bims-celmim Biomed News
on Cellular and mitochondrial metabolism
Issue of 2023‒10‒15
forty-five papers selected by
Marc Segarra Mondejar, University of Cologne

  1. J Biomed Sci. 2023 Oct 08. 30(1): 85
      Mammalian cells release a wealth of materials to their surroundings. Emerging data suggest these materials can even be mitochondria with perturbed morphology and aberrant function. These dysfunctional mitochondria are removed by migrating cells through membrane shedding. Neuronal cells, cardiomyocytes, and adipocytes send dysfunctional mitochondria into the extracellular space for nearby cells to degrade. Various studies also indicate that there is an interplay between intracellular mitochondrial degradation pathways and mitochondrial release in handling dysfunctional mitochondria. These observations, in aggregate, suggest that extracellular release plays a role in quality-controlling mammalian mitochondria. Future studies will help delineate the various types of molecular machinery mammalian cells use to release dysfunctional mitochondria. Through the studies, we will better understand how mammalian cells choose between intracellular degradation and extracellular release for the quality control of mitochondria.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Extracellular vesicles; Mitochondria; Mitophagy; Organelle quality control
  2. Cell Death Dis. 2023 Oct 10. 14(10): 663
      An important pathophysiological process of acute kidney injury (AKI) is mitochondrial fragmentation in renal tubular epithelial cells, which leads to cell death. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is an active protein with various biological functions that participates in regulating glycolysis and plays a key role in regulating cell survival. However, the role and mechanism of PKM2 in regulating cell survival during AKI remain unclear. Here, we found that the phosphorylation of PKM2 contributed to the formation of the PKM2 dimer and translocation of PKM2 into the mitochondria after treatment with staurosporine or cisplatin. Mitochondrial PKM2 binds myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) to promote dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation. Both in vivo and in vitro, PKM2-specific loss or regulation PKM2 activity partially limits mitochondrial fragmentation, alleviating renal tubular injury and cell death, including apoptosis, necroptosis, and ferroptosis. Moreover, staurosporine or cisplatin-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death were reversed in cultured cells by inhibiting MYH9 activity. Taken together, our results indicate that the regulation of PKM2 abundance and activity to inhibit mitochondrial translocation may maintain mitochondrial integrity and provide a new therapeutic strategy for treating AKI.
  3. Development. 2023 Oct 12. pii: dev.201930. [Epub ahead of print]
      Dendritic outgrowth in immature neurons is enhanced by neuronal activity and is considered one of the mechanisms of neural circuit optimization. It is known that calcium signals affect transcriptional regulation and cytoskeletal remodeling necessary for dendritic outgrowth. Here we demonstrate that activity-dependent calcium signaling also controls mitochondrial homeostasis via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in growing dendrites of differentiating hippocampal neurons. We found that the inhibition of neuronal activity induces dendritic hypotrophy with abnormally elongated mitochondria. In growing dendrites, AMPK is activated by neuronal activity and dynamically oscillates in synchrony with calcium spikes, and this AMPK oscillation is inhibited by CaMKK2 knockdown. AMPK activation leads to phosphorylation of MFF and ULK1, which initiate mitochondrial fission and mitophagy, respectively. Dendritic mitochondria in AMPK-depleted neurons exhibit impaired fission and mitophagy and display multiple signs of dysfunction. Genetic inhibition of fission leads to dendritic hypoplasia reminiscent of AMPK deficient neurons. Thus, AMPK activity is finely tuned by the calcium-CaMKK2 pathway and regulates mitochondrial homeostasis by facilitating removal of damaged components of mitochondria in growing neurons during normal brain development.
    Keywords:  AMPK; Dendritogenesis; Hippocampal neurons; Mitochondria; Neuronal activity
  4. J Biomed Sci. 2023 Oct 12. 30(1): 86
      Mitochondrial mass and quality are tightly regulated by two essential and opposing mechanisms, mitochondrial biogenesis (mitobiogenesis) and mitophagy, in response to cellular energy needs and other cellular and environmental cues. Great strides have been made to uncover key regulators of these complex processes. Emerging evidence has shown that there exists a tight coordination between mitophagy and mitobiogenesis, and their defects may cause many human diseases. In this review, we will first summarize the recent advances made in the discovery of molecular regulations of mitobiogenesis and mitophagy and then focus on the mechanism and signaling pathways involved in the simultaneous regulation of mitobiogenesis and mitophagy in the response of tissue or cultured cells to energy needs, stress, or pathophysiological conditions. Further studies of the crosstalk of these two opposing processes at the molecular level will provide a better understanding of how the cell maintains optimal cellular fitness and function under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, which holds promise for fighting aging and aging-related diseases.
    Keywords:  Aging; Aging-related diseases; Mitochondrial biogenesis; Mitochondrial quality; Mitophagy; Mitophagy receptors
  5. Nat Commun. 2023 Oct 10. 14(1): 6328
      Metabolic reprogramming is one of the hallmarks of tumorigenesis. Here, we show that nuclear myosin 1 (NM1) serves as a key regulator of cellular metabolism. NM1 directly affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by regulating mitochondrial transcription factors TFAM and PGC1α, and its deletion leads to underdeveloped mitochondria inner cristae and mitochondrial redistribution within the cell. These changes are associated with reduced OXPHOS gene expression, decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number, and deregulated mitochondrial dynamics, which lead to metabolic reprogramming of NM1 KO cells from OXPHOS to aerobic glycolysis.This, in turn, is associated with a metabolomic profile typical for cancer cells, namely increased amino acid-, fatty acid-, and sugar metabolism, and increased glucose uptake, lactate production, and intracellular acidity. NM1 KO cells form solid tumors in a mouse model, suggesting that the metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis provides a sufficient carcinogenic signal. We suggest that NM1 plays a role as a tumor suppressor and that NM1 depletion may contribute to the Warburg effect at the onset of tumorigenesis.
  6. Nat Commun. 2023 Oct 13. 14(1): 6431
      PPTC7 is a resident mitochondrial phosphatase essential for maintaining proper mitochondrial content and function. Newborn mice lacking Pptc7 exhibit aberrant mitochondrial protein phosphorylation, suffer from a range of metabolic defects, and fail to survive beyond one day after birth. Using an inducible knockout model, we reveal that loss of Pptc7 in adult mice causes marked reduction in mitochondrial mass and metabolic capacity with elevated hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Pptc7 knockout animals exhibit increased expression of the mitophagy receptors BNIP3 and NIX, and Pptc7-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) display a major increase in mitophagy that is reversed upon deletion of these receptors. Our phosphoproteomics analyses reveal a common set of elevated phosphosites between perinatal tissues, adult liver, and MEFs, including multiple sites on BNIP3 and NIX, and our molecular studies demonstrate that PPTC7 can directly interact with and dephosphorylate these proteins. These data suggest that Pptc7 deletion causes mitochondrial dysfunction via dysregulation of several metabolic pathways and that PPTC7 may directly regulate mitophagy receptor function or stability. Overall, our work reveals a significant role for PPTC7 in the mitophagic response and furthers the growing notion that management of mitochondrial protein phosphorylation is essential for ensuring proper organelle content and function.
