bims-caglex Biomed News
on Cellular aging and life extension
Issue of 2024‒05‒26
24 papers selected by
Mario Alexander Guerra Patiño, Universidad Antonio Nariño

  1. Cell Commun Signal. 2024 May 24. 22(1): 285
      Aging is a complex and multifaceted process involving a variety of interrelated molecular mechanisms and cellular systems. Phenotypically, the biological aging process is accompanied by a gradual loss of cellular function and the systemic deterioration of multiple tissues, resulting in susceptibility to aging-related diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that aging is closely associated with telomere attrition, DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, loss of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels, impaired macro-autophagy, stem cell exhaustion, inflammation, loss of protein balance, deregulated nutrient sensing, altered intercellular communication, and dysbiosis. These age-related changes may be alleviated by intervention strategies, such as calorie restriction, improved sleep quality, enhanced physical activity, and targeted longevity genes. In this review, we summarise the key historical progress in the exploration of important causes of aging and anti-aging strategies in recent decades, which provides a basis for further understanding of the reversibility of aging phenotypes, the application prospect of synthetic biotechnology in anti-aging therapy is also prospected.
    Keywords:  Aging; Aging triggers; Anti-aging strategies; Senolytic; Synthetic
  2. Aging Cell. 2024 May 23. e14202
      Age-related intervertebral disk degeneration (IVDD) involves increased oxidative damage, cellular senescence, and matrix degradation. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a water-soluble vitamin-like compound with strong anti-oxidant capacity. The goal of this study was to determine whether PQQ can prevent aging-related IVDD, and the underlying mechanism. Here, we found that dietary PQQ supplementation for 12 months alleviated IVDD phenotypes in aged mice, including increased disk height index and reduced histological scores and cell loss, without toxicity. Mechanistically, PQQ inhibited oxidative stress, cellular senescence, and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus of aged mice. Similarly, PQQ protected against interleukin-1β-induced matrix degradation, reactive oxygen species accumulation, and senescence in human nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) in vitro. Molecular docking predicted and biochemical assays validated that PQQ interacts with specific residues to dissociate the Keap1-Nrf2 complex, thereby increasing nuclear Nrf2 translocation and activation of Nrf2-ARE signaling. RNA sequencing and luciferase assays revealed Nrf2 can transcriptionally upregulate Wnt5a by binding to its promoter, while Wnt5a knockdown prevented PQQ inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-13 in NPCs. Notably, PQQ supplementation failed to alleviate aging-associated IVDD phenotypes and oxidative stress in aged Nrf2 knockout mice, indicating Nrf2 is indispensable for PQQ bioactivities. Collectively, this study demonstrates Nrf2 activation by PQQ inhibits aging-induced IVDD by attenuating cellular senescence and matrix degradation. This study clarifies Keap1-Nrf2-Wnt5a axis as the novel signaling underlying the protective effects of PQQ against aging-related IVDD, and provides evidence for PQQ as a potential agent for clinical prevention and treatment of natural aging-induced IVDD.
    Keywords:  IVDD; Keap1–Nrf2 signaling; Wnt5a; aging; pyrroloquinoline quinone
  3. Cells Tissues Organs. 2024 May 20.
      BACKGROUND: With the elderly population projected to double by 2050, there is an urgent need to address the increasing prevalence of age-related debilitating diseases and ultimately minimize discrepancies between the rising lifespan and stagnant healthspan. Cellular reprogramming by over-expression of Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and cMyc (OKSM) transcription factors is gaining attention in this context thanks to demonstrated rejuvenating effects in human cell cultures and live mice, many of which can be uncoupled from de-differentiation and loss of cell identity.SUMMARY: Here, we review current evidence of the impact of cell reprogramming on established aging hallmarks and the underlying mechanisms that mediate these effects. We also provide a critical assessment of the challenges in translating these findings and, overall, cell reprogramming technologies into clinically translatable anti-aging interventions.
    KEY MESSAGES: cellular reprogramming has the potential to reverse at least partially some key hallmarks of aging. However, further research is necessary to determine the biological significance and duration of such changes, and to ensure the safety of cell reprogramming as a rejuvenation approach. With this review, we hope to stimulate new research directions in the quest to extend healthspan effectively.
