiency is involved in tauopathy-related autophagy defects. Here, we reveal that stimulation of anaplerotic metabolism restores defective oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in tauopathy which, strikingly, leads to enhanced autophagy and pronounced tau clearance. OXPHOS-induced autophagy is attributed to increased ATP-dependent phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis in mitochondria. Excitingly, early bioenergetic stimulation boosts autophagy activity and reduces tau pathology, thereby counteracting memory impairment in tauopathy mice. Taken together, our study sheds light on a pivotal role of bioenergetic dysfunction in tauopathy-linked autophagy defects and suggests a new therapeutic strategy to prevent toxic tau buildup in AD and other tauopathies.
  11. J Biol Chem. 2024 Feb 23. pii: S0021-9258(24)01267-5. [Epub ahead of print] 106794
      Retinal bipolar and amacrine cells receive visual information from photoreceptors and participate in the first steps of image processing in the retina. Several studies have suggested the operation of aerobic glycolysis and a lactate shuttle system in the retina due to the high production of this metabolite under aerobic conditions. However, whether bipolar cells form part of this metabolic circuit remains unclear. Here, we show that the lactate transporter MCT2 is expressed and functional in inner retinal neurons. Additionally, we used genetically encoded FRET nanosensors to demonstrate the ability of inner retinal neurons to consume extracellular lactate as an alternative to glucose. In rod bipolar cells, lactate consumption allowed cells to maintain the homeostasis of ions and electrical responses. We also found that lactate synthesis and transporter inhibition caused functional alterations and an increased rate of cell death. Overall, our data shed light on a notable but still poorly understood aspect of retinal metabolism.
    Keywords:  Retina; bipolar cells; lactate; lactate shuttle; monocarboxylate transporters
  12. iScience. 2024 Mar 15. 27(3): 109189
      Phospholipids are major components of biological membranes and play structural and regulatory roles in various biological processes. To determine the biological significance of phospholipids, the use of chemical inhibitors of phospholipid metabolism offers an effective approach; however, the availability of such compounds is limited. In this study, we performed a chemical-genetic screening using yeast and identified small molecules capable of inhibiting phosphatidylcholine (PC) biogenesis, which we designated PC inhibitors 1, 2, 3, and 4 (PCiB-1, 2, 3, and 4). Biochemical analyses indicated that PCiB-2, 3, and 4 inhibited the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) methyltransferase activity of Cho2, whereas PCiB-1 may inhibit PE transport from mitochondria to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Interestingly, we found that PCiB treatment resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation, which was suppressed by expression of a dominant-negative mutant of the mitochondrial division factor Dnm1. These results provide evidence that normal PC biogenesis is important for the regulation of mitochondrial division.
    Keywords:  Biochemistry; Biological sciences; Cell biology
  13. Cell Death Dis. 2024 Feb 28. 15(2): 176
      The current focus in oncology research is the translational control of cancer cells as a major mechanism of cellular plasticity. Recent evidence has prompted a reevaluation of the role of the mTOR pathway in cancer development leading to new conclusions. The mechanistic mTOR inhibition is well known to be a tool for generating quiescent stem cells and cancer cells. In response to mTOR suppression, quiescent cancer cells dynamically change their proteome, triggering alternative non-canonical translation mechanisms. The shift to selective translation may have clinical relevance, since quiescent tumor cells can acquire new phenotypical features. This review provides new insights into the patterns of mTOR functioning in quiescent cancer cells, enhancing our current understanding of the biology of latent metastasis.