  7. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2023 Oct 09.
      PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia (SZ) is a debilitating mental illness; existing treatments are partially effective and associated with significant side effect burden, largely due to our limited understanding of disease mechanisms and the trajectory of disease progression. Accumulating evidence suggests that metabolic changes associated with glucose metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and redox imbalance play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with these abnormalities in the brains of schizophrenia patients and the ways in which they change over time remain unclear. This paper aims to review the current literature on molecular mechanisms and in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies of impaired energy metabolism in patients at clinical high risk for psychosis, with first-episode SZ, and with chronic SZ. Our review covers research related to high-energy phosphate metabolism, lactate, intracellular pH, redox ratio, and the antioxidant glutathione.RECENT FINDINGS: Both first-episode and chronic SZ patients display a significant reduction in creatine kinase reaction activity and redox (NAD + /NADH) ratio in the prefrontal cortex. Chronic, but not first-episode, SZ patients also show a trend toward increased lactate levels and decreased pH value. These findings suggest a progressive shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis for energy production over the course of SZ, which is associated with redox imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Accumulating evidence indicates that aberrant brain energy metabolism associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and redox imbalance plays a critical role in SZ and will be a promising target for future treatments.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; Mitochondrial function; Progression of psychotic disorders; Redox imbalance; Schizophrenia
  8. Cell Rep. 2023 Oct 09. pii: S2211-1247(23)01233-0. [Epub ahead of print]42(10): 113221
      Advanced prostate cancers are treated with therapies targeting the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. While many tumors initially respond to AR inhibition, nearly all develop resistance. It is critical to understand how prostate tumor cells respond to AR inhibition in order to exploit therapy-induced phenotypes prior to the outgrowth of treatment-resistant disease. Here, we comprehensively characterize the effects of AR blockade on prostate cancer metabolism using transcriptomics, metabolomics, and bioenergetics approaches. The metabolic response to AR inhibition is defined by reduced glycolysis, robust elongation of mitochondria, and increased reliance on mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. We establish DRP1 activity and MYC signaling as mediators of AR-blockade-induced metabolic phenotypes. Rescuing DRP1 phosphorylation after AR inhibition restores mitochondrial fission, while rescuing MYC restores glycolytic activity and prevents sensitivity to complex I inhibition. Our study provides insight into the regulation of treatment-induced metabolic phenotypes and vulnerabilities in prostate cancer.
    Keywords:  CP: Cancer; CP: Metabolism
  9. Ageing Res Rev. 2023 Oct 11. pii: S1568-1637(23)00246-5. [Epub ahead of print] 102087
      The benefits of regular physical activity are related to delaying and reversing the onset of ageing and age-related disorders, including cardiomyopathy, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, obesity, diabetes, and fatty liver diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms of the benefits of exercise or physical activity on ageing and age-related disorders remain poorly understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of ageing and age-related metabolic diseases. Mitochondrial health is an important mediator of cellular function. Therefore, exercise alleviates metabolic diseases in individuals with advancing ageing and age-related diseases by the remarkable promotion of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Exerkines are identified as signaling moieties released in response to exercise. Exerkines released by exercise have potential roles in improving mitochondrial dysfunction in response to age-related disorders. This review comprehensive summarizes the benefits of exercise in metabolic diseases, linking mitochondrial dysfunction to the onset of age-related diseases. Using relevant examples utilizing this approach, the possibility of designing therapeutic interventions based on these molecular mechanisms is addressed.
    Keywords:  age-related diseases; ageing; exerkines; mitochondrial dysfunction
  10. Mol Cell Biol. 2023 ;43(10): 531-546
      During the inflammatory response, macrophage phenotypes can be broadly classified as pro-inflammatory/classically activated "M1", or pro-resolving/alternatively "M2" macrophages. Although the classification of macrophages is general and assumes there are distinct phenotypes, in reality macrophages exist across a spectrum and must transform from a pro-inflammatory state to a proresolving state following an inflammatory insult. To adapt to changing metabolic needs of the cell, mitochondria undergo fusion and fission, which have important implications for cell fate and function. We hypothesized that mitochondrial fission and fusion directly contribute to macrophage function during the pro-inflammatory and proresolving phases. In the present study, we find that mitochondrial length directly contributes to macrophage phenotype, primarily during the transition from a pro-inflammatory to a proresolving state. Phenocopying the elongated mitochondrial network (by disabling the fission machinery using siRNA) leads to a baseline reduction in the inflammatory marker IL-1β, but a normal inflammatory response to LPS, similar to control macrophages. In contrast, in macrophages with a phenocopied fragmented phenotype (by disabling the fusion machinery using siRNA) there is a heightened inflammatory response to LPS and increased signaling through the ATF4/c-Jun transcriptional axis compared to control macrophages. Importantly, macrophages with a fragmented mitochondrial phenotype show increased expression of proresolving mediator arginase 1 and increased phagocytic capacity. Promoting mitochondrial fragmentation caused an increase in cellular lactate, and an increase in histone lactylation which caused an increase in arginase 1 expression. These studies demonstrate that a fragmented mitochondrial phenotype is critical for the proresolving response in macrophages and specifically drive epigenetic changes via lactylation of histones following an inflammatory insult.
    Keywords:  fission; fusion; histone lactylation; inflammation resolution; macrophages; mitochondrial metabolism
  11. Sci Rep. 2023 Oct 12. 13(1): 17257
      Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, which leads to acute kidney injury (AKI), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in a variety of clinical situations. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of Mfn2 during renal I/R injury. Overexpression of Mfn2 in NRK-52E rat renal tubular epithelial cells and rats, then we constructed hypoxia reoxygenation (H/R) cells and I/R rat model. Apoptosis, ROS, ATP, Ca2+ levels in cells and rats, as well as renal tissue and functional injury in rats were detected respectively. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was further examined in cells and rats. The morphological changes of mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs) were also detected. Mfn2 expression is reduced in H/R-treated NRK-52E cells and renal tissue of I/R rats. At the cellular level, overexpression of Mfn2 promoted cell proliferation, inhibited cell apoptosis, attenuated mitochondrial damage and Ca2+ overload, and ER stress. In addition, Mfn2 also restored the MAMs structure. In vivo experiments found that overexpression of Mfn2 could improve renal function and alleviate tissue injury. Concomitant with elevated Mfn2 expression in the kidney, reduced renal cell apoptosis, restored mitochondrial function, and reduced calcium overload. Finally, ER stress in rat kidney tissue was alleviated after overexpression of Mfn2. These results reveal that Mfn2 contributes to ER stress, mitochondrial function, and cell death in I/R injury, which provides a novel therapeutic target for AKI.