  4. Int J Mol Sci. 2024 May 17. pii: 5467. [Epub ahead of print]25(10):
      In contrast to the hypothesis that aging results from cell-autonomous deterioration processes, the programmed longevity theory proposes that aging arises from a partial inactivation of a "longevity program" aimed at maintaining youthfulness in organisms. Supporting this hypothesis, age-related changes in organisms can be reversed by factors circulating in young blood. Concordantly, the endocrine secretion of exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) by hypothalamic neural stem cells (htNSCs) regulates the aging rate by enhancing physiological fitness in young animals. However, the specific molecular mechanisms through which hypothalamic-derived miRNAs exert their anti-aging effects remain unexplored. Using experimentally validated miRNA-target gene interactions and single-cell transcriptomic data of brain cells during aging and heterochronic parabiosis, we identify the main pathways controlled by these miRNAs and the cell-type-specific gene networks that are altered due to age-related loss of htNSCs and the subsequent decline in specific miRNA levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Our bioinformatics analysis suggests that these miRNAs modulate pathways associated with senescence and cellular stress response, targeting crucial genes such as Cdkn2a, Rps27, and Txnip. The oligodendrocyte lineage appears to be the most responsive to age-dependent loss of exosomal miRNA, leading to significant derepression of several miRNA target genes. Furthermore, heterochronic parabiosis can reverse age-related upregulation of specific miRNA-targeted genes, predominantly in brain endothelial cells, including senescence promoting genes such as Cdkn1a and Btg2. Our findings support the presence of an anti-senescence mechanism triggered by the endocrine secretion of htNSC-derived exosomal miRNAs, which is associated with a youthful transcriptional signature.
    Keywords:  aging; bioinformatics; exosomes; miRNAs; neural stem cells; transcriptomics
  5. Small. 2024 May 22. e2400598
      Advanced age is a major risk factor for age-related degenerative tendinopathy. During aging, tendon stem/progenitor cell (TSPC) function declines owing to the transition from a normal quiescent state to a senescent state. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from young stem cells are reported to possess anti-aging functions. However, it remains unclear whether EVs from young TSPCs (TSPC-EVs) can rejuvenate senescent TSPCs to delay age-related degeneration. Here, this study finds that TSPC-EVs can mitigate the aging phenotypes of senescent TSPCs and maintain their tenogenic capacity. In vitro studies reveal that TSPC-EVs can reinstall autophagy in senescent TSPCs to alleviate cellular senescence, and that the re-establishment of autophagy is mediated by the PI3K/AKT pathway. Mechanistically, this study finds that thrombospondin 1, a negative regulator of the PI3K/AKT pathway, is enriched in TSPC-EVs and can be transported to senescent TSPCs. Moreover, in vivo studies show that the local delivery of TSPC-EVs can rejuvenate senescent TSPCs and promote their tenogenic differentiation, thereby rescuing tendon regeneration in aged rats. Taken together, TSPC-EVs as a novel cell-free approach have promising therapeutic potential for aging-related degenerative tendinopathy.
    Keywords:  age‐related degenerative tendinopathy; autophagy; cellular senescence; extracellular vesicles; tendon stem/progenitor cells
  6. Redox Biol. 2024 May 15. pii: S2213-2317(24)00167-8. [Epub ahead of print]73 103189
      Age-related endothelial dysfunction is a pivotal factor in the development of cardiovascular diseases, stemming, at least in part, from mitochondrial dysfunction and a consequential increase in oxidative stress. These alterations are central to the decline in vascular health seen with aging, underscoring the urgent need for interventions capable of restoring endothelial function for preventing cardiovascular diseases. Dietary interventions, notably time-restricted feeding (TRF), have been identified for their anti-aging effects on mitochondria, offering protection against age-associated declines in skeletal muscle and other organs. Motivated by these findings, our study aimed to investigate whether TRF could similarly exert protective effects on endothelial health in the vasculature, enhancing mitochondrial function and reducing oxidative stress. To explore this, 12-month-old C57BL/6 mice were placed on a TRF diet, with food access limited to a 6-h window daily for 12 months. For comparison, we included groups of young mice and age-matched controls with unrestricted feeding. We evaluated the impact of TRF on endothelial function by measuring acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation of the aorta. Mitochondrial health was assessed using fluororespirometry, and vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was quantified with the redox-sensitive dye dihydroethidium. We also quantified 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels, a stable marker of lipid peroxidation, in the aorta using ELISA. Our findings demonstrated that aged mice on a standard diet exhibited significant impairments in aortic endothelial relaxation and mitochondrial function, associated with elevated vascular oxidative stress. Remarkably, the TRF regimen led to substantial improvements in these parameters, indicating enhanced endothelial vasorelaxation, better mitochondrial function, and reduced oxidative stress in the aortas of aged mice. This investigation establishes a vital foundation, paving the way for subsequent clinical research aimed at exploring the cardiovascular protective benefits of intermittent fasting.
