bims-celmim Biomed News
on Cellular and mitochondrial metabolism
Issue of 2023‒11‒12
27 papers selected by
Marc Segarra Mondejar, University of Cologne

  1. Nat Metab. 2023 Nov 06.
      Glucose is the primary source of energy for the brain; however, it remains controversial whether, upon neuronal activation, glucose is primarily used by neurons for ATP production or if it is partially oxidized in astrocytes, as proposed by the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle model for glutamatergic neurons. Thus, an in vivo picture of glucose metabolism during cognitive processes is missing. Here, we uncover in Drosophila melanogaster a glia-to-neuron alanine transfer involving alanine aminotransferase that sustains memory formation. Following associative conditioning, glycolysis in glial cells produces alanine, which is back-converted into pyruvate in cholinergic neurons of the olfactory memory center to uphold their increased mitochondrial needs. Alanine, as a mediator of glia-neuron coupling, could be an alternative to lactate in cholinergic systems. In parallel, a dedicated glial glucose transporter imports glucose specifically for long-term memory, by directly transferring it to neurons for use by the pentose phosphate pathway. Our results demonstrate in vivo the compartmentalization of glucose metabolism between neurons and glial cells during memory formation.
  2. Life Sci Alliance. 2024 Jan;pii: e202302335. [Epub ahead of print]7(1):
      Mitochondria interact with the ER at structurally and functionally specialized membrane contact sites known as mitochondria-ER contact sites (MERCs). Combining proximity labelling (BioID), co-immunoprecipitation, confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation, we found that the ER resident SMP-domain protein ESYT1 was enriched at MERCs, where it forms a complex with the outer mitochondrial membrane protein SYNJ2BP. BioID analyses using ER-targeted, outer mitochondrial membrane-targeted, and MERC-targeted baits, confirmed the presence of this complex at MERCs and the specificity of the interaction. Deletion of ESYT1 or SYNJ2BP reduced the number and length of MERCs. Loss of the ESYT1-SYNJ2BP complex impaired ER to mitochondria calcium flux and provoked a significant alteration of the mitochondrial lipidome, most prominently a reduction of cardiolipins and phosphatidylethanolamines. Both phenotypes were rescued by reexpression of WT ESYT1 and an artificial mitochondria-ER tether. Together, these results reveal a novel function for ESYT1 in mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis through its role in the regulation of MERCs.
  3. Nature. 2023 Nov;623(7986): 283-291
      Mitochondria are believed to have originated through an ancient endosymbiotic process in which proteobacteria were captured and co-opted for energy production and cellular metabolism. Mitochondria segregate during cell division and differentiation, with vertical inheritance of mitochondria and the mitochondrial DNA genome from parent to daughter cells. However, an emerging body of literature indicates that some cell types export their mitochondria for delivery to developmentally unrelated cell types, a process called intercellular mitochondria transfer. In this Review, we describe the mechanisms by which mitochondria are transferred between cells and discuss how intercellular mitochondria transfer regulates the physiology and function of various organ systems in health and disease. In particular, we discuss the role of mitochondria transfer in regulating cellular metabolism, cancer, the immune system, maintenance of tissue homeostasis, mitochondrial quality control, wound healing and adipose tissue function. We also highlight the potential of targeting intercellular mitochondria transfer as a therapeutic strategy to treat human diseases and augment cellular therapies.
  4. Cell Metab. 2023 Nov 07. pii: S1550-4131(23)00380-7. [Epub ahead of print]35(11): 1872-1886
      Perturbation of mitochondrial function can trigger a host of cellular responses that seek to restore cellular metabolism, cytosolic proteostasis, and redox homeostasis. In some cases, these responses persist even after the stress is relieved, leaving the cell or tissue in a less vulnerable state. This process-termed mitohormesis-is increasingly viewed as an important aspect of normal physiology and a critical modulator of various disease processes. Here, we review aspects of mitochondrial stress signaling that, among other things, can rewire the cell's metabolism, activate the integrated stress response, and alter cytosolic quality-control pathways. We also discuss how these pathways are implicated in various disease states from pathogen challenge to chemotherapeutic resistance and how their therapeutic manipulation can lead to new strategies for a host of chronic conditions including aging itself.