  12. Cancers (Basel). 2023 Oct 05. pii: 4857. [Epub ahead of print]15(19):
      Lipid droplets (LDs) are dynamic organelles involved in the management of fatty acid trafficking and metabolism. Recent studies suggest that autophagy and LDs serve complementary roles in the protection against nutrient stress, but the autophagy-LD interplay in cancer cells is not well understood. Here, we examined the relationship between autophagy and LDs in starving HeLa cervical cancer- and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We found that acute amino acid depletion induces autophagy and promotes diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1)-mediated LD accumulation in HeLa cells. Inhibition of autophagy via late-stage autophagy inhibitors, or by knocking down autophagy-related 5 (ATG5), reduced LD accumulation in amino acid-starved cancer cells, suggesting that autophagy contributes to LD biogenesis. On the contrary, knockdown of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) increased LD accumulation, suggesting that LD breakdown is mediated by lipolysis under these conditions. Concurrent inhibition of autophagy by silencing ATG5 and of LD biogenesis using DGAT inhibitors was effective in killing starving HeLa cells, whereas cell survival was not compromised by suppression of ATGL-mediated lipolysis. Autophagy-dependent LD biogenesis was also observed in the aggressive triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells deprived of amino acids, but these cells were not sensitized to starvation by the combined inhibition of LD biogenesis and autophagy. These findings reveal that while targeting autophagy-driven and DGAT-mediated LD biogenesis reduces the resilience of HeLa cervical cancer cells to amino acid deprivation, this strategy may not be successful in other cancer cell types.
    Keywords:  autophagy; cancer; cell death; diacylglycerol acyltransferase; lipid droplets; nutrient starvation
  13. J Biol Chem. 2023 Oct 10. pii: S0021-9258(23)02361-X. [Epub ahead of print] 105333
      Branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) is the rate-limiting enzyme in branched chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism, a metabolic pathway with great importance for human health. BCKDC belongs to the mitochondrial α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex family, which also includes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDC). Here we revealed that BCKDC can be substantially inhibited by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) via a mechanism similar to what we recently discovered with PDHC and OGDC - RNS can cause inactivating covalent modifications of the lipoic arm on its E2 subunit. In addition, we showed that such reaction between RNS and the lipoic arm of the E2 subunit can further promote inhibition of the E3 subunits of α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. We examined the impacts of this RNS-mediated BCKDC inhibition in muscle cells, an important site of BCAA metabolism, and demonstrated that the nitric oxide production induced by cytokine stimulation leads to a strong inhibition of BCKDC activity and BCAA oxidation in myotubes and myoblasts. More broadly, nitric oxide production reduced the level of functional lipoic arms across the multiple α-ketoacid dehydrogenases and led to intracellular accumulation of their substrates (α-ketoacids), decrease of their products (acyl-CoAs), and a lower cellular energy charge. In sum, this work revealed a new mechanism for BCKDC regulation, demonstrated that RNS can generally inhibit all α-ketoacid dehydrogenases, which has broad physiological implications across multiple cell types, and elucidated the mechanistic connection between RNS-driven inhibitory modifications on the E2 and E3 subunits of α-ketoacid dehydrogenases.
    Keywords:  branched chain amino acid; metabolic regulation; mitochondria metabolism; nitric oxide; α-ketoacid dehydrogenase
  14. J Cell Sci. 2023 Oct 10. pii: jcs.261300. [Epub ahead of print]
      Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a major contributor to Type 2 Diabetes, is linked to the consumption of saturated fats. This insulin resistance arises from failure of insulin-induced translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane to facilitate glucose uptake into muscle. The mechanisms of defective GLUT4 translocation are poorly understood, limiting development of insulin-sensitizing therapies targeting muscle glucose uptake. While many studies identify early insulin signaling defects and suggest they are responsible for insulin resistance, their cause-effect has been debated. Here, we find that the saturated fat palmitate (PA) causes insulin resistance of GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes without impairing signaling to Akt or AS160. Instead, PA altered two basal-state events: a) the intracellular localization of GLUT4 and its sorting towards a perinuclear storage compartment, and b) actin filament stiffness that prevents Rac1-dependent actin remodeling. These defects were triggered by distinct mechanisms, respectively protein palmitoylation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Our findings highlight that saturated fats elicit muscle cell-autonomous dysregulation of the basal-state machinery required for GLUT4 translocation that 'primes' cells for insulin resistance.
    Keywords:  Actin cytoskeleton; GLUT4; Insulin resistance; Palmitate
  15. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Sep 30. pii: 14769. [Epub ahead of print]24(19):
      Pathological mechanisms contributing to Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still elusive. Here, we identified the metabolic signatures of AD in human post-mortem brains. Using 1H NMR spectroscopy and an untargeted metabolomics approach, we identified (1) metabolomic profiles of AD and age-matched healthy subjects in post-mortem brain tissue, and (2) region-common and region-unique metabolome alterations and biochemical pathways across eight brain regions revealed that BA9 was the most affected. Phenylalanine and phosphorylcholine were mainly downregulated, suggesting altered neurotransmitter synthesis. N-acetylaspartate and GABA were upregulated in most regions, suggesting higher inhibitory activity in neural circuits. Other region-common metabolic pathways indicated impaired mitochondrial function and energy metabolism, while region-unique pathways indicated oxidative stress and altered immune responses. Importantly, AD caused metabolic changes in brain regions with less well-documented pathological alterations that suggest degenerative progression. The findings provide a new understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of AD and guide biomarker discovery for personalized risk prediction and diagnosis.
    Keywords:  GABA; aging; cognitive function; energy metabolism; glucose metabolism; mitochondrial dysfunction; neurodegenerative disease; neuropathology; neurotransmission; oxidative stress; phenylalanine; proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy
  16. Cell Death Dis. 2023 Oct 10. 14(10): 664
      Metabolic reprogramming has been recognized as one of the major mechanisms that fuel tumor initiation and progression. Our previous studies demonstrate that activation of Drp1 promotes fatty acid oxidation and downstream Wnt signaling. Here we investigate the role of Drp1 in regulating glycogen metabolism in colon cancer. Knockdown of Drp1 decreases mitochondrial respiration without increasing glycolysis. Analysis of cellular metabolites reveals that the levels of glucose-6-phosphate, a precursor for glycogenesis, are significantly elevated whereas pyruvate and other TCA cycle metabolites remain unchanged in Drp1 knockdown cells. Additionally, silencing Drp1 activates AMPK to stimulate the expression glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) mRNA and promote glycogen storage. Using 3D organoids from Apcf/f/Villin-CreERT2 models, we show that glycogen levels are elevated in tumor organoids upon genetic deletion of Drp1. Similarly, increased GYS1 expression and glycogen accumulation are detected in xenograft tumors derived from Drp1 knockdown colon cancer cells. Functionally, increased glycogen storage provides survival advantage to Drp1 knockdown cells. Co-targeting glycogen phosphorylase-mediated glycogenolysis sensitizes Drp1 knockdown cells to chemotherapy drug treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that Drp1-loss activates glucose uptake and glycogenesis as compensative metabolic pathways to promote cell survival. Combined inhibition of glycogen metabolism may enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents for colon cancer treatment.