    Keywords:  Endothelium; Fluororespirometry; Intermittent fasting; Mitochondrial dysfunction; O2K; Oroboros; Vascular
  7. Phytomedicine. 2024 Apr 27. pii: S0944-7113(24)00324-6. [Epub ahead of print]129 155665
      BACKGROUND: Aging is the primary risk factor of most chronic diseases in humans, including cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis and neurodegenerative diseases, which extensively damage the quality of life for elderly individuals. Aging is a multifaceted process with numerous factors affecting it. Efficient model organisms are essential for the research and development of anti-aging agents, particularly when investigating pharmacological mechanisms are needed.PURPOSE: This review discusses the application of Caenorhabditis elegans for studying aging and its related signaling pathways, and presents an overview of studies exploring the mechanism and screening of anti-aging agents in C. elegans. Additionally, the review summarizes related clinical trials of anti-aging agents to inspire the development of new medications.
    METHOD: Literature was searched, analyzed, and collected using PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct. The search terms used were "anti-aging", "medicinal plants", "synthetic compounds", "C. elegans", "signal pathway", etc. Several combinations of these keywords were used. Studies conducted in C. elegans or humans were included. Articles were excluded, if they were on studies conducted in silico or in vitro or could not offer effective data.
    RESULTS: Four compounds mainly derived through synthesis (metformin, rapamycin, nicotinamide mononucleotide, alpha-ketoglutarate) and four active ingredients chiefly obtained from plants (resveratrol, quercetin, Astragalus polysaccharide, ginsenosides) are introduced emphatically. These compounds and active ingredients exhibit potential anti-aging effects in preclinical and clinical studies. The screening of these anti-aging agents and the investigation of their pharmacological mechanisms can benefit from the use of C. elegans.
    CONCLUSION: Medicinal plants provide valuable resource for the treatment of diseases. A wide source of raw materials for the particular plant medicinal compounds having anti-aging effects meet diverse pharmaceutical requirements, such as immunomodulatory, anti-inflammation and alleviating oxidative stress. C. elegans possesses advantages in scientific research including short life cycle, small size, easy maintenance, genetic tractability and conserved biological processes related to aging. C. elegans can be used for the efficient and rapid evaluation of compounds with the potential to slow down aging.
    Keywords:  Anti-aging; Caenorhabditis elegans; Medicinal plants; Signal pathway
  8. Am J Stem Cells. 2024 ;13(2): 101-109
      Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) represents one of the most prevalent chronic sensory deficits experienced by the elderly, significantly diminishing their quality of life and correlating with various medical and psychological morbidities. This condition arises from the cumulative effects of aging on the auditory system, implicating intricate interactions between genetic predispositions and environmental factors. Aging entails a progressive decline in immune system functionality, termed immunosenescence, leading to a chronic low-grade inflammation known as inflammaging. This phenomenon potentially serves as a common mechanism underlying ARHL and other age-related pathologies. Recent research suggests that rejuvenating immunosenescence could mitigate inflammaging and ameliorate age-related functional declines, offering promising insights into anti-aging therapies. Consequently, this review endeavors to elucidate the role of immunosenescence-mediated inflammaging in ARHL progression and discuss its therapeutic implications.
    Keywords:  Age-related hearing loss (ARHL); immunosenescence and inflammaging
  9. Front Genet. 2024 ;15 1393181
      Aging is linked to a time-associated decline in both cellular function and repair capacity leading to malfunction on an organismal level, increased frailty, higher incidence of diseases, and death. As the population grows older, there is a need to reveal mechanisms associated with aging that could spearhead treatments to postpone the onset of age-associated decline, extend both healthspan and lifespan. One possibility is targeting the sirtuin SIRT1, the founding member of the sirtuin family, a highly conserved family of histone deacetylases that have been linked to metabolism, stress response, protein synthesis, genomic instability, neurodegeneration, DNA damage repair, and inflammation. Importantly, sirtuins have also been implicated to promote health and lifespan extension, while their dysregulation has been linked to cancer, neurological processes, and heart disorders. SIRT1 is one of seven members of sirtuin family; each requiring nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as co-substrate for their catalytic activity. Overexpression of yeast, worm, fly, and mice SIRT1 homologs extend lifespan in each animal, respectively. Moreover, lifespan extension due to calorie restriction are associated with increased sirtuin activity. These findings led to the search for a calorie restriction mimetic, which revealed the compound resveratrol; (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) belonging to the stilbenoids group of polyphenols. Following this finding, resveratrol and other sirtuin-activating compounds have been extensively studied for their ability to affect health and lifespan in a variety of species, including humans via clinical studies.