  14. Front Immunol. 2024 ;15 1347181
      Cancer is a leading cause of human death worldwide, and the modulation of the metabolic properties of T cells employed in cancer immunotherapy holds great promise for combating cancer. As a crucial factor, energy metabolism influences the activation, proliferation, and function of T cells, and thus metabolic reprogramming of T cells is a unique research perspective in cancer immunology. Special conditions within the tumor microenvironment and high-energy demands lead to alterations in the energy metabolism of T cells. In-depth research on the reprogramming of energy metabolism in T cells can reveal the mechanisms underlying tumor immune tolerance and provide important clues for the development of new tumor immunotherapy strategies as well. Therefore, the study of T cell energy metabolism has important clinical significance and potential applications. In the study, the current achievements in the reprogramming of T cell energy metabolism were reviewed. Then, the influencing factors associated with T cell energy metabolism were introduced. In addition, T cell energy metabolism in cancer immunotherapy was summarized, which highlighted its potential significance in enhancing T cell function and therapeutic outcomes. In summary, energy exhaustion of T cells leads to functional exhaustion, thus resulting in immune evasion by cancer cells. A better understanding of reprogramming of T cell energy metabolism may enable immunotherapy to combat cancer and holds promise for optimizing and enhancing existing therapeutic approaches.
    Keywords:  T cells; energy metabolism; immune microenvironment; immunotherapy; metabolic reprogramming
  15. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2024 Feb 29. pii: S1043-2760(24)00027-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      From our daily nutrition and synthesis within cells, nucleosides enter the bloodstream and circulate throughout the body and tissues. Nucleosides and nucleotides are classically viewed as precursors of nucleic acids, but recently they have emerged as a novel energy source for central carbon metabolism. Through catabolism by nucleoside phosphorylases, the ribose sugar group is released and can provide substrates for lower steps in glycolysis. In environments with limited glucose, such as at sites of infection or in the tumor microenvironment (TME), cells can use, and may even require, this alternative energy source. Here, we discuss the implications of these new findings in health and disease and speculate on the potential new roles of nucleosides and nucleic acids in energy metabolism.
    Keywords:  Metabolism; UPP1; cancer; immunity; uridine; uridinolysis
  16. PLoS Comput Biol. 2024 Feb 29. 20(2): e1011919
      Improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer have revealed long-term side effects of chemotherapeutics, particularly cardiotoxicity. Here, we present paired transcriptomics and metabolomics data characterizing in vitro cardiotoxicity to three compounds: 5-fluorouracil, acetaminophen, and doxorubicin. Standard gene enrichment and metabolomics approaches identify some commonly affected pathways and metabolites but are not able to readily identify metabolic adaptations in response to cardiotoxicity. The paired data was integrated with a genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction of the heart to identify shifted metabolic functions, unique metabolic reactions, and changes in flux in metabolic reactions in response to these compounds. Using this approach, we confirm previously seen changes in the p53 pathway by doxorubicin and RNA synthesis by 5-fluorouracil, we find evidence for an increase in phospholipid metabolism in response to acetaminophen, and we see a shift in central carbon metabolism suggesting an increase in metabolic demand after treatment with doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil.
  17. bioRxiv. 2024 Feb 16. pii: 2024.02.15.580492. [Epub ahead of print]
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important regulator of Ca2+ in cells and dysregulation of ER calcium homeostasis can lead to numerous pathologies. Understanding how various pharmacological and genetic perturbations of ER Ca2+ homeostasis impacts cellular physiology would likely be facilitated by more quantitative measurements of ER Ca2+ levels that allow easier comparisons across conditions. Here, we developed a ratiometric version of our original ER-GCaMP probe that allows for more quantitative comparisons of the concentration of Ca2+ in the ER across cell types and sub-cellular compartments. Using this approach we show that the resting concentration of ER Ca2+ in primary dissociated neurons is substantially lower than that in measured in embryonic fibroblasts.
  18. bioRxiv. 2024 Feb 12. pii: 2024.02.11.579776. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mammalian tissues feed on nutrients in the blood circulation. At the organism-level, mammalian energy metabolism comprises of oxidation, interconverting, storing and releasing of circulating nutrients. Though much is known about the individual processes and nutrients, a holistic and quantitative model describing these processes for all major circulating nutrients is lacking. Here, by integrating isotope tracer infusion, mass spectrometry, and isotope gas analyzer measurement, we developed a framework to systematically quantify fluxes through these processes for 10 major circulating energy nutrients in mice, resulting in an organism-level quantitative flux model of energy metabolism. This model revealed in wildtype mice that circulating nutrients' metabolic cycling fluxes are more dominant than their oxidation fluxes, with distinct partition between cycling and oxidation flux for individual circulating nutrients. Applications of this framework in obese mouse models showed on a per animal basis extensive elevation of metabolic cycling fluxes in ob/ob mice, but not in diet-induced obese mice. Thus, our framework describes quantitatively the functioning of energy metabolism at the organism-level, valuable for revealing new features of energy metabolism in physiological and disease conditions.