  17. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2024 ;34(1): 69-74
      The enhanced uptake of glucose by cancer cells via aerobic glycolysis occurs when the lactic acid pathway is favored over the citric acid cycle. The lactic acid cycle in cancer cells influences the cytosolic concentration of metabolic fluorophores including NADH (the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). In particular, the literature has shown that breast cancer influences the relative magnitude of fluorescence from NADH and FAD. A multispectral imaging system has been developed for rapid non-destructive imaging of intrinsic fluorescence in tissue. This paper compares in vivo data to fresh ex vivo data gathered as a function of time in mouse models. The data indicate that, if measured within 30 min of excision, a cancer diagnosis in fresh ex vivo tissue correlates with a cancer diagnosis in in vivo tissue. These results justify a plan to evaluate fresh ex vivo human tissue to quantify the sensitivity and specificity of the multispectral system.
  18. Cancer Lett. 2023 Oct 05. pii: S0304-3835(23)00376-2. [Epub ahead of print] 216425
      Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is one of the most prevalent and aggressive types of lung cancer. Metabolic reprogramming plays a critical role in the development and progression of LUAD. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) are two key enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, whilst their aberrant expressions are often associated with tumorigenesis. Herein, we investigated the anticancer effects of combined inhibition of PDK1 and LDHA in LUAD in vitro and in vivo and its underlying mechanisms of action. The combination of a PDK1 inhibitor, 64, and a LDHA inhibitor, NHI-Glc-2, led to a synergistic growth inhibition in 3 different LUAD cell lines and more than additively suppressed tumor growth in the LUAD xenograft H1975 model. This combination also inhibited cellular migration and colony formation, while it induced a metabolic shift from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) resulting in mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis in LUAD cells. These effects were related to modulation of multiple cell signaling pathways, including AMPK, RAS/ERK, and AKT/mTOR. Our findings demonstrate that simultaneous inhibition of multiple glycolytic enzymes (PDK1 and LDHA) is a promising novel therapeutic approach for LUAD.
    Keywords:  Anticancer; Combination treatment; Non-small cell lung cancer; Warburg effect
  19. J Cell Biochem. 2023 Oct 10.
      Skeletal muscle during postnatal development undergoes several structural and biochemical modifications. It is proposed that these changes are closely intertwined with the increase in load-bearing capacity of the muscle (i.e., myofibrils) and molecular machinery to support the energy demand (i.e., mitochondria). Concomitant establishment of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and mitochondrial network seems to be a major developmental adjustment of skeletal muscle leading to adult phenotype. Here, we have studied oxidativeness, vascularization, and the changes in mitofusins (Mfn) 1-Mfn 2 expression and interaction in the due course of muscle development. Toward this, we used a series of histochemical techniques to compare neonatal and adult limb muscles (Gastrocnemius and Quadriceps) of Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus). Additionally, we probed the proximity between Mfn 1 and Mfn 2 using a highly sensitive antibody-based proximity ligation assay indicating the change in mitochondrial fusion pattern or mitochondria-SR interaction. The results show that neonatal fibers bear a uniform distribution of mitochondria while a differential pattern of distribution is seen in adults. The distribution of the blood vessels is also quite distinct in adult muscles with a well-formed capillary network but in neonates, only central blood vessels are seen. Interestingly, our Mfn 1-Mfn 2 interaction data show that this interaction is uniformly distributed throughout the neonatal fibers, while it becomes peripherally localized in fibers of adult muscles. This peripheralization of Mfn 1-Mfn 2 interaction must be an important event of muscle development and might be critical to cater to the metabolic needs of adult muscle.
    Keywords:  development; mitochondria; mitofusins; neonate; protein-protein interaction; skeletal muscle
  20. Cancer Biol Med. 2023 Oct 10. pii: j.issn.2095-3941.2023.0232. [Epub ahead of print]
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an organelle present in various eukaryotic cells, is responsible for intracellular protein synthesis, post-translational modification, and folding and transport, as well as the regulation of lipid and steroid metabolism and Ca2+ homeostasis. Hypoxia, nutrient deficiency, and a low pH tumor microenvironment lead to the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER, thus activating ER stress (ERS) and the unfolded protein response, and resulting in either restoration of cellular homeostasis or cell death. ERS plays a crucial role in cancer oncogenesis, progression, and response to therapies. This article reviews current studies relating ERS to ovarian cancer, the most lethal gynecologic malignancy among women globally, and discusses pharmacological agents and possible targets for therapeutic intervention.
    Keywords:  Endoplasmic reticulum stress; ovarian cancer; targeted therapy; unfolded protein response
  21. Cells. 2023 Sep 24. pii: 2345. [Epub ahead of print]12(19):
      Innate immune signaling in adipocytes affects systemic metabolism. Cytosolic nucleic acid sensing has been recently shown to stimulate thermogenic adipocyte differentiation and protect from obesity; however, DNA efflux from adipocyte mitochondria is a potential proinflammatory signal that causes adipose tissue dysfunction and insulin resistance. Cytosolic DNA activates the stimulator of interferon response genes (STING), a key signal transducer which triggers type I interferon (IFN-I) expression; hence, STING activation is expected to induce IFN-I response and adipocyte dysfunction. However, we show herein that mouse adipocytes had a diminished IFN-I response to STING stimulation by 2'3'-cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP). We also show that cGAMP triggered autophagy in murine and human adipocytes. In turn, STING inhibition reduced autophagosome number, compromised the mitochondrial network and caused inflammation and fat accumulation in adipocytes. STING hence stimulates a process that removes damaged mitochondria, thereby protecting adipocytes from an excessive IFN-I response to mitochondrial DNA efflux. In summary, STING appears to limit inflammation in adipocytes by promoting mitophagy under non-obesogenic conditions.
    Keywords:  STING; adipocyte; immunity; inflammation; interferons; mitochondria
  22. Cell. 2023 Sep 26. pii: S0092-8674(23)01032-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. However, mechanisms underlying metabolic reprogramming and how altered metabolism in turn enhances tumorigenicity are poorly understood. Here, we report that arginine levels are elevated in murine and patient hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), despite reduced expression of arginine synthesis genes. Tumor cells accumulate high levels of arginine due to increased uptake and reduced arginine-to-polyamine conversion. Importantly, the high levels of arginine promote tumor formation via further metabolic reprogramming, including changes in glucose, amino acid, nucleotide, and fatty acid metabolism. Mechanistically, arginine binds RNA-binding motif protein 39 (RBM39) to control expression of metabolic genes. RBM39-mediated upregulation of asparagine synthesis leads to enhanced arginine uptake, creating a positive feedback loop to sustain high arginine levels and oncogenic metabolism. Thus, arginine is a second messenger-like molecule that reprograms metabolism to promote tumor growth.