    Keywords:  SIRT1; aging; calorie restriction; dietary supplements; resveratrol; sirtuins
  10. Mech Ageing Dev. 2024 May 17. pii: S0047-6374(24)00043-5. [Epub ahead of print]220 111943
      This review focuses on the vital function that SIRT1 and other sirtuins play in promoting cellular senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells, which is a key element in the pathogenesis of vascular aging and associated cardiovascular diseases. Vascular aging is a gradual process caused by the accumulation of senescent cells, which results in increased vascular remodeling, stiffness, and diminished angiogenic ability. Such physiological alterations are characterized by a complex interplay of environmental and genetic variables, including oxidative stress and telomere attrition, which affect gene expression patterns and trigger cell growth arrest. SIRT1 has been highlighted for its potential to reduce cellular senescence through modulation of multiple signaling cascades, particularly the endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS)/NO signaling pathway. It also modulates cell cycle through p53 inactivation and suppresses NF-κB mediated expression of adhesive molecules at the vascular level. The study also examines the therapeutic potential of sirtuin modulation in vascular health, identifying SIRT1 and its sirtuin counterparts as potential targets for reducing vascular aging. This study sheds light on the molecular basis of vascular aging and the beneficial effects of sirtuins, paving the way for the development of tailored therapies aimed at enhancing vascular health and prolonging life.
    Keywords:  Sirtuins; aging; cardiovascular disease; cellular senescence; vascular smooth muscle cells
  11. Aging Cell. 2024 May 17. e14205
      ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) inhibitors have the potential of modulating central processes in protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism, which can have relevant physiological consequences in aging and age-related diseases. Here, we show that hepatic phospho-active ACLY correlates with overweight and Model for End-stage Liver Disease score in humans. Wild-type mice treated chronically with the ACLY inhibitor potassium hydroxycitrate exhibited delayed early mortality. In AML12 hepatocyte cultures, the ACLY inhibitors potassium hydroxycitrate, SB-204990, and bempedoic acid fostered lipid accumulation, which was also observed in the liver of healthy-fed mice treated with potassium hydroxycitrate. Analysis of soleus tissue indicated that potassium hydroxycitrate produced the modulation of wound healing processes. In vivo, potassium hydroxycitrate modulated locomotor function toward increased wire hang performance and reduced rotarod performance in healthy-fed mice, and improved locomotion in mice exposed to cardiotoxin-induced muscle atrophy. Our findings implicate ACLY and ACLY inhibitors in different aspects of aging and muscle regeneration.
    Keywords:  ACLY; health span; hydroxycitrate; lifespan; liver; muscle strength; tissue regeneration
  12. Commun Biol. 2024 May 24. 7(1): 631
      In recent years, there has been success in partially reprogramming peripheral organ cells using cyclic Yamanaka transcription factor (YF) expression, resulting in the reversal of age-related pathologies. In the case of the brain, the effects of partial reprogramming are scarcely known, and only some of its effects have been observed through the widespread expression of YF. This study is the first to exclusively partially reprogram a specific subpopulation of neurons in the cerebral cortex of aged mice. The in vivo model demonstrate that YF expression in postmitotic neurons does not dedifferentiate them, and it avoids deleterious effects observed with YF expression in other cell types. Additionally, our study demonstrates that only cyclic, not continuous, expression of YF result in a noteworthy enhancement of cognitive function in adult mice. This enhancement is closely tied to increased neuronal activation in regions related to memory processes, reversed aging-related epigenetic markers and to increased plasticity, induced by the reorganization of the extracellular matrix. These findings support the therapeutic potential of targeted partial reprogramming of neurons in addressing age-associated phenotypes and neurodegenerative diseases correlated with aging.
  13. Animal Model Exp Med. 2024 May 24.
      BACKGROUND: In facial plastic surgery, patients with nasal deformity are often treated by rib cartilage transplantation. In recent years, cartilage tissue engineering has developed as an alternative to complex surgery for patients with minor nasal defects via injection of nasal filler material. In this study, we prepared an injectable nasal filler material containing poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) porous microspheres (PMs), hyaluronic acid (HA) and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs).METHODS: We seeded ADMSCs into as-prepared PLLA PMs using our newly invented centrifugation perfusion technique. Then, HA was mixed with ADMSC-incorporated PLLA PMs to form a hydrophilic and injectable cell delivery system (ADMSC-incorporated PMH).