  5. Sci Rep. 2023 11 07. 13(1): 19343
      Energy metabolism is a highly conserved process that balances generation of cellular energy and maintenance of redox homeostasis. It consists of five interconnected pathways: glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, pentose phosphate, trans-sulfuration, and NAD+ biosynthesis pathways. Environmental stress rewires cellular energy metabolism. Type-2 diabetes is a well-studied energy metabolism rewiring state in human pancreatic β-cells where glucose metabolism is uncoupled from insulin secretion. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch), exhibits a remarkable ability to adapt to environmental stress. Upon transfer to unfavourable plant hosts, mites experience extreme xenobiotic stress that dramatically affects their survivorship and fecundity. However, within 25 generations, mites adapt to the xenobiotic stress and restore their fitness. Mites' ability to withstand long-term xenobiotic stress raises a question of their energy metabolism states during host adaptation. Here, we compared the transcriptional responses of five energy metabolism pathways between host-adapted and non-adapted mites while using responses in human pancreatic islet donors to model these pathways under stress. We found that non-adapted mites and human pancreatic β-cells responded in a similar manner to host plant transfer and diabetogenic stress respectively, where redox homeostasis maintenance was favoured over energy generation. Remarkably, we found that upon host-adaptation, mite energy metabolic states were restored to normal. These findings suggest that genes involved in energy metabolism can serve as molecular markers for mite host-adaptation.
  6. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1267816
      Introduction: Naïve T cells remain in an actively maintained state of quiescence until activation by antigenic signals, upon which they start to proliferate and generate effector cells to initiate a functional immune response. Metabolic reprogramming is essential to meet the biosynthetic demands of the differentiation process, and failure to do so can promote the development of hypofunctional exhausted T cells.Methods: Here we used 13C metabolomics and transcriptomics to study the metabolism of CD8+ T cells in their complete course of differentiation from naïve over stem-like memory to effector cells and in exhaustion-inducing conditions.
    Results: The quiescence of naïve T cells was evident in a profound suppression of glucose oxidation and a decreased expression of ENO1, downstream of which no glycolytic flux was detectable. Moreover, TCA cycle activity was low in naïve T cells and associated with a downregulation of SDH subunits. Upon stimulation and exit from quiescence, the initiation of cell growth and proliferation was accompanied by differential expression of metabolic enzymes and metabolic reprogramming towards aerobic glycolysis with high rates of nutrient uptake, respiration and lactate production. High flux in anabolic pathways imposed a strain on NADH homeostasis, which coincided with engagement of the proline cycle for mitochondrial redox shuttling. With acquisition of effector functions, cells increasingly relied on glycolysis as opposed to oxidative phosphorylation, which was, however, not linked to changes in mitochondrial abundance. In exhaustion, decreased effector function concurred with a reduction in mitochondrial metabolism, glycolysis and amino acid import, and an upregulation of quiescence-associated genes, TXNIP and KLF2, and the T cell suppressive metabolites succinate and itaconate.
    Discussion: Overall, these results identify multiple metabolic features that regulate quiescence, proliferation and effector function, but also exhaustion of CD8+ T cells during differentiation. Thus, targeting these metabolic checkpoints may be a promising therapeutic strategy for both prevention of exhaustion and promotion of stemness of anti-tumor T cells.
    Keywords:  13C tracer analysis; RNA sequencing; differentiation; exhaustion; immunometabolism; stem cell memory cells
  7. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2023 Nov 04. pii: S1357-2725(23)00131-0. [Epub ahead of print] 106492
      Mitochondria are central cellular metabolic hubs. Their function requires proteins encoded by nuclear DNA, but also mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) whose maintenance is essential for the proper function of the organelle. Defective mtDNA maintenance and distribution are associated with mitochondrial diseases. mtDNA is organized into nucleo-protein complexes called nucleoids that dynamically move along the mitochondrial network and interact with each other. mtDNA replication and nucleoid distribution is an active process regulated by the complex interplay of mitochondrial dynamics, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria contact sites, and cytoskeletal networks. For example, defects in mitochondrial fusion and fission or ER-mitochondria contact sites affect nucleoid maintenance and distribution. In this review, we discuss the process of nucleoid dynamics and the factors regulating nucleoid maintenance and distribution.