    Keywords:  AGMAT; ARG1; ASNS; RBM39; arginine; hepatocellular carcinoma; indisulam; metabolism
  23. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2023 Oct 06. pii: S0958-1669(23)00106-4. [Epub ahead of print]84 102996
      The tumor microenvironment (TME) consists of a network of metabolically interconnected tumor and immune cell types. Macrophages influence the metabolic composition within the TME, which directly impacts the metabolic state and drug response of tumors. The accumulation of oncometabolites, such as succinate, fumarate, and 2-hydroxyglutarate, represents metabolic vulnerabilities in cancer that can be targeted therapeutically. Immunometabolites are emerging as metabolic regulators of the TME impacting immune cell functions and cancer cell growth. Here, we discuss recent discoveries on the potential impact of itaconate on the TME. We highlight how itaconate influences metabolic pathways relevant to immune responses and cancer cell proliferation. We also consider the therapeutic implications of manipulating itaconate metabolism as an immunotherapeutic strategy to constrain tumor growth.
  24. EMBO Rep. 2023 Oct 09. e57265
      Dysfunction of lysosomes, the primary hydrolytic organelles in animal cells, is frequently associated with aging and age-related diseases. At the cellular level, lysosomal dysfunction is strongly linked to cellular senescence or the induction of cell death pathways. However, the precise mechanisms by which lysosomal dysfunction participates in these various cellular or organismal phenotypes have remained elusive. The ability of lysosomes to degrade diverse macromolecules including damaged proteins and organelles puts lysosomes at the center of multiple cellular stress responses. Lysosomal activity is tightly regulated by many coordinated cellular processes including pathways that function inside and outside of the organelle. Here, we collectively classify these coordinated pathways as the lysosomal processing and adaptation system (LYPAS). We review evidence that the LYPAS is upregulated by diverse cellular stresses, its adaptability regulates senescence and cell death decisions, and it can form the basis for therapeutic manipulation for a wide range of age-related diseases and potentially for aging itself.
    Keywords:  LYPAS; age-related disease; autophagy; lysosomal quality control; senescence
  25. Brain. 2023 Oct 07. pii: awad340. [Epub ahead of print]
      AFG3L2 is a mitochondrial protease exerting protein quality control in the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Heterozygous AFG3L2 mutations cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 28 (SCA28) or Dominant Optic Atrophy type 12 (DOA12), while biallelic AFG3L2 mutations result in the rare and severe Spastic Ataxia type 5 (SPAX5). The clinical spectrum of SPAX5 includes childhood-onset cerebellar ataxia, spasticity, dystonia, and myoclonic epilepsy. We previously reported that the absence or mutation of AFG3L2 leads to the accumulation of mitochondria-encoded proteins, causing the over-activation of the stress-sensitive protease OMA1, which over-processes OPA1, leading to mitochondrial fragmentation. Recently, OMA1 has been identified as the pivotal player communicating mitochondrial stress to the cytosol via a pathway involving the IMM protein DELE1 and the cytosolic kinase HRI, thus eliciting the integrated stress response (ISR). In general, the ISR reduces global protein synthesis and drives the expression of cytoprotective genes that allow cells to endure proteotoxic stress. However, the relevance of the OMA1-DELE1-HRI axis in vivo, and especially in a human CNS disease context, has been poorly documented so far. In this work, we demonstrated that mitochondrial proteotoxicity in the absence/mutation of AFG3L2 activates the OMA1-DELE1-HRI pathway eliciting the ISR. We indeed found enhanced OMA1-dependent processing of DELE1 upon depletion of AFG3L2. Also, in both skin fibroblasts from SPAX5 patients (including a novel case) and in the cerebellum of Afg3l2-/- mice we detected increased phosphorylation of the α-subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), increased levels of ATF4 and strong upregulation of its downstream targets (Chop, Chac1, Ppp1r15a and Ffg21). Silencing of DELE1 or HRI in SPAX5 fibroblasts (where OMA1 is overactivated at basal state) reduces eIF2α phosphorylation and affects cell growth. In agreement, pharmacological potentiation of ISR via Sephin-1, a drug that selectively inhibits the stress-induced eIF2alpha phosphatase GADD34 (encoded by Ppp1r15a), improved cell growth of SPAX5 fibroblasts, and cell survival and dendritic arborization ex vivo in primary Afg3l2-/- Purkinje neurons (PNs). Notably, Sephin-1 treatment in vivo extended the life span of Afg3l2-/- mice, improved PN morphology, mitochondrial ultrastructure and respiratory capacity. These data indicate that activation of the OMA1-DELE1-HRI pathway is protective in the context of SPAX5. Pharmacological tuning of the ISR may represent a future therapeutic strategy for SPAX5 and other cerebellar ataxias caused by impaired mitochondrial proteostasis.
    Keywords:  OMA1; integrated stress response; spastic ataxia type 5
  26. ACS Sens. 2023 Oct 10.
      Lipid droplets (LDs) act as an energy reservoir in cancer cells; on the other hand, mitochondria are hyperactive to fulfill the energy demand to accelerate cell proliferation. We are interested in unfolding the relationship between the cellular energy reservoir and energy producer through fluorescence labeling. Thus, a dual organelle-targeted fluorescent probe MLD-1 has been rationally developed. It visualized the crosstalk between mitochondrial dysfunction and the fluctuation of LDs in live cells. Its two-photon ability allowed us to acquire deep tissue images. For the first time, we have shown that the probe has the ability to track the accumulation of LDs in different mouse organs during pancreatic inflammation. MLD-1, being a selectively polarity-driven, chemo- and photostable LD probe, may offer great possibilities for studying LD-associated biology in due course.
    Keywords:  cancer cells; fluorescent probe; lipid droplets; mitochondria; naphthalimide; pancreatitis; polarity-driven; two-photon
  27. Circ Res. 2023 Oct 11.
      BACKGROUND: The membrane components of cardiomyocytes are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are easily oxidized. Thus, an efficient glutathione-based lipid redox system is essential for maintaining cellular functions. However, the relationship between disruption of the redox system during ischemia-reperfusion (IR), oxidized lipid production, and consequent cell death (ferroptosis) remains unclear. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the disruption of the glutathione-mediated reduction system related to ferroptosis during IR and developed intervention strategies to suppress ferroptosis.METHODS: In vivo fluctuations of both intra- and extracellular metabolite levels during IR were explored via microdialysis and tissue metabolome analysis. Oxidized phosphatidylcholines were assessed using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry. The areas at risk following IR were assessed using triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride/Evans blue stain.
    RESULTS: Metabolomic analysis combined with microdialysis revealed a significant release of glutathione from the ischemic region into extracellular spaces during ischemia and after reperfusion. The release of glutathione into extracellular spaces and a concomitant decrease in intracellular glutathione concentrations were also observed during anoxia-reperfusion in an in vitro cardiomyocyte model. This extracellular glutathione release was prevented by chemical inhibition or genetic suppression of glutathione transporters, mainly MRP1 (multidrug resistance protein 1). Treatment with MRP1 inhibitor reduced the intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and lipid peroxidation, thereby inhibiting cell death. Subsequent in vivo evaluation of endogenously oxidized phospholipids following IR demonstrated the involvement of ferroptosis, as levels of multiple oxidized phosphatidylcholines were significantly elevated in the ischemic region 12 hours after reperfusion. Inhibition of the MRP1 transporter also alleviated intracellular glutathione depletion in vivo and significantly reduced the generation of oxidized phosphatidylcholines. Administration of MRP1 inhibitors significantly attenuated infarct size after IR injury.
