bims-celmim Biomed News
on Cellular and mitochondrial metabolism
Issue of 2024‒02‒04
twenty papers selected by
Marc Segarra Mondejar, University of Cologne

  1. Front Physiol. 2023 ;14 1344271
      Kidney injury and repair are accompanied by significant disruptions in metabolic pathways, leading to renal cell dysfunction and further contributing to the progression of renal pathology. This review outlines the complex involvement of various energy production pathways in glucose, lipid, amino acid, and ketone body metabolism within the kidney. We provide a comprehensive summary of the aberrant regulation of these metabolic pathways in kidney injury and repair. After acute kidney injury (AKI), there is notable mitochondrial damage and oxygen/nutrient deprivation, leading to reduced activity in glycolysis and mitochondrial bioenergetics. Additionally, disruptions occur in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), amino acid metabolism, and the supply of ketone bodies. The subsequent kidney repair phase is characterized by a metabolic shift toward glycolysis, along with decreased fatty acid β-oxidation and continued disturbances in amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, the impact of metabolism dysfunction on renal cell injury, regeneration, and the development of renal fibrosis is analyzed. Finally, we discuss the potential therapeutic strategies by targeting renal metabolic regulation to ameliorate kidney injury and fibrosis and promote kidney repair.
    Keywords:  acute kidney injury; amino acids; fatty acid β-oxidation; glycolysis; ketone bodies; maladaptive repair; oxidative phosphorylation; pentose phosphate pathway
  2. Biochimie. 2024 Jan 31. pii: S0300-9084(24)00036-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      The process of cellular respiration occurs for energy production through catabolic reactions, generally with glucose as the first process step. In the present work, we introduce a novel concept for understanding this process, based on our conclusion that glucose metabolism is coupled to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and extra-mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in a closed-loop process. According to the current standard model of glycolysis, glucose is first converted to glucose 6-phosphate (glucose 6-P) and then to fructose 6-phosphate, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate, which then enters the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria. However, it is more likely that the pyruvate will be converted to lactate. In the PPP, glucose 6-P is branched off from glycolysis and used to produce NADPH and ribulose 5-phosphate (ribulose 5-P). Ribulose 5-P can be converted to fructose 6-P and glyceraldehyde 3-P. In our view, a circular process can take place in which the ribulose 5-P produced by the PPP enters the glycolysis pathway and is then retrogradely converted to glucose 6-P. This process is repeated several times until the complete degradation of glucose 6-P. The role of mitochondria in this process is to degrade lipids by beta-oxidation and produce acetyl-CoA; the function of producing ATP appears to be only secondary. This proposed new concept of cellular bioenergetics allows the resolution of some previously unresolved controversies related to cellular respiration and provides a deeper understanding of metabolic processes in the cell, including a new insights into the Warburg effect.
    Keywords:  Cancer metabolism; Cellular respiration; Endoplasmic reticulum; Extra-mitochondrial OXPHOS; Glycolysis; Pentose phosphate pathway
  3. bioRxiv. 2024 Jan 19. pii: 2024.01.16.575895. [Epub ahead of print]
      Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element required for mitochondrial respiration. Late-stage clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accumulates Cu and allocates it to mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase. We show that Cu drives coordinated metabolic remodeling of bioenergy, biosynthesis and redox homeostasis, promoting tumor growth and progression of ccRCC. Specifically, Cu induces TCA cycle-dependent oxidation of glucose and its utilization for glutathione biosynthesis to protect against H 2 O 2 generated during mitochondrial respiration, therefore coordinating bioenergy production with redox protection. scRNA-seq determined that ccRCC progression involves increased expression of subunits of respiratory complexes, genes in glutathione and Cu metabolism, and NRF2 targets, alongside a decrease in HIF activity, a hallmark of ccRCC. Spatial transcriptomics identified that proliferating cancer cells are embedded in clusters of cells with oxidative metabolism supporting effects of metabolic states on ccRCC progression. Our work establishes novel vulnerabilities with potential for therapeutic interventions in ccRCC. Accumulation of copper is associated with progression and relapse of ccRCC and drives tumor growth.Cu accumulation and allocation to cytochrome c oxidase (CuCOX) remodels metabolism coupling energy production and nucleotide biosynthesis with maintenance of redox homeostasis.Cu induces oxidative phosphorylation via alterations in the mitochondrial proteome and lipidome necessary for the formation of the respiratory supercomplexes. Cu stimulates glutathione biosynthesis and glutathione derived specifically from glucose is necessary for survival of Cu Hi cells. Biosynthesis of glucose-derived glutathione requires activity of glutamyl pyruvate transaminase 2, entry of glucose-derived pyruvate to mitochondria via alanine, and the glutamate exporter, SLC25A22. Glutathione derived from glucose maintains redox homeostasis in Cu-treated cells, reducing Cu-H 2 O 2 Fenton-like reaction mediated cell death. Progression of human ccRCC is associated with gene expression signature characterized by induction of ETC/OxPhos/GSH/Cu-related genes and decrease in HIF/glycolytic genes in subpopulations of cancer cells. Enhanced, concordant expression of genes related to ETC/OxPhos, GSH, and Cu characterizes metabolically active subpopulations of ccRCC cells in regions adjacent to proliferative subpopulations of ccRCC cells, implicating oxidative metabolism in supporting tumor growth.