    Keywords:  ER sheets; ERMCS; mitochondria; mtDNA-nucleoid
  8. J Neurochem. 2023 Nov 06.
      The metabolic demands of neuronal activity are both temporally and spatially dynamic, and neurons are particularly sensitive to disruptions in fuel and oxygen supply. Glucose is considered an obligate fuel for supporting brain metabolism. Although alternative fuels are often available, the extent of their contribution to central carbon metabolism remains debated. Differential fuel metabolism likely depends on cell type, location, and activity state, complicating its study. While biosensors provide excellent spatial and temporal information, they are limited to observations of only a few metabolites. On the other hand, mass spectrometry is rich in chemical information, but traditionally relies on cell culture or homogenized tissue samples. Here, we use mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to focus on the fuel metabolism of the dentate granule cell (DGC) layer in murine hippocampal slices. Using stable isotopes, we explore labeling dynamics at baseline, as well as in response to brief stimulation or fuel competition. We find that at rest, glucose is the predominant fuel metabolized through glycolysis, with little to no measurable contribution from glycerol or fructose. However, lactate/pyruvate, β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), octanoate, and glutamine can contribute to TCA metabolism to varying degrees. In response to brief depolarization with 50 mM KCl, glucose metabolism was preferentially increased relative to the metabolism of alternative fuels. With an increased supply of alternative fuels, both lactate/pyruvate and βHB can outcompete glucose for TCA cycle entry. While lactate/pyruvate modestly reduced glucose contribution to glycolysis, βHB caused little change in glycolysis. This approach achieves broad metabolite coverage from a spatially defined region of physiological tissue, in which metabolic states are rapidly preserved following experimental manipulation. Using this powerful methodology, we investigated metabolism within the dentate gyrus not only at rest, but also in response to the energetic demand of activation, and in states of fuel competition.
    Keywords:  brain metabolism; glucose metabolism; ketone body metabolism; lactate metabolism; mass spectrometry imaging; stable isotope tracing
  9. Cancer Metab. 2023 Nov 06. 11(1): 20
      BACKGROUND: ATM is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that in addition to its well-established role in DNA repair mechanisms is involved in a number of signaling pathways including regulation of oxidative stress response and metabolic diversion of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway. Oncogene-driven tumorigenesis often implies the metabolic switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis which provides metabolic intermediates to sustain cell proliferation. The aim of our study is to elucidate the role of ATM in the regulation of glucose metabolism in oncogene-driven cancer cells and to test whether ATM may be a suitable target for anticancer therapy.METHODS: Two oncogene-driven NSCLC cell lines, namely H1975 and H1993 cells, were treated with ATM inhibitor, KU55933, alone or in combination with oncogene driver inhibitors, WZ4002 or crizotinib. Key glycolytic enzymes, mitochondrial complex subunits (OXPHOS), cyclin D1, and apoptotic markers were analyzed by Western blotting. Drug-induced toxicity was assessed by MTS assay using stand-alone or combined treatment with KU55933 and driver inhibitors. Glucose consumption, pyruvate, citrate, and succinate levels were also analyzed in response to KU55933 treatment. Both cell lines were transfected with ATM-targeted siRNA or non-targeting siRNA and then exposed to treatment with driver inhibitors.
    RESULTS: ATM inhibition deregulates and inhibits glucose metabolism by reducing HKII, p-PKM2Tyr105, p-PKM2Ser37, E1α subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and all subunits of mitochondrial complexes except ATP synthase. Accordingly, glucose uptake and pyruvate concentrations were reduced in response to ATM inhibition, whereas citrate and succinate levels were increased in both cell lines indicating the supply of alternative metabolic substrates. Silencing of ATM resulted in similar changes in glycolytic cascade and OXPHOS levels. Furthermore, the driver inhibitors amplified the effects of ATM downregulation on glucose metabolism, and the combined treatment with ATM inhibitors enhanced the cytotoxic effect of driver inhibitors alone by increasing the apoptotic response.
    CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of ATM reduced both glycolytic enzymes and OXPHOS levels in oncogene-driven cancer cells and enhanced apoptosis induced by driver inhibitors thus highlighting the possibility to use ATM and the driver inhibitors in combined regimens of anticancer therapy in vivo.
    Keywords:  ATM; Anticancer therapy; Glycolysis; OXPHOS; Oncogene-driver inhibitors
  10. Cell Rep. 2023 Nov 04. pii: S2211-1247(23)01401-8. [Epub ahead of print]42(11): 113389
      Acyl-protein thioesterases 1 and 2 (APT1 and APT2) reverse S-acylation, a potential regulator of systemic glucose metabolism in mammals. Palmitoylation proteomics in liver-specific knockout mice shows that APT1 predominates over APT2, primarily depalmitoylating mitochondrial proteins, including proteins linked to glutamine metabolism. miniTurbo-facilitated determination of the protein-protein proximity network of APT1 and APT2 in HepG2 cells reveals APT proximity networks encompassing mitochondrial proteins including the major translocases Tomm20 and Timm44. APT1 also interacts with Slc1a5 (ASCT2), the only glutamine transporter known to localize to mitochondria. High-fat-diet-fed male mice with dual (but not single) hepatic deletion of APT1 and APT2 have insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycemia, increased glutamine-driven gluconeogenesis, and decreased liver mass. These data suggest that APT1 and APT2 regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin signaling is functionally redundant. Identification of substrates and protein-protein proximity networks for APT1 and APT2 establishes a framework for defining mechanisms underlying metabolic disease.