    Keywords:  circulating nutrients; energy metabolism; in vivo flux quantification; isotope tracing; obesity
  19. Nat Commun. 2024 Feb 29. 15(1): 1879
      Cancer cells integrate multiple biosynthetic demands to drive unrestricted proliferation. How these cellular processes crosstalk to fuel cancer cell growth is still not fully understood. Here, we uncover the mechanisms by which the transcription factor Carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) functions as an oncogene during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Mechanistically, ChREBP triggers the expression of the PI3K regulatory subunit p85α, to sustain the activity of the pro-oncogenic PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in HCC. In parallel, increased ChREBP activity reroutes glucose and glutamine metabolic fluxes into fatty acid and nucleic acid synthesis to support PI3K/AKT-mediated HCC growth. Thus, HCC cells have a ChREBP-driven circuitry that ensures balanced coordination between PI3K/AKT signaling and appropriate cell anabolism to support HCC development. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of ChREBP by SBI-993 significantly suppresses in vivo HCC tumor growth. Overall, we show that targeting ChREBP with specific inhibitors provides an attractive therapeutic window for HCC treatment.
  20. Aging Cell. 2024 Feb 28. e14130
      Aging-associated renal dysfunction promotes the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease. Mitochondrial dysfunction in renal tubular epithelial cells is a hallmark of senescence and leads to accelerated progression of renal disorders. Dysregulated calcium profiles in mitochondria contribute to aging-associated disorders, but the detailed mechanism of this process is not clear. In this study, modulation of the sirtuin 1/angiotensin II type 1 receptor (Sirt1/AT1R) pathway partially attenuated renal glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis in D-galactose (D-gal)-induced accelerated aging mice. Moreover, modulation of the Sirt1/AT1R pathway improved mitochondrial dysfunction induced by D-gal treatment. Transient receptor potential channel, subtype C, member 3 (TRPC3) upregulation mediated dysregulated cellular and mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during aging. Furthermore, knockdown or knockout (KO) of Trpc3 in mice ameliorated D-gal-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, membrane potential deterioration, and energy metabolism disorder. Mechanistically, activation of the AT1R/PKA pathway promoted CREB phosphorylation and nucleation of CRE2 binding to the Trpc3 promoter (-1659 to -1648 bp) to enhance transcription. Trpc3 KO significantly improved the renal disorder and cell senescence in D-gal-induced mice. Taken together, these results indicate that TRPC3 upregulation mediates age-related renal disorder and is associated with mitochondrial calcium overload and dysfunction. TRPC3 is a promising therapeutic target for aging-associated renal disorders.
    Keywords:  cell senescence; cyclic AMP response element-binding protein; kidney tubules; mitochondrial disorders; transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 3
  21. Mol Carcinog. 2024 Feb 27.
      Homologous recombination (HR) and poly ADP-ribosylation are partially redundant pathways for the repair of DNA damage in normal and cancer cells. In cell lines that are deficient in HR, inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase [PARP]1/2) is a proven target with several PARP inhibitors (PARPis) currently in clinical use. Resistance to PARPi often develops, usually involving genetic alterations in DNA repair signaling cascades, but also metabolic rewiring particularly in HR-proficient cells. We surmised that alterations in metabolic pathways by cancer drugs such as Olaparib might be involved in the development of resistance to drug therapy. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a metabolism-focused clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats knockout screen to identify genes that undergo alterations during the treatment of tumor cells with PARPis. Of about 3000 genes in the screen, our data revealed that mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) is an essential factor in desensitizing nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lung cancer lines to PARP inhibition. In contrast to NSCLC lung cancer cells, triple-negative breast cancer cells do not exhibit such desensitization following MPC1 loss and reprogram the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation pathways to overcome PARPi treatment. Our findings unveil a previously unknown synergistic response between MPC1 loss and PARP inhibition in lung cancer cells.