  4. J Chromatogr A. 2024 Jan 28. pii: S0021-9673(24)00064-5. [Epub ahead of print]1717 464691
      Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics with stable isotope labeling (SIL) is an established tool for sensitive and precise analyses of tissue metabolism, its flux, and pathway activities in diverse models of physiology and disease. Despite the simplicity and broad applicability of deuterium (2H)-labeled precursors for tracing metabolic pathways with minimal biological perturbations, they are rarely employed in LC-MS/MS-guided metabolomics. In this study, we have developed a LC-MS/MS-guided workflow to trace deuterium metabolism in mouse organs following 2H7 -glucose infusion. The workflow includes isotopically labeled glucose infusion, mouse organ isolation and metabolite extraction, zwitterion-based hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, targeted data acquisition for sensitive detection of deuterated metabolites, a spectral library of over 400 metabolite standards, and multivariate data analysis with pathway mapping. The optimized method was validated for matrix effects, normalization, and quantification to provide both tissue metabolomics and tracking the in-vivo metabolic fate of deuterated glucose through key metabolic pathways. We quantified more than 100 metabolites in five major mouse organ tissues (liver, kidney, brain, brown adipose tissue, and heart). Furthermore, we mapped isotopologues of deuterated metabolites from glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and amino acid pathways, which are significant for studying both health and various diseases. This study will open new avenues in LC-MS based analysis of 2H-labeled tissue metabolism research in animal models and clinical settings.
    Keywords:  Deuterium tracing; LC-MS; Metabolic flux; Metabolomics; Tissue metabolism
  5. bioRxiv. 2024 Jan 20. pii: 2024.01.17.576115. [Epub ahead of print]
      Due to their glycolytic nature and limited vascularity, nucleus pulposus (NP) cells of the intervertebral disc and articular chondrocytes were long thought to have minimal reliance on mitochondrial function. Recent studies have challenged this long-held view and highlighted the increasingly important role of mitochondria in the physiology of these tissues. We investigated the role of mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1 in maintaining the spine and knee joint health in aging mice. OPA1 knockdown in NP cells altered mitochondrial size and cristae shape and increased the oxygen consumption rate without affecting ATP synthesis. OPA1 governed the morphology of multiple organelles, and its loss resulted in the dysregulation of NP cell autophagy. Metabolic profiling and 13 C-flux analyses revealed TCA cycle anaplerosis and altered metabolism in OPA1-deficient NP cells. Noteworthy, Opa1 AcanCreERT2 mice showed age- dependent disc, and cartilage degeneration and vertebral osteopenia. Our findings suggest that OPA1 regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and multi-organelle interactions is critical in preserving metabolic homeostasis of disc and cartilage.Teaser: OPA1 is necessary for the maintenance of intervertebral disc and knee joint health in aging mice.