    CONCLUSIONS: Glutathione was released continuously during IR, primarily in an MRP1-dependent manner, and induced ferroptosis. Suppression of glutathione release attenuated ferroptosis and reduced myocardial infarct size following IR.
    Keywords:  ferroptosis; glutathione; ischemia; microdialysis; multidrug resistance protein
  28. Trends Cell Biol. 2023 Oct 05. pii: S0962-8924(23)00196-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Apolipoprotein E (APOE) traffics lipids in the central nervous system. The E4 variant of APOE is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a multitude of other neurodegenerative diseases, yet the molecular mechanisms by which APOE4 drives disease are still unclear. A growing collection of studies in iPSC models, knock-in mice, and human postmortem brain tissue have demonstrated that APOE4 expression in astrocytes and microglia is associated with the accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets, defects in endolysosomal trafficking, impaired mitochondrial metabolism, upregulation of innate immune pathways, and a transition into a reactive state. In this review, we collate these developments and suggest testable mechanistic hypotheses that could explain common APOE4 phenotypes.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; apolipoprotein E; astrocytes; lipid droplets; lipoproteins; microglia
  29. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2023 ;11 1266973
      Succinate serves as an essential circulating metabolite within the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and functions as a substrate for succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), thereby contributing to energy production in fundamental mitochondrial metabolic pathways. Aberrant changes in succinate concentrations have been associated with pathological states, including chronic inflammation, ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, and cancer, resulting from the exaggerated response of specific immune cells, thereby rendering it a central area of investigation. Recent studies have elucidated the pivotal involvement of succinate and SDH in immunity beyond metabolic processes, particularly in the context of cancer. Current scientific endeavors are concentrated on comprehending the functional repercussions of metabolic modifications, specifically pertaining to succinate and SDH, in immune cells operating within a hypoxic milieu. The efficacy of targeting succinate and SDH alterations to manipulate immune cell functions in hypoxia-related diseases have been demonstrated. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of succinate's role in metabolism and the regulation of SDH is crucial for effectively targeting succinate and SDH as therapeutic interventions to influence the progression of specific diseases. This review provides a succinct overview of the latest advancements in comprehending the emerging functions of succinate and SDH in metabolic processes. Furthermore, it explores the involvement of succinate, an intermediary of the TCA cycle, in chronic inflammation, IR injury, and cancer, with particular emphasis on the mechanisms underlying succinate accumulation. This review critically assesses the potential of modulating succinate accumulation and metabolism within the hypoxic milieu as a means to combat various diseases. It explores potential targets for therapeutic interventions by focusing on succinate metabolism and the regulation of SDH in hypoxia-related disorders.
    Keywords:  cancer; immune cells; inflammation; ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury; succinate; succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)
  30. Cell Rep Methods. 2023 Oct 03. pii: S2667-2375(23)00254-0. [Epub ahead of print] 100602
      First-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is mechanistically linked to type 2 diabetes, yet the underlying metabolism is difficult to discern due to significant islet-to-islet variability. Here, we miniaturize a fluorescence anisotropy immunoassay onto a microfluidic device to measure C-peptide secretion from individual islets as a surrogate for insulin (InsC-chip). This method measures secretion from up to four islets at a time with ∼7 s resolution while providing an optical window for real-time live-cell imaging. Using the InsC-chip, we reveal two glucose-dependent peaks of insulin secretion (i.e., a double peak) within the classically defined 1st phase (<10 min). By combining real-time secretion and live-cell imaging, we show islets transition from glycolytic to oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos)-driven metabolism at the nadir of the peaks. Overall, these data validate the InsC-chip to measure glucose-stimulated insulin secretion while revealing new dynamics in secretion defined by a shift in glucose metabolism.
    Keywords:  CP: Biotechnology; CP: Metabolism; insulin; islet; islet-on-a-chip; live cell imaging; microfluidic; microscopy
  31. EMBO Rep. 2023 Oct 12. e57092
      The mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) is a key energy transducer in eukaryotic cells. Four respiratory chain complexes cooperate in the transfer of electrons derived from various metabolic pathways to molecular oxygen, thereby establishing an electrochemical gradient over the inner mitochondrial membrane that powers ATP synthesis. This electron transport relies on mobile electron carries that functionally connect the complexes. While the individual complexes can operate independently, they are in situ organized into large assemblies termed respiratory supercomplexes. Recent structural and functional studies have provided some answers to the question of whether the supercomplex organization confers an advantage for cellular energy conversion. However, the jury is still out, regarding the universality of these claims. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on the functional significance of MRC supercomplexes, highlight experimental limitations, and suggest potential new strategies to overcome these obstacles.
    Keywords:  Mitochondria; bioenergetics; electron transfer; respiratory chain; supercomplexes
  32. Sci Rep. 2023 10 10. 13(1): 17066
      In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, intracellular glucose levels impact glucose transport and regulate carbon metabolism via various glucose sensors. To investigate mechanisms of glucose sensing, it is essential to know the intracellular glucose concentrations. Measuring intracellular glucose concentrations, however, is challenging when cells are grown on glucose, as glucose in the water phase around cells or stuck to the cell surface can be carried over during cell sampling and in the following attributed to intracellular glucose, resulting in an overestimation of intracellular glucose concentrations. Using lactose as a carryover marker in the growth medium, we found that glucose carryover originates from both the water phase and from sticking to the cell surface. Using a hexokinase null strain to estimate the glucose carryover from the cell surface, we found that glucose stuck on the cell surface only contributes a minor fraction of the carryover. To correct the glucose carryover, we revisited L-glucose as a carryover marker. Here, we found that L-glucose slowly enters cells. Thus, we added L-glucose to yeast cultures growing on uniformly 13C-labeled D-glucose only shortly before sampling. Using GC-MS to distinguish between the two differently labeled sugars and subtracting the carryover effect, we determined the intracellular glucose concentrations among two yeast strains with distinct kinetics of glucose transport to be at 0.89 mM in the wild-type strain and around 0.24 mM in a mutant with compromised glucose uptake. Together, our study provides insight into the origin of the glucose carryover effect and suggests that L-glucose added to the culture shortly before sampling is a possible method that yet has limitations with regard to measurement accuracy.