    Keywords:  CP: Metabolism; acyl-protein thioesterase 1; acyl-protein thioesterase 2; gluconeogenesis; glutamine; insulin; liver; palmitoylation; proximity labeling
  11. FEBS J. 2023 Nov 07.
      Unprotected iron can rust due to oxygen exposure. Similarly, in our body, oxidative stress can kill cells in an iron-dependent manner, which can give rise to devastating diseases. This type of cell death is referred to as ferroptosis. Generally, ferroptosis is defined as an iron-catalyzed form of regulated necrosis that occurs through excessive peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids within cellular membranes. This review summarizes how ferroptosis is executed by a rather primitive biochemical process, under tight regulation of lipid, iron, and redox metabolic processes. An overview is given of major classes of ferroptosis inducers and inhibitors, and how to detect ferroptosis. Finally, its detrimental role in disease is briefly discussed.
    Keywords:  FSP1; Ferroptosis; GPX4; iron; lipid; lipid peroxidation; metabolism; radical trapping antioxidant; redox
  12. Trends Cancer. 2023 Nov 02. pii: S2405-8033(23)00213-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Redox imbalance is defined by disruption in oxidative and reductive pathways and has a central role in cancer initiation, development, and treatment. Although redox imbalance has traditionally been characterized by high levels of oxidative stress, emerging evidence suggests that an overly reductive environment is just as detrimental to cancer proliferation. Reductive stress is defined by heightened levels of antioxidants, including glutathione and elevated NADH, compared with oxidized NAD, which disrupts central biochemical pathways required for proliferation. With the advent of new technologies that measure and manipulate reductive stress, the sensors and drivers of this overlooked metabolic stress are beginning to be revealed. In certain genetically defined cancers, targeting reductive stress pathways may be an effective strategy. Redox-based pathways are gaining recognition as essential 'regulatory hubs,' and a broader understanding of reductive stress signaling promises not only to reveal new insights into metabolic homeostasis but also potentially to transform therapeutic options in cancer.
    Keywords:  KEAP1/NRF2; cancer metabolism; redox homeostasis; reductive stress
  13. Nat Commun. 2023 Nov 04. 14(1): 7076
      Understanding the mechanisms that enable cancer cells to metastasize is essential in preventing cancer progression. Here we examine the metabolic adaptations of metastasis-initiating cells (MICs) in female breast cancer and how those shape their metastatic phenotype. We find that endogenous MICs depend on the oxidative tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid usage. Sorting tumor cells based upon solely mitochondrial membrane potential or lipid storage is sufficient at identifying MICs. We further identify that mitochondrially-generated citrate is exported to the cytoplasm to yield acetyl-CoA, and this is crucial to maintaining heightened levels of H3K27ac in MICs. Blocking acetyl-CoA generating pathways or H3K27ac-specific epigenetic writers and readers reduces expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal related genes, MIC frequency, and metastatic potential. Exogenous supplementation of a short chain carboxylic acid, acetate, increases MIC frequency and metastasis. In patient cohorts, we observe that higher expression of oxidative phosphorylation related genes is associated with reduced distant relapse-free survival. These data demonstrate that MICs specifically and precisely alter their metabolism to efficiently colonize distant organs.
  14. Cancer Res. 2023 11 07.
      Increased utilization of glucose is a hallmark of cancer. Sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) is a critical player in glucose uptake in early-stage and well-differentiated lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). SGLT2 inhibitors, which are FDA-approved for diabetes, heart failure, and kidney disease, have been shown to significantly delay LUAD development and prolong survival in murine models and in retrospective studies in diabetic patients, suggesting that they may be re-purposed for lung cancer. Despite the anti-tumor effects of SGLT2 inhibition, tumors eventually escape treatment. Here, we studied the mechanisms of resistance to glucose metabolism-targeting treatments. Glucose restriction in LUAD and other tumors induced cancer cell de-differentiation, leading to a more aggressive phenotype. Glucose deprivation caused a reduction in alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG), leading to attenuated activity of αKG-dependent histone demethylases and histone hypermethylation. The de-differentiated phenotype depended on unbalanced EZH2 activity that suppressed prolyl-hydroxylase PHD3 and increased expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), triggering epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Finally, a HIF1α-dependent transcriptional signature of genes up-regulated by low glucose correlated with prognosis in human LUAD. Overall, this study furthers current knowledge of the relationship between glucose metabolism and cell differentiation in cancer, characterizing the epigenetic adaptation of cancer cells to glucose deprivation and identifying targets to prevent the development of resistance to therapies targeting glucose metabolism.