  6. Exp Mol Med. 2024 Feb 01.
      Autophagy is an essential quality control mechanism for maintaining organellar functions in eukaryotic cells. Defective autophagy in pancreatic beta cells has been shown to be involved in the progression of diabetes through impaired insulin secretion under glucolipotoxic stress. The underlying mechanism reveals the pathologic role of the hyperactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which inhibits lysosomal biogenesis and autophagic processes. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress induces Ca2+ depletion in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cytosolic Ca2+ overload, which may contribute to mTOR activation in perilysosomal microdomains, leading to autophagic defects and β-cell failure due to lipotoxicity. This review delineates the antagonistic regulation of autophagic flux by mTOR and AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) at the lysosomal membrane, and both of these molecules could be activated by perilysosomal calcium signaling. However, aberrant and persistent Ca2+ elevation upon lipotoxic stress increases mTOR activity and suppresses autophagy. Therefore, normalization of autophagy is an attractive therapeutic strategy for patients with β-cell failure and diabetes.
  7. bioRxiv. 2024 Jan 20. pii: 2024.01.20.576435. [Epub ahead of print]
      Neuronal aging and neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by proteostasis collapse, while cellular factors that trigger it are not identified. Impaired mitochondrial transport in the axon is another feature of aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Using Drosophila , we found that genetic depletion of axonal mitochondria causes dysregulation of translation and protein degradation. Axons with mitochondrial depletion showed abnormal protein accumulation, and autophagic defects. Lowering neuronal ATP levels by blocking glycolysis did not reduce autophagy, suggesting that autophagic defects are associated with mitochondrial distribution. We found eIF2β was upregulated by depletion of axonal mitochondria via proteome analysis. Phosphorylation of eIF2α, another subunit of eIF2, was lowered, and global translation was suppressed. Neuronal overexpression of eIF2β phenocopied the autophagic defects and neuronal dysfunctions, and lowering eIF2β expression rescued those perturbations caused by depletion of axonal mitochondria. These results indicate the mitochondria-eIF2β axis maintains proteostasis in the axon, of which disruption may underly the onset and progression of age-related neurodegenerative diseases.Highlights: Loss of axonal mitochondria impairs autophagy and accumulates proteins in the axonLoss of axonal mitochondria upregulates eIF2β and downregulates p-eIF2αNeuronal upregulation of eIF2β induces autophagic defects and locomotor dysfunctionLowering eIF2β rescues autophagic defects caused by loss of axonal mitochondria.
  8. Clin Transl Med. 2024 Jan;14(1): e1521
      BACKGROUND: One-carbon (1C) metabolism is a metabolic network that plays essential roles in biological reactions. In 1C metabolism, a series of nutrients are used to fuel metabolic pathways, including nucleotide metabolism, amino acid metabolism, cellular redox defence and epigenetic maintenance. At present, 1C metabolism is considered the hallmark of cancer. The 1C units obtained from the metabolic pathways increase the proliferation rate of cancer cells. In addition, anticancer drugs, such as methotrexate, which target 1C metabolism, have long been used in the clinic. In terms of immunotherapy, 1C metabolism has been used to explore biomarkers connected with immunotherapy response and immune-related adverse events in patients.METHODS: We collected numerous literatures to explain the roles of one-carbon metabolism in cancer immunotherapy.
    RESULTS: In this review, we focus on the important pathways in 1C metabolism and the function of 1C metabolism enzymes in cancer immunotherapy. Then, we summarise the inhibitors acting on 1C metabolism and their potential application on cancer immunotherapy. Finally, we provide a viewpoint and conclusion regarding the opportunities and challenges of targeting 1C metabolism for cancer immunotherapy in clinical practicability in the future.
    CONCLUSION: Targeting one-carbon metabolism is useful for cancer immunotherapy.
    Keywords:  cancer immunotherapy; enzymes; inhibitors; one-carbon metabolism
  9. Redox Biol. 2024 Jan 27. pii: S2213-2317(24)00023-5. [Epub ahead of print]70 103047
      Ischemic tissues accumulate succinate, which is rapidly oxidized upon reperfusion, driving a burst of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that triggers cell death. In isolated mitochondria with succinate as the sole metabolic substrate under non-phosphorylating conditions, 90 % of ROS generation is from reverse electron transfer (RET) at the Q site of respiratory complex I (Cx-I). Together, these observations suggest Cx-I RET is the source of pathologic ROS in reperfusion injury. However, numerous factors present in early reperfusion may impact Cx-I RET, including: (i) High [NADH]; (ii) High [lactate]; (iii) Mildly acidic pH; (iv) Defined ATP/ADP ratios; (v) Presence of the nucleosides adenosine and inosine; and (vi) Defined free [Ca2+]. Herein, experiments with mouse cardiac mitochondria revealed that under simulated early reperfusion conditions including these factors, total mitochondrial ROS generation was only 56 ± 17 % of that seen with succinate alone (mean ± 95 % confidence intervals). Of this ROS, only 52 ± 20 % was assignable to Cx-I RET. A further 14 ± 7 % could be assigned to complex III, with the remainder (34 ± 11 %) likely originating from other ROS sources upstream of the Cx-I Q site. Together, these data suggest the relative contribution of Cx-I RET ROS to reperfusion injury may be overestimated, and other ROS sources may contribute a significant fraction of ROS in early reperfusion.