  33. Cells. 2023 Oct 03. pii: 2397. [Epub ahead of print]12(19):
      Mitochondrial dysfunction has been described in many neurodegenerative disorders; however, there is less information regarding mitochondrial deficits in Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), a polyglutamine (polyQ) disorder caused by CAG repeat expansion in the ATXN3 gene. In the present study, we characterized the changes in mitochondrial function and biogenesis markers in two MJD models, CMVMJD135 (MJD135) transgenic mice at a fully established phenotype stage and tetracycline-regulated PC6-3 Q108 cell line expressing mutant ataxin-3 (mATXN3). We detected mATXN3 in the mitochondrial fractions of PC6-3 Q108 cells, suggesting the interaction of expanded ATXN3 with the organelle. Interestingly, in both the cerebella of the MJD135 mouse model and in PC6-3 Q108 cells, we found decreased mitochondrial respiration, ATP production and mitochondrial membrane potential, strongly suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction in MJD. Also, in PC6-3 Q108 cells, an additional enhanced glycolytic flux was observed. Supporting the functional deficits observed in MJD mitochondria, MJD135 mouse cerebellum and PC6-3 Q108 cells showed reduced cytochrome c mRNA and protein levels. Overall, our findings show compromised mitochondrial function associated with decreased cytochrome c levels in both cell and animal models of MJD.
    Keywords:  Machado–Joseph disease; calcium handling; mitochondrial membrane potential; mitochondrial transcription; oxygen consumption
  34. Biochem Pharmacol. 2023 Oct 07. pii: S0006-2952(23)00439-2. [Epub ahead of print] 115848
      All human genes undergo alternative splicing leading to the diversity of the proteins. However, in some cases, abnormal regulation of alternative splicing can result in diseases that trigger defects in metabolism, reduced apoptosis, increased proliferation, and progression in almost all tumor types. Metabolic dysregulations and immune dysfunctions are crucial factors in cancer. In this respect, alternative splicing in tumors could be a potential target for therapeutic cancer strategies. Dysregulation of alternative splicing during mRNA maturation promotes carcinogenesis and drug resistance in many cancer types. Alternative splicing (changing the target mRNA 3'UTR binding site) can result in a protein with altered drug affinity, ultimately leading to drug resistance.. Here, we will highlight the function of various alternative splicing factors, how it regulates the reprogramming of cancer cell metabolism, and their contribution to tumor initiation and proliferation. Also, we will discuss emerging therapeutics for treating tumors via abnormal alternative splicing. Finally, we will discuss the challenges associated with these therapeutic strategies for clinical applications.
    Keywords:  Alternative splicing; Cancer; Metabolism
  35. Nat Metab. 2023 Oct 09.
      Reversible acetylation of mitochondrial proteins is a regulatory mechanism central to adaptive metabolic responses. Yet, how such functionally relevant protein acetylation is achieved remains unexplored. Here we reveal an unprecedented role of the MYST family lysine acetyltransferase MOF in energy metabolism via mitochondrial protein acetylation. Loss of MOF-KANSL complex members leads to mitochondrial defects including fragmentation, reduced cristae density and impaired mitochondrial electron transport chain complex IV integrity in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. We demonstrate COX17, a complex IV assembly factor, as a bona fide acetylation target of MOF. Loss of COX17 or expression of its non-acetylatable mutant phenocopies the mitochondrial defects observed upon MOF depletion. The acetylation-mimetic COX17 rescues these defects and maintains complex IV activity even in the absence of MOF, suggesting an activatory role of mitochondrial electron transport chain protein acetylation. Fibroblasts from patients with MOF syndrome who have intellectual disability also revealed respiratory defects that could be restored by alternative oxidase, acetylation-mimetic COX17 or mitochondrially targeted MOF. Overall, our findings highlight the critical role of MOF-KANSL complex in mitochondrial physiology and provide new insights into MOF syndrome.
  36. Cell Rep. 2023 Oct 11. pii: S2211-1247(23)01218-4. [Epub ahead of print]42(10): 113206
      Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is recognized for its pleiotropic properties that suppress inflammation. We report that ApoE serves as a metabolic rheostat that regulates microRNA control of glycolytic and mitochondrial activity in myeloid cells and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). ApoE expression in myeloid cells increases microRNA-146a, which reduces nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-driven GLUT1 expression and glycolytic activity. In contrast, ApoE expression reduces microRNA-142a, which increases carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1A) expression, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation. Improved mitochondrial metabolism by ApoE expression causes an enrichment of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in macrophages. The study of mice with conditional ApoE expression supports the capacity of ApoE to foster microRNA-controlled immunometabolism. Modulation of microRNA-146a and -142a in the hematopoietic system of hyperlipidemic mice using RNA mimics and antagonists, respectively, improves mitochondrial metabolism, which suppresses inflammation and hematopoiesis. Our findings unveil microRNA regulatory circuits, controlled by ApoE, that exert metabolic control over hematopoiesis and inflammation in hyperlipidemia.
    Keywords:  ApoE; CP: Metabolism; CPT1A; Glut1; fatty acid oxidation; hematopoiesis; inflammation; macrophage; microRNA-142a; microRNA-146a; mitochondrial metabolism
  37. Elife. 2023 Oct 12. pii: RP88084. [Epub ahead of print]12
      Mammalian mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes are able to associate into quaternary structures named supercomplexes (SCs), which normally coexist with non-bound individual complexes. The functional significance of SCs has not been fully clarified and the debate has been centered on whether or not they confer catalytic advantages compared with the non-bound individual complexes. Mitochondrial respiratory chain organization does not seem to be conserved in all organisms. In fact, and differently from mammalian species, mitochondria from Drosophila melanogaster tissues are characterized by low amounts of SCs, despite the high metabolic demands and MRC activity shown by these mitochondria. Here, we show that attenuating the biogenesis of individual respiratory chain complexes was accompanied by increased formation of stable SCs, which are missing in Drosophila melanogaster in physiological conditions. This phenomenon was not accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial respiratory activity. Therefore, we conclude that SC formation is necessary to stabilize the complexes in suboptimal biogenesis conditions, but not for the enhancement of respiratory chain catalysis.
    Keywords:  D. melanogaster; Drosophila; Mitochondria; OXPHOS; biochemistry; chemical biology; supercomplexes
  38. Aging Cell. 2023 Oct 13. e13996
      Aging promotes numerous intracellular changes in T cells that impact their effector function. Our data show that aging promotes an increase in the localization of STAT3 to the mitochondria (mitoSTAT3), which promotes changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function and T-cell cytokine production. Mechanistically, mitoSTAT3 increased the activity of aging T-cell mitochondria by increasing complex II. Limiting mitoSTAT3 using a mitochondria-targeted STAT3 inhibitor, Mtcur-1 lowered complex II activity, prevented age-induced changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function, and reduced Th17 inflammation. Exogenous expression of a constitutively phosphorylated form of STAT3 in T cells from young adults mimicked changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function in T cells from older adults and partially recapitulated aging-related cytokine profiles. Our data show the mechanistic link among mitoSTAT3, mitochondrial dynamics, function, and T-cell cytokine production.