  15. J Biol Chem. 2023 Nov 08. pii: S0021-9258(23)02485-7. [Epub ahead of print] 105457
      One-carbon metabolism is a central metabolic pathway critical for the biosynthesis of several amino acids, methyl group donors, and nucleotides. The pathway mostly relies on the transfer of a carbon unit from the amino acid serine, through the cofactor folate (in its several forms), and to the ultimate carbon acceptors that include nucleotides and methyl groups used for methylation of proteins, RNA, and DNA. Nucleotides are required for DNA replication, DNA repair, gene expression, and protein translation, through ribosomal RNA. Therefore, the one-carbon metabolism pathway is essential for cell growth and function in all cells, but is specifically important for rapidly proliferating cells. The regulation of one-carbon metabolism is a critical aspect of the normal and pathological function of the pathway, such as in cancer, where hijacking these regulatory mechanisms feeds an increased need for nucleotides. One-carbon metabolism is regulated at several levels: via gene expression, posttranslational modification, sub-cellular compartmentalization, allosteric inhibition, and feedback regulation. In this review we aim to inform the readers of relevant one-carbon metabolism regulation mechanisms, and to bring forward the need to further study this aspect of one-carbon metabolism. The review aims to integrate two major aspects of cancer metabolism - signaling downstream of nutrient sensing, and one-carbon metabolism, because while each of these is critical for the proliferation of cancerous cells, their integration is critical for comprehensive understating of cellular metabolism in transformed cells and can lead to clinically-relevant insights.
    Keywords:  allosteric inhibition; cancer metabolism; metabolic adaptation; metabolic compartmentalization; post-translational modifications; transcriptional regulation
  16. J Vis Exp. 2023 Oct 20.
      Membrane contact sites (MCSs) are areas of close membrane proximity that allow and regulate the dynamic exchange of diverse biomolecules (i.e., calcium and lipids) between the juxtaposed organelles without involving membrane fusion. MCSs are essential for cellular homeostasis, and their functions are ensured by the resident components, which often exist as multimeric protein complexes. MCSs often involve the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a major site of lipid synthesis and cellular calcium storage, and are particularly important for organelles, such as the mitochondria, which are excluded from the classical vesicular transport pathways. In the last years, MCSs between the ER and mitochondria have been extensively studied, as their functions strongly impact cellular metabolism/bioenergetics. Several proteins have started to be identified at these contact sites, including membrane tethers, calcium channels, and lipid transfer proteins, thus raising the need for new methodologies and technical approaches to study these MCS components. Here, we describe a protocol consisting of combined technical approaches, that include proximity ligation assay (PLA), mitochondria staining, and 3D imaging segmentation, that allows the detection of proteins that are physically close (>40 nm) to each other and that reside on the same membrane at ER-mitochondria MCSs. For instance, we used two ER-anchored lipid transfer proteins, ORP5 and ORP8, which have previously been shown to interact and localize at ER-mitochondria and ER-plasma membrane MCSs. By associating the ORP5-ORP8 PLA with cell imaging software analysis, it was possible to estimate the distance of the ORP5-ORP8 complex from the mitochondrial surface and determine that about 50% of ORP5-ORP8 PLA interaction occurs at ER subdomains in close proximity to mitochondria.