    Keywords:  Complex-I; Ischemia; Mitochondria; Reactive oxygen species; Reperfusion; Reverse electron transfer
  10. Nat Metab. 2024 Jan 29.
      Mitochondrial dysfunction is a characteristic trait of human and rodent obesity, insulin resistance and fatty liver disease. Here we show that high-fat diet (HFD) feeding causes mitochondrial fragmentation in inguinal white adipocytes from male mice, leading to reduced oxidative capacity by a process dependent on the small GTPase RalA. RalA expression and activity are increased in white adipocytes after HFD. Targeted deletion of RalA in white adipocytes prevents fragmentation of mitochondria and diminishes HFD-induced weight gain by increasing fatty acid oxidation. Mechanistically, RalA increases fission in adipocytes by reversing the inhibitory Ser637 phosphorylation of the fission protein Drp1, leading to more mitochondrial fragmentation. Adipose tissue expression of the human homolog of Drp1, DNM1L, is positively correlated with obesity and insulin resistance. Thus, chronic activation of RalA plays a key role in repressing energy expenditure in obese adipose tissue by shifting the balance of mitochondrial dynamics toward excessive fission, contributing to weight gain and metabolic dysfunction.
  11. Sci Adv. 2024 Feb 02. 10(5): eadj9479
      Folate, an essential vitamin, is a one-carbon acceptor and donor in key metabolic reactions. Erythroid cells harbor a unique sensitivity to folate deprivation, as revealed by the primary pathological manifestation of nutritional folate deprivation: megaloblastic anemia. To study this metabolic sensitivity, we applied mild folate depletion to human and mouse erythroid cell lines and primary murine erythroid progenitors. We show that folate depletion induces early blockade of purine synthesis and accumulation of the purine synthesis intermediate and signaling molecule, 5'-phosphoribosyl-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR), followed by enhanced heme metabolism, hemoglobin synthesis, and erythroid differentiation. This is phenocopied by inhibition of folate metabolism using the inhibitor SHIN1, and by AICAR supplementation. Mechanistically, the metabolically driven differentiation is independent of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and is instead mediated by protein kinase C. Our findings suggest that folate deprivation-induced premature differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells is a molecular etiology to folate deficiency-induced anemia.
  12. J Cell Biol. 2024 Mar 04. pii: e202307047. [Epub ahead of print]223(3):
      The endolysosomal system specializes in degrading cellular components and is crucial to maintaining homeostasis and adapting rapidly to metabolic and environmental cues. Cells of the immune system exploit this network to process antigens or promote cell death by secreting lysosome-related vesicles. In B lymphocytes, lysosomes are harnessed to facilitate the extraction of antigens and to promote their processing into peptides for presentation to T cells, critical steps to mount protective high-affinity antibody responses. Intriguingly, lysosomal vesicles are now considered important signaling units within cells and also display secretory functions by releasing their content to the extracellular space. In this review, we focus on how B cells use pathways involved in the intracellular trafficking, secretion, and function of endolysosomes to promote adaptive immune responses. A basic understanding of such mechanisms poses an interesting frontier for the development of therapeutic strategies in the context of cancer and autoimmune diseases.