    Keywords:  CRISPR screen; DNA damage response; NSCLC; PARP inhibitor; breast cancer; metabolism
  22. J Cell Physiol. 2024 Feb 25.
      Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic central nervous system (CNS) disorder characterized by demyelination, neuronal damage, and oligodendrocyte depletion. Reliable biomarkers are essential for early diagnosis and disease management. Emerging research highlights the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in CNS disorders, including MS, in which mitochondria are central to the degenerative process. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates the mitochondrial energy balance and initiates responses in neurodegenerative conditions. This systematic review, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, aimed to comprehensively assess the literature on AMPK pathways, mitochondrial dysfunction, and in vivo studies using MS animal models. The search strategy involved the use of AMPK syntaxes, MS syntaxes, and animal model syntaxes. The PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were systematically searched on August 26, 2023 without publication year restrictions. The review identified and analyzed relevant papers to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of related research. Eight studies utilizing various interventions and methodological approaches were included. Risk of bias assessment revealed some areas of low risk but lacked explicit reporting in others. These studies collectively revealed a complex relationship between AMPK, mitochondrial dysfunction, and MS pathogenesis, with both cuprizone and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models demonstrating associations between AMPK and mitochondrial disorders, including oxidative stress and impaired expression of mitochondrial genes. These studies illuminate the multifaceted role of AMPK in MS animal models, involving energy metabolism, inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, and gene regulation leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. However, unanswered questions about its mechanisms and clinical applications underscore the need for further research to fully harness its potential in addressing MS-related mitochondrial dysfunction.
    Keywords:  AMP-activated protein kinase; biomarkers; mitochondrial dysfunction; multiple sclerosis; neurodegenerative conditions; oxidative Stress
  23. J Proteome Res. 2024 Feb 28.
      Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) is a specialized technique to isolate specific cell subpopulations with a high level of recovery and accuracy. However, the cell sorting procedure can impact the viability and metabolic state of cells. Here, we performed a comparative study and evaluated the impact of traditional high-pressure charged droplet-based and microfluidic chip-based sorting on the metabolic and phosphoproteomic profile of different cell types. While microfluidic chip-based sorted cells more closely resembled the unsorted control group for most cell types tested, the droplet-based sorted cells showed significant metabolic and phosphoproteomic alterations. In particular, greater changes in redox and energy status were present in cells sorted with the droplet-based cell sorter along with larger shifts in proteostasis. 13C-isotope tracing analysis on cells recovering postsorting revealed that the sorter-induced suppression of mitochondrial TCA cycle activity recovered faster in the microfluidic chip-based sorted group. Apart from this, amino acid and lipid biosynthesis pathways were suppressed in sorted cells, with minimum impact and faster recovery in the microfluidic chip-based sorted group. These results indicate microfluidic chip-based sorting has a minimum impact on metabolism and is less disruptive compared to droplet-based sorting.
    Keywords:  LC-MS; Sorting; fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS); metabolomics; multiomics; phosphoproteomics; sorted cells; sorter-induced cellular stress (SICS); stable isotope tracing
  24. J Transl Med. 2024 Feb 28. 22(1): 212
      BACKGROUND: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is known for abnormal lipid metabolism and widespread activation of HIF-2α. Recently, the importance of autophagy in ccRCC has been focused, and it has potential connections with HIF-2α and lipid metabolism. However, the specific regulatory mechanism between HIF-2α, autophagy, and lipid metabolism in ccRCC is still unclear.METHODS: In this study, Bioinformatics Analysis and Sequencing of the whole transcriptome were used to screen our target. The expression of TBC1D5 in renal clear cell carcinoma was confirmed by database analysis, immunohistochemistry, PCR and Western blot. The effects of TBC1D5 on tumor cell growth, migration, invasion and lipid metabolism were examined by CCK8, Transwell and oil red staining, and the mechanism of TBC1D5 on autophagy was investigated by Western blot, fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. Chloroquine and rapamycin were used to verified the key role of autophagy in effects of TBC1D5 on tumor cell. The regulatory mechanism of TBC1D5 in renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC) was investigated by shhif-2α, shTBC1D5, mimic, inhibitor, ChIP and Luciferase experiments. The animal model of ccRCC was used to evaluate the biological function of TBC1D5 in vivo.