  17. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2023 Nov 03. 42(1): 291
      Metabolic reprogramming of amino acids has been increasingly recognized to initiate and fuel tumorigenesis and survival. Therefore, there is emerging interest in the application of amino acid metabolic strategies in antitumor therapy. Tremendous efforts have been made to develop amino acid metabolic node interventions such as amino acid antagonists and targeting amino acid transporters, key enzymes of amino acid metabolism, and common downstream pathways of amino acid metabolism. In addition to playing an essential role in sustaining tumor growth, new technologies and studies has revealed amino acid metabolic reprograming to have wide implications in the regulation of antitumor immune responses. Specifically, extensive crosstalk between amino acid metabolism and T cell immunity has been reported. Tumor cells can inhibit T cell immunity by depleting amino acids in the microenvironment through nutrient competition, and toxic metabolites of amino acids can also inhibit T cell function. In addition, amino acids can interfere with T cells by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. This crucial crosstalk inspires the exploitation of novel strategies of immunotherapy enhancement and combination, owing to the unprecedented benefits of immunotherapy and the limited population it can benefit. Herein, we review recent findings related to the crosstalk between amino acid metabolism and T cell immunity. We also describe possible approaches to intervene in amino acid metabolic pathways by targeting various signaling nodes. Novel efforts to combine with and unleash potential immunotherapy are also discussed. Hopefully, some strategies that take the lead in the pipeline may soon be used for the common good.
    Keywords:  Amino acid; Immunotherapy; Metabolism reprogramming; T cell; Tumor microenvironment
  18. iScience. 2023 Nov 17. 26(11): 108196
      The liver coordinates the systemic response to nutrient deprivation and availability by producing glucose from gluconeogenesis during fasting and synthesizing lipids via de novo lipogenesis (DNL) when carbohydrates are abundant. Mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism is thought to play important roles in both gluconeogenesis and DNL. We examined the effects of hepatocyte-specific mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) deletion on the fasting-refeeding response. Rates of DNL during refeeding were impaired by hepatocyte MPC deletion, but this did not reduce intrahepatic lipid content. During fasting, glycerol is converted to glucose by two pathways; a direct cytosolic pathway and an indirect mitochondrial pathway requiring the MPC. Hepatocyte MPC deletion reduced the incorporation of 13C-glycerol into TCA cycle metabolites, but not into new glucose. Furthermore, suppression of glycerol and alanine metabolism did not affect glucose concentrations in fasted hepatocyte-specific MPC-deficient mice, suggesting multiple layers of redundancy in glycemic control in mice.
    Keywords:  Cellular physiology; Human metabolism
  19. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1284133
      Inflammation is a characteristic symptom of the occurrence and development of many diseases, which is mainly characterized by the infiltration of inflammatory cells such as macrophages and granulocytes, and the increased release of proinflammatory factors. Subsequently, macrophage differentiates and T cells and other regulated factors exhibit anti-inflammatory function, releasing pro- and anti-inflammatory factors to maintain homeostasis. Although reports define various degrees of metabolic disorders in both the inflamed and non-inflamed parts of inflammatory diseases, little is known about the changes in amino acid metabolism in such conditions. This review aims to summarize amino acid changes and mechanisms involved in the progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other inflammatory diseases. Since mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their derived exosomes (MSC-EXO) have been found to show promising effects in the treatment of IBD and other inflammatory diseases,their potential in the modulation of amino acid metabolism in the treatment of inflammation is also discussed.
    Keywords:  amino acid metabolism; exosome; inflammation; inflammatory bowel disease; mesenchymal stem cell
  20. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2023 Jul 28. pii: S0925-4439(23)00190-4. [Epub ahead of print] 166824
      Metastasis represents one of the most dangerous issue of cancer progression, characterized by intricate interactions between invading tumor cells, various proteins, and other cells on the way towards target sites. Tumor cells, while undergoing metastasis, engage in dynamic dialogues with stromal cells and undertake epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenoconversion. To ensure survival, tumor cells employ several strategies such as restructuring their metabolic needs to adapt to the alterations of the microenvironmental resources via different mechanisms including macroautophagy (autophagy) and to circumvent anoikis-a form of cell death induced upon detachment from the extracellular matrix (ECM). This review focuses on the puzzling connections of autophagy and energetic metabolism within the context of cancer metastasis.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Cancer metastasis; Epithelial-mesenchymal transition; Extracellular vesicles; Metabolism; Tumor microenvironment; Wnt/β-catenin
  21. Cell Death Dis. 2023 11 07. 14(11): 722
      Hyperglycemia-induced aberrant glucose metabolism is a causative factor of neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)-lactic acid axis is regarded as a critical link between metabolic reprogramming and the pathogenic process of neurological disorders. However, its role in diabetic neuropathy remains unclear. Here, we found that PDK1 and phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were obviously increased in high glucose (HG)-stimulated primary neurons and Neuro-2a cell line. Acetyl-coA, a central metabolic intermediate, might enhance PDK1 expression via histone H3K9 acetylation modification in HG condition. The epigenetic regulation of PDK1 expression provided an available negative feedback pattern in response to HG environment-triggered mitochondrial metabolic overload. However, neuronal PDK1 was decreased in the hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Our data showed that the expression of PDK1 also depended on the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) transcriptional activation under the HG condition. However, HIF-1 was significantly reduced in the hippocampus of diabetic mice, which might explain the opposite expression of PDK1 in vivo. Importantly, overexpression of PDK1 reduced HG-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and neuronal apoptosis. Enhancing PDK1 expression in the hippocampus ameliorated STZ-induced cognitive impairment and neuronal degeneration in mice. Together, our study demonstrated that both acetyl-coA-induced histone acetylation and HIF-1 are necessary to direct PDK1 expression, and enhancing PDK1 may have a protective effect on cognitive recovery in diabetic mice. Schematic representation of the protective effect of PDK1 on hyperglycemia-induced neuronal injury and memory loss. High glucose enhanced the expression of PDK1 in an acetyl-coA-dependent histone acetylation modification to avoid mitochondrial metabolic overload and ROS release. However, the decrease of HIF-1 may impair the upregulation of PDK1 under hyperglycemia condition. Overexpression of PDK1 prevented hyperglycemia-induced hippocampal neuronal injury and memory loss in diabetic mice.