    Keywords:  CD4+ T cells; Th17 cytokines; aging; cytokines; inflammaging; mitochondria; mitochondrial STAT3; naïve CD4+ T cells
  39. Cell Rep. 2023 Oct 12. pii: S2211-1247(23)01258-5. [Epub ahead of print]42(10): 113246
      Metastasis is the leading cause of high ovarian-cancer-related mortality worldwide. Three major processes constitute the whole metastatic cascade: invasion, intravasation, and extravasation. Tumor cells often reprogram their metabolism to gain advantages in proliferation and survival. However, whether and how those metabolic alterations contribute to the invasiveness of tumor cells has yet to be fully understood. Here we performed a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening to identify genes participating in tumor cell dissemination and revealed that PTGES3 acts as an invasion suppressor in ovarian cancer. Mechanistically, PTGES3 binds to phosphofructokinase, liver type (PFKL) and generates a local source of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to allosterically inhibit the enzymatic activity of PFKL. Repressed PFKL leads to downgraded glycolysis and the subsequent TCA cycle for glucose metabolism. However, ovarian cancer suppresses the expression of PTGES3 and disrupts the PTGES3-PGE2-PFKL inhibitory axis, leading to hyperactivation of glucose oxidation, eventually facilitating ovarian cancer cell motility and invasiveness.
    Keywords:  CP: Cancer; CP: Metabolism; CRISPR-Cas9 screening; EMT; PFKL; PGE2; PTGES3; TET2; fumarate; invasion; metastasis; ovarian cancer
  40. Heliyon. 2023 Oct;9(10): e20656
      Cancer cells frequently change their metabolism from aerobic glycolysis to lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism to adapt to the malignant biological behaviours of infinite proliferation and distant metastasis. The significance of metabolic substances and patterns in tumour cell metastasis is becoming increasingly prominent. Tumour metastasis involves a series of significant steps such as the shedding of cancer cells from a primary tumour, resistance to apoptosis, and colonisation of metastatic sites. However, the role of glutamine in these processes remains unclear. This review summarises the key enzymes and transporters involved in glutamine metabolism that are related to the pathogenesis of malignant tumour metastasis. We also list the roles of glutamine in resisting oxidative stress and promoting immune escape. Finally, the significance of targeting glutamine metabolism in inhibiting tumour metastasis was proposed, research in this field improving our understanding of amino acid metabolism rewiring and simultaneously bringing about new and exciting therapeutic prospects.
    Keywords:  Amino acid metabolism; Cancer metastasis; Glutamine; Metabolic therapy; Precision medicine
  41. Cell Biosci. 2023 Oct 13. 13(1): 189
      Cell proliferation and function require nutrients, energy, and biosynthesis activity to duplicate repertoires for each daughter. It is therefore not surprising that tumor microenvironment (TME) metabolic reprogramming primarily orchestrates the interaction between tumor and immune cells. Tumor metabolic reprogramming affords bioenergetic, signaling intermediates, and biosynthesis requirements for both malignant and immune cells. Different immune cell subsets are recruited into the TME, and these manifestations have distinct effects on tumor progression and therapeutic outcomes, especially the mutual contribution of glycolysis and cholesterol metabolism. In particularly, glycolysis-cholesterol metabolic axis interconnection plays a critical role in the TME modulation, and their changes in tumor metabolism appear to be a double-edged sword in regulating various immune cell responses and immunotherapy efficacy. Hence, we discussed the signature manifestation of the glycolysis-cholesterol metabolic axis and its pivotal role in tumor immune regulation. We also highlight how hypothetical combinations of immunotherapy and glycolysis/cholesterol-related metabolic interventions unleash the potential of anti-tumor immunotherapies, as well as developing more effective personalized treatment strategies.
    Keywords:  Glycolysis-Cholesterol Metabolic Axis; Immune Cells; Immunosuppressive; Tumor microenvironment (TME)
  42. Cancer Discov. 2023 Oct 13. OF1
      Mitochondrial CII loss reduces tumor growth by increasing antigen presentation and T cell-mediated killing.
  43. Cancer Cell. 2023 Oct 09. pii: S1535-6108(23)00319-7. [Epub ahead of print]41(10): 1788-1802.e10
      Mitochondria (MT) participate in most metabolic activities of mammalian cells. A near-unidirectional mitochondrial transfer from T cells to cancer cells was recently observed to "metabolically empower" cancer cells while "depleting immune cells," providing new insights into tumor-T cell interaction and immune evasion. Here, we leverage single-cell RNA-seq technology and introduce MERCI, a statistical deconvolution method for tracing and quantifying mitochondrial trafficking between cancer and T cells. Through rigorous benchmarking and validation, MERCI accurately predicts the recipient cells and their relative mitochondrial compositions. Application of MERCI to human cancer samples identifies a reproducible MT transfer phenotype, with its signature genes involved in cytoskeleton remodeling, energy production, and TNF-α signaling pathways. Moreover, MT transfer is associated with increased cell cycle activity and poor clinical outcome across different cancer types. In summary, MERCI enables systematic investigation of an understudied aspect of tumor-T cell interactions that may lead to the development of therapeutic opportunities.
    Keywords:  Mitochondrial Transfer; Statistical Deconvolution; T cell dysfunction; Tumor-Immune Interaction; mtDNA sequencing.; single cell genomics
  44. Sci Rep. 2023 10 10. 13(1): 17137
      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by protein accumulation in the brain as a main neuropathological hallmark. Among them, Aβ42 peptides tend to aggregate and create oligomers and plaques. Macroautophagy, a form of autophagy characterized by a double-membrane vesicle, plays a crucial role in maintaining neuronal homeostasis by degrading protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles as a quality control process. Recently, DEF8, a relatively uncharacterized protein, has been proposed as a participant in vesicular traffic and autophagy pathways. We have reported increased DEF8 levels in lymphocytes from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early-stage AD patients and a neuronal profile in a murine transgenic AD model. Here, we analyzed DEF8 localization and levels in the postmortem frontal cortex of AD patients, finding increased levels compared to healthy controls. To evaluate the potential function of DEF8 in the nervous system, we performed an in silico assessment of its expression and network profiles, followed by an in vivo evaluation of a neuronal Def8 deficient model using a Drosophila melanogaster model of AD based on Aβ42 expression. Our findings show that DEF8 is an essential protein for maintaining cellular homeostasis in the nervous system, and it is upregulated under stress conditions generated by Aβ42 aggregation. This study suggests DEF8 as a novel actor in the physiopathology of AD, and its exploration may lead to new treatment avenues.
  45. Cell Death Differ. 2023 Oct 12.
      Ferroptosis is a type of cell death characterized by the accumulation of intracellular iron and an increase in hazardous lipid peroxides. Ferroptosis and autophagy are closely related. Ionizing radiation is a frequently used cancer therapy to kill malignancies. We found that ionizing radiation induces both ferroptosis and autophagy and that there is a form of mutualism between the two processes. Ionizing radiation also causes lipid droplets to form in proximity to damaged mitochondria, which, through the action of mitophagy, results in the degradation of the peridroplet mitochondria by lysosomes and the consequent release of free fatty acids and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, thus promoting ferroptosis. Ionizing radiation has a stronger, fatal effect on cells with a high level of mitophagy, and this observation suggests a novel strategy for tumor treatment.