    RESULTS: In this study, TBC1D5 was found to be an important bridge between autophagy and HIF-2α. Specifically, TBC1D5 is significantly underexpressed in ccRCC, serving as a tumor suppressor which inhibits tumor progression and lipid accumulation, and is negatively regulated by HIF-2α. Further research has found that TBC1D5 regulates the autophagy pathway to reverse the biological function of HIF-2α in ccRCC. Mechanism studies have shown that HIF-2α regulates TBC1D5 through hsa-miR-7-5p in ccRCC, thereby affecting tumor progression and lipid metabolism through autophagy.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our research reveals a completely new pathway, HIF-2α/hsa-miR-7-5p/TBC1D5 pathway affects ccRCC progression and lipid metabolism by regulating autophagy.
  25. bioRxiv. 2024 Feb 14. pii: 2024.02.14.580288. [Epub ahead of print]
      Changes in mitochondrial distribution are a feature of numerous age-related neurodegenerative diseases. In Drosophila, reducing the activity of Cdk5 causes a neurodegenerative phenotype and is known to affect several mitochondrial properties. Therefore, we investigated whether alterations of mitochondrial distribution are involved in Cdk5-associated neurodegeneration. We find that reducing Cdk5 activity does not alter the balance of mitochondrial localization to the somatodendritic vs. axonal neuronal compartments of the mushroom body, the learning and memory center of the Drosophila brain. We do, however, observe changes in mitochondrial distribution at the axon initial segment (AIS), a neuronal compartment located in the proximal axon involved in neuronal polarization and action potential initiation. Specifically, we observe that mitochondria are partially excluded from the AIS in wild-type neurons, but that this exclusion is lost upon reduction of Cdk5 activity, concomitant with the shrinkage of the AIS domain that is known to occur in this condition. This mitochondrial redistribution into the AIS is not likely due to the shortening of the AIS domain itself but rather due to altered Cdk5 activity. Furthermore, mitochondrial redistribution into the AIS is unlikely to be an early driver of neurodegeneration in the context of reduced Cdk5 activity.
    Keywords:  Axon initial segment (AIS); Cdk5; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial distribution; Neurodegeneration
  26. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2024 Mar 05. 121(10): e2318771121
      Apical cilia on epithelial cells defend the lung by propelling pathogens and particulates out of the respiratory airways. Ciliated cells produce ATP that powers cilia beating by densely grouping mitochondria just beneath the apical membrane. However, this efficient localization comes at a cost because electrons leaked during oxidative phosphorylation react with molecular oxygen to form superoxide, and thus, the cluster of mitochondria creates a hotspot for oxidant production. The relatively high oxygen concentration overlying airway epithelia further intensifies the risk of generating superoxide. Thus, airway ciliated cells face a unique challenge of producing harmful levels of oxidants. However, surprisingly, highly ciliated epithelia produce less reactive oxygen species (ROS) than epithelia with few ciliated cells. Compared to other airway cell types, ciliated cells express high levels of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins, UCP2 and UCP5. These proteins decrease mitochondrial protonmotive force and thereby reduce production of ROS. As a result, lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidant injury, decreases. However, mitochondrial uncoupling proteins exact a price for decreasing oxidant production; they decrease the fraction of mitochondrial respiration that generates ATP. These findings indicate that ciliated cells sacrifice mitochondrial efficiency in exchange for safety from damaging oxidation. Employing uncoupling proteins to prevent oxidant production, instead of relying solely on antioxidants to decrease postproduction oxidant levels, may offer an advantage for targeting a local area of intense ROS generation.