  22. Blood Adv. 2023 Nov 07. pii: bloodadvances.2023010964. [Epub ahead of print]
      Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma in adults, but first-line immunochemotherapy fails to produce a durable response in about one-third of the patients. Since tumor cells often reprogram their metabolism, we investigated the importance of glutaminolysis, a pathway converting glutamine to generate energy and various metabolites, for the growth of DLBCL cells. Glutaminase-1 (GLS1) expression was robustly detected in DLBCL biopsies and cell lines. Both pharmacological inhibition and genetic knockdown of GLS1 induced cell death in DLBCL cells regardless of their subtype classification, whereas primary B cells remained unaffected. Interestingly, GLS1 inhibition resulted not only in reduced levels of intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, but also in a strong mitochondrial accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Supplementation of DLBCL cells with α-ketoglutarate or with the antioxidant α-tocopherol mitigated oxidative stress and abrogated cell death upon GLS1 inhibition, indicating an essential role of glutaminolysis in the protection from oxidative stress. Furthermore, the combination of the GLS1 inhibitor CB-839 with the therapeutic BCL2 inhibitor ABT-199 not only induced massive ROS production, but also exhibited highly synergistic cytotoxicity, suggesting that simultaneous targeting of GLS1 and BCL2 could represent a novel therapeutic strategy for DLBCL patients.
  23. Cell Metab. 2023 Nov 07. pii: S1550-4131(23)00374-1. [Epub ahead of print]35(11): 1976-1995.e6
      Low-protein diets promote health and longevity in diverse species. Restriction of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine recapitulates many of these benefits in young C57BL/6J mice. Restriction of dietary isoleucine (IleR) is sufficient to promote metabolic health and is required for many benefits of a low-protein diet in C57BL/6J males. Here, we test the hypothesis that IleR will promote healthy aging in genetically heterogeneous adult UM-HET3 mice. We find that IleR improves metabolic health in young and old HET3 mice, promoting leanness and glycemic control in both sexes, and reprograms hepatic metabolism in a sex-specific manner. IleR reduces frailty and extends the lifespan of male and female mice, but to a greater degree in males. Our results demonstrate that IleR increases healthspan and longevity in genetically diverse mice and suggests that IleR, or pharmaceuticals that mimic this effect, may have potential as a geroprotective intervention.
    Keywords:  aging; branched-chain amino acids; frailty; isoleucine; lifespan; metabolic health; mice; nutritional interventions; protein restriction
  24. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2023 Nov 07. pii: S0079-6107(23)00092-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      One of the central regulators of cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism is the mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, which exists in two structurally and functionally different complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2; unlike m TORC2, mTORC1 is activated in response to the sufficiency of nutrients and is inhibited by rapamycin. mTOR complexes have critical roles not only in protein synthesis, gene transcription regulation, proliferation, tumor metabolism, but also in the regulation of the programmed cell death mechanisms such as autophagy and apoptosis. Autophagy is a conserved catabolic mechanism in which damaged molecules are recycled in response to nutrient starvation. Emerging evidence indicates that the mTOR signaling pathway is frequently activated in tumors. In addition, dysregulation of autophagy was associated with the development of a variety of human diseases, such as cancer and aging. Since mTOR can inhibit the induction of the autophagic process from the early stages of autophagosome formation to the late stage of lysosome degradation, the use of mTOR inhibitors to regulate autophagy could be considered a potential therapeutic option. The present review sheds light on the mTOR and autophagy signaling pathways and the mechanisms of regulation of mTOR-autophagy.