  13. Mol Syst Biol. 2024 Jan 30.
      Carbon source-dependent control of bacterial growth is fundamental to bacterial physiology and survival. However, pinpointing the metabolic steps important for cell growth is challenging due to the complexity of cellular networks. Here, the elastic net model and multilayer perception model that integrated genome-wide gene-deletion data and simulated flux distributions were constructed to identify metabolic reactions beneficial or detrimental to Escherichia coli grown on 30 different carbon sources. Both models outperformed traditional in silico methods by identifying not just essential reactions but also nonessential ones that promote growth. They successfully predicted metabolic reactions beneficial to cell growth, with high convergence between the models. The models revealed that biosynthetic pathways generally promote growth across various carbon sources, whereas the impact of energy-generating pathways varies with the carbon source. Intriguing predictions were experimentally validated for findings beyond experimental training data and the impact of various carbon sources on the glyoxylate shunt, pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction, and redundant purine biosynthesis reactions. These highlight the practical significance and predictive power of the models for understanding and engineering microbial metabolism.
    Keywords:  Bacterial Growth; Carbon Source; Deep Learning; Machine Learning; Metabolic Reaction
  14. Nat Protoc. 2024 Feb 02.
      As a key glycolytic metabolite, lactate has a central role in diverse physiological and pathological processes. However, comprehensive multiscale analysis of lactate metabolic dynamics in vitro and in vivo has remained an unsolved problem until now owing to the lack of a high-performance tool. We recently developed a series of genetically encoded fluorescent sensors for lactate, named FiLa, which illuminate lactate metabolism in cells, subcellular organelles, animals, and human serum and urine. In this protocol, we first describe the FiLa sensor-based strategies for real-time subcellular bioenergetic flux analysis by profiling the lactate metabolic response to different nutritional and pharmacological conditions, which provides a systematic-level view of cellular metabolic function at the subcellular scale for the first time. We also report detailed procedures for imaging lactate dynamics in live mice through a cell microcapsule system or recombinant adeno-associated virus and for the rapid and simple assay of lactate in human body fluids. This comprehensive multiscale metabolic analysis strategy may also be applied to other metabolite biosensors using various analytic platforms, further expanding its usability. The protocol is suited for users with expertise in biochemistry, molecular biology and cell biology. Typically, the preparation of FiLa-expressing cells or mice takes 2 days to 4 weeks, and live-cell and in vivo imaging can be performed within 1-2 hours. For the FiLa-based assay of body fluids, the whole measuring procedure generally takes ~1 min for one sample in a manual assay or ~3 min for 96 samples in an automatic microplate assay.
  15. Adv Mater. 2024 Jan 31. e2307176
      Cellular energetics plays an important role in tissue regeneration, and the enhanced metabolic activity of delivered stem cells can accelerate tissue repair and regeneration. However, conventional hydrogels with limited network cell adaptability restrict cell-cell interactions and cell metabolic activities. In this work, we showed that a cell-adaptable hydrogel with high network dynamics enhanced the glucose uptake and fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) of encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) compared with a hydrogel with low network dynamics. We further showed that the hMSCs encapsulated in the dynamic hydrogels exhibited increased TCA cycle activity, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and ATP biosynthesis via an E-cadherin- and AMPK-dependent mechanism. The in vivo evaluation further showed that the delivery of MSCs by the dynamic hydrogel enhanced in situ bone regeneration in an animal model. We believe that our findings provide critical insights into the impact of stem cell-biomaterial interactions on cellular metabolic energetics and the underlying mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  ATP; bone regeneration; cellular energetics; hydrogel; tissue engineering
  16. Mol Biol Cell. 2024 Jan 31. mbcE23030099
      Ca2+ influx into the trans-Golgi Network (TGN) promotes secretory cargo sorting by the Ca2+-ATPase SPCA1 and the luminal Ca2+ binding protein Cab45. Cab45 oligomerizes upon local Ca2+ influx, and Cab45 oligomers sequester and separate soluble secretory cargo from the bulk flow of proteins in the TGN. However, how this Ca2+ flux into the lumen of the TGN is achieved remains mysterious, as the cytosol has a nanomolar steady-state Ca2+ concentration. The TGN forms membrane contact sites (MCS) with the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), allowing protein-mediated exchange of molecular species such as lipids. Here, we show that the TGN export of secretory proteins requires the integrity of ER-TGN MCS and inositol 3 phosphate receptor (IP3R)-dependent Ca2+ fluxes in the MCS, suggesting Ca2+ transfer between these organelles. Using an MCS-targeted Ca2+ FRET sensor module, we measure the Ca2+ flow in these sites in real time. These data show that ER-TGN MCS facilitates the Ca2+ transfer required for Ca2+-dependent cargo sorting and export from the TGN, thus solving a fundamental question in cell biology.