    Keywords:  lung; metabolism; motile cilia; oxygen; reactive oxygen species
  27. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2024 Mar 05. 121(10): e2313540121
      Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) cause autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 is a Ser/Thr kinase that regulates mitochondrial quality control by triggering mitophagy mediated by the ubiquitin (Ub) ligase Parkin. Upon mitochondrial damage, PINK1 accumulates on the outer mitochondrial membrane forming a high-molecular-weight complex with the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM). PINK1 then phosphorylates Ub, which enables recruitment and activation of Parkin followed by autophagic clearance of the damaged mitochondrion. Thus, Parkin-dependent mitophagy hinges on the stable accumulation of PINK1 on the TOM complex. Yet, the mechanism linking mitochondrial stressors to PINK1 accumulation and whether the translocases of the inner membrane (TIMs) are also involved remain unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that mitochondrial stress induces the formation of a PINK1-TOM-TIM23 supercomplex in human cultured cell lines, dopamine neurons, and midbrain organoids. Moreover, we show that PINK1 is required to stably tether the TOM to TIM23 complexes in response to stress such that the supercomplex fails to accumulate in cells lacking PINK1. This tethering is dependent on an interaction between the PINK1 N-terminal-C-terminal extension module and the cytosolic domain of the Tom20 subunit of the TOM complex, the disruption of which, by either designer or PD-associated PINK1 mutations, inhibits downstream mitophagy. Together, the findings provide key insight into how PINK1 interfaces with the mitochondrial import machinery, with important implications for the mechanisms of mitochondrial quality control and PD pathogenesis.
    Keywords:  PINK1; mitochondrial import; mitochondrial quality control; mitophagy; proteolysis
  28. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2024 Mar 05. 121(10): e2315493121
      Oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins (ORPs) play key roles in the distribution of lipids in eukaryotic cells by exchanging sterol or phosphatidylserine for PI4P between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other cell regions. However, it is unclear how their exchange capacity is coupled to PI4P metabolism. To address this question quantitatively, we analyze the activity of a representative ORP, Osh4p, in an ER/Golgi interface reconstituted with ER- and Golgi-mimetic membranes functionalized with PI4P phosphatase Sac1p and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase, respectively. Using real-time assays, we demonstrate that upon adenosine triphosphate (ATP) addition, Osh4p creates a sterol gradient between these membranes, relying on the spatially distant synthesis and hydrolysis of PI4P, and quantify how much PI4P is needed for this process. Then, we develop a quantitatively accurate kinetic model, validated by our data, and extrapolate this to estimate to what extent PI4P metabolism can drive ORP-mediated sterol transfer in cells. Finally, we show that Sec14p can support PI4P metabolism and Osh4p activity by transferring PI between membranes. This study establishes that PI4P synthesis drives ORP-mediated lipid exchange and that ATP energy is needed to generate intermembrane lipid gradients. Furthermore, it defines to what extent ORPs can distribute lipids in the cell and reassesses the role of PI-transfer proteins in PI4P metabolism.
    Keywords:  ATP; lipid gradient; lipid transfer protein; phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate; sterol
  29. Nat Commun. 2024 Feb 26. 15(1): 1733
      Glutaredoxins catalyze the reduction of disulfides and are key players in redox metabolism and regulation. While important insights were gained regarding the reduction of glutathione disulfide substrates, the mechanism of non-glutathione disulfide reduction remains highly debated. Here we determined the rate constants for the individual redox reactions between PfGrx, a model glutaredoxin from Plasmodium falciparum, and redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein 2 (roGFP2), a model substrate and versatile tool for intracellular redox measurements. We show that the PfGrx-catalyzed oxidation of roGFP2 occurs via a monothiol mechanism and is up to three orders of magnitude faster when roGFP2 and PfGrx are fused. The oxidation kinetics of roGFP2-PfGrx fusion constructs reflect at physiological GSSG concentrations the glutathionylation kinetics of the glutaredoxin moiety, thus allowing intracellular structure-function analysis. Reduction of the roGFP2 disulfide occurs via a monothiol mechanism and involves a ternary complex with GSH and PfGrx. Our study provides the mechanistic basis for understanding roGFP2 redox sensing and challenges previous mechanisms for protein disulfide reduction.