    Keywords:  AMPK; Apoptosis; Autophagy; Cancer; PI3K; mTOR
  25. Nat Aging. 2023 Nov 09.
      Tissues within an organism and even cell types within a tissue can age with different velocities. However, it is unclear whether cells of one type experience different aging trajectories within a tissue depending on their spatial location. Here, we used spatial transcriptomics in combination with single-cell ATAC-seq and RNA-seq, lipidomics and functional assays to address how cells in the male murine liver are affected by age-related changes in the microenvironment. Integration of the datasets revealed zonation-specific and age-related changes in metabolic states, the epigenome and transcriptome. The epigenome changed in a zonation-dependent manner and functionally, periportal hepatocytes were characterized by decreased mitochondrial fitness, whereas pericentral hepatocytes accumulated large lipid droplets. Together, we provide evidence that changing microenvironments within a tissue exert strong influences on their resident cells that can shape epigenetic, metabolic and phenotypic outputs.
  26. Cells. 2023 Oct 26. pii: 2527. [Epub ahead of print]12(21):
      Pyruvate kinase M (PKM) 2 was described to interact with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) and suppress its activity. To further investigate the physiological importance of the PKM2:IP3R interaction, we developed and characterized HeLa PKM2 knockout (KO) cells. In the HeLa PKM2 KO cells, the release of Ca2+ to the cytosol appears to be more sensitive to low agonist concentrations than in HeLa wild-type (WT) cells. However, upon an identical IP3-induced Ca2+ release, Ca2+ uptake in the mitochondria is decreased in HeLa PKM2 KO cells, which may be explained by the smaller number of contact sites between the ER and the mitochondria. Furthermore, in HeLa PKM2 KO cells, mitochondria are more numerous, though they are smaller and less branched and have a hyperpolarized membrane potential. TAT-D5SD, a cell-permeable peptide representing a sequence derived from IP3R1 that can disrupt the PKM2:IP3R interaction, induces Ca2+ release into the cytosol and Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria in both HeLa WT and PKM2 KO cells. Moreover, TAT-D5SD induced apoptosis in HeLa WT and PKM2 KO cells but not in HeLa cells completely devoid of IP3Rs. These results indicate that PKM2 separately regulates cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ handling and that the cytotoxic effect of TAT-D5SD depends on IP3R activity but not on PKM2. However, the tyrosine kinase Lck, which also interacts with the D5SD sequence, is expressed neither in HeLa WT nor PKM2 KO cells, and we can also exclude a role for PKM1, which is upregulated in HeLa PKM2 KO cells, indicating that the TAT-D5SD peptide has a more complex mode of action than anticipated.
    Keywords:  ER-mitochondria contact sites; IP3 receptor; apoptosis; intracellular Ca2+ signaling; pyruvate kinase M2
  27. Eur J Pharmacol. 2023 Nov 07. pii: S0014-2999(23)00700-8. [Epub ahead of print] 176186
      Hypertension, a risk factor for cardiorenal disease has a huge global health impact. Hence, there is a continuous search for new therapeutic targets and putative antihypertensive ligands. This search has transcended into the realm of mitochondrial metabolism which has been reported to underline the etiology of certain diseases, including hypertension. Recently, genetic alterations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme, fumarase, which converts fumarate to malate, reportedly worsened salt-sensitive hypertension. These novel expositions shifted focus into the activity of TCA in the pathogenesis of hypertension. There is now evidence to show that a mechanistic link exists between blood pressure regulation and intermediaries in the TCA cycle involving fumarate metabolism. Fumarate has been reported to mediate the actions of endogenous ligands such as nitric oxide (NO), and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Similarly, there has been upregulation of protective genes such as nuclear erythroid factor 2 (Nrf2) and reduction in the expression of certain markers like kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1). There are reports of interactions with endogenous enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and renin via the activation of GPR91. Fumarate has also been shown to modulate the actions of renal ion channels and by extension, natriuresis. These actions of fumarate have conferred a reno- and cardio-protective effect in hypertension. This review evaluates the role of the TCA cycle, its mechanistic links, and significant contribution to blood pressure regulation with a view to understanding the possibility of a new pathological axis which may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension.
    Keywords:  Blood pressure; Fumarate; Hypertension; Mitochondrial metabolism; Tricarboxylic acid cycle