    RESULTS: We evaluated the biocompatibility of PMH in vitro and in vivo. PMH has good injectability and provides a favorable environment for the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of ADMSCs. In vivo experiments, we observed that PMH has good biocompatibility and cartilage regeneration ability.
    CONCLUSION: In this study, a injectable cell delivery system was successfully constructed. We believe that PMH has potential application in cartilage tissue engineering, especially in nasal cartilage regeneration.
    Keywords:  PLLA porous microspheres; centrifugation perfusion; chondrogenesis; hyaluronic acid; nasal fillers
  14. Research (Wash D C). 2024 ;7 0378
      The accumulation of senescent cells in kidneys is considered to contribute to age-related diseases and organismal aging. Mitochondria are considered a regulator of cell senescence process. Atrazine as a triazine herbicide poses a threat to renal health by disrupting mitochondrial homeostasis. Melatonin plays a critical role in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. The present study aims to explore the mechanism by which melatonin alleviates atrazine-induced renal injury and whether parkin-mediated mitophagy contributes to mitigating cell senescence. The study found that the level of parkin was decreased after atrazine exposure and negatively correlated with senescent markers. Melatonin treatment increased serum melatonin levels and mitigates atrazine-induced renal tubular epithelial cell senescence. Mechanistically, melatonin maintains the integrity of mitochondrial crista structure by increasing the levels of mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), adenosine triphosphatase family AAA domain-containing protein 3A (ATAD3A), and sorting and assembly machinery 50 (Sam50) to prevent mitochondrial DNA release and subsequent activation of cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate-adenosine 5'-monophosphate synthase pathway. Furthermore, melatonin activates Sirtuin 3-superoxide dismutase 2 axis to eliminate the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the kidney. More importantly, the antisenescence role of melatonin is largely determined by the activation of parkin-dependent mitophagy. These results offer novel insights into measures against cell senescence. Parkin-mediated mitophagy is a promising drug target for alleviating renal tubular epithelial cell senescence.
  15. iScience. 2024 Jun 21. 27(6): 109854
      Muscle contraction is vital for animal survival, and the sarcomere is the fundamental unit for this process. However, the functions of many conserved sarcomere proteins remain unknown, as their mutants do not exhibit obvious defects. To address this, Caenorhabditis elegans was utilized as a model organism to investigate RSU-1 function in the body wall muscle. RSU-1 is found to colocalize with UNC-97 at the dense body and M-line, and it is particularly crucial for regulating locomotion in aging worms, rather than in young worms. This suggests that RSU-1 has a specific function in maintaining muscle function during aging. Furthermore, the interaction between RSU-1 and UNC-97/PINCH is essential for RSU-1 to modulate locomotion, preserve filament structure, and sustain the M-line and dense body throughout aging. Overall, these findings highlight the significant contribution of RSU-1, through its interaction with UNC-97, in maintaining proper muscle cell function in aging worms.
    Keywords:  Functional aspects of cell biology; Specialized functions of cells; molecular mechanism of behavior; molecular physiology
  16. Phytomedicine. 2024 May 15. pii: S0944-7113(24)00403-3. [Epub ahead of print]130 155744
      BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with learning and memory disorder, affecting multiple brain areas, especially the hippocampus. Previous studies have demonstrated trilobatin (TLB), as a natural food additive, can extend the life of Caenorhabditis elegans and exhibit neuroprotection in Alzheimer's disease mice. However, the possible significance of TLB in anti-aging remains elusive.PURPOSE: This study aimed to delve into the physiological mechanism by which TLB ameliorated aging-induced cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice.
    METHODS: 6-month-old SAMP8 mice were administrated with TLB (5, 10, 20 mg/kg/day, i.g.) for 3 months. The therapeutic effect of TLB on aging-induced cognitive impairment was assessed in mice using behavioral tests and aging score. The gut microbiota composition in fecal samples was analyzed by metagenomic analysis. The protective effects of TLB on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and intestinal barrier were detected by transmission electron microscope, H&E staining and western blot (WB) assay. The inhibitive effects of TLB on inflammation in brain and intestine were assessed using immunofluorescence, WB and ELISA assay. Molecular docking and surface plasma resonance (SPR) assay were utilized to investigate interaction between TLB and sirtuin 2 (SIRT2).
    RESULTS: Herein, the findings exhibited TLB mitigated aging-induced cognitive impairment, neuron injury and neuroinflammation in hippocampus of aged SAMP8 mice. Moreover, TLB treatment repaired imbalance of gut microbiota in aged SAMP8 