  17. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2024 Feb 01. pii: S1043-2760(24)00002-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria play multiple critical roles in cellular activity. In particular, mitochondrial translation is pivotal in the regulation of mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis. In this forum article, we discuss human mitochondrial tRNA metabolism and highlight its tight connection with various mitochondrial diseases caused by mutations in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, tRNAs, and tRNA-modifying enzymes.
  18. Sci Rep. 2024 01 29. 14(1): 2354
      The mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of macrolide antibiotics, such as clarithromycin (CAM), remains to be clarified. The CAM-binding proteins 4-nitrophenylphosphatase domain and non-neuronal synaptosomal associated protein 25 (SNAP25)-like protein homolog (NIPSNAP) 1 and 2 are involved in the immune response and mitochondrial homeostasis. However, the axis between CAM-NIPSNAP-mitochondria and Toll-like receptor (TLR) and their molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we sought to elucidate the relationship between mitochondrial homeostasis mediated by NIPSNAP1 and 2 and the immunomodulatory effect of CAM. NIPSNAP1 or 2 knockdown (KD) by RNA interference impaired TLR4-mediated interleukin-8 (IL-8) production. Similar impairment was observed upon treatment with mitochondrial function inhibitors. However, IL-8 secretion was not impaired in NIPSNAP1 and 2 individual knockout (KO) and double KO (DKO) cells. Moreover, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in mitochondria measured using a flex analyzer was significantly reduced in NIPSNAP1 or 2 KD cells, but not in DKO cells. CAM also dose-dependently reduced the OCR. These results indicate that CAM suppresses the IL-8 production via the mitochondrial quality control regulated by temporary functional inhibition of NIPSNAP1 and 2. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanisms underlying cytokine production, including the TLR-mitochondria axis, and the immunomodulatory effects of macrolides.
  19. Cell Rep Med. 2024 Jan 20. pii: S2666-3791(24)00005-3. [Epub ahead of print] 101396
      Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the most intractable subpopulation of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, which have been associated with a high risk of relapse and poor prognosis. However, eradication of CSCs continues to be difficult. Here, we integrate the multiomics data of a TNBC cohort (n = 360) to identify vital markers of CSCs. We discover that EMSY, inducing a BRCAness phenotype, is preferentially expressed in breast CSCs, promotes ALDH+ cells enrichment, and is positively correlated with poor relapse-free survival. Mechanistically, EMSY competitively binds to the Jmjc domain, which is critical for KDM5B enzyme activity, to reshape methionine metabolism, and to promote CSC self-renewal and tumorigenesis in an H3K4 methylation-dependent manner. Moreover, EMSY accumulation in TNBC cells sensitizes them to PARP inhibitors against bulk cells and methionine deprivation against CSCs. These findings indicate that clinically relevant eradication of CSCs could be achieved with a strategy that targets CSC-specific vulnerabilities in amino acid metabolism.
    Keywords:  EMSY; KDM5B; PARP inhibitors; cancer stem cells; methionine metabolism
  20. Nat Cancer. 2024 Jan 29.
      The mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) encodes essential machinery for oxidative phosphorylation and metabolic homeostasis. Tumor mtDNA is among the most somatically mutated regions of the cancer genome, but whether these mutations impact tumor biology is debated. We engineered truncating mutations of the mtDNA-encoded complex I gene, Mt-Nd5, into several murine models of melanoma. These mutations promoted a Warburg-like metabolic shift that reshaped tumor microenvironments in both mice and humans, consistently eliciting an anti-tumor immune response characterized by loss of resident neutrophils. Tumors bearing mtDNA mutations were sensitized to checkpoint blockade in a neutrophil-dependent manner, with induction of redox imbalance being sufficient to induce this effect in mtDNA wild-type tumors. Patient lesions bearing >50% mtDNA mutation heteroplasmy demonstrated a response rate to checkpoint blockade that was improved by ~2.5-fold over mtDNA wild-type cancer. These data nominate mtDNA mutations as functional regulators of cancer metabolism and tumor biology, with potential for therapeutic exploitation and treatment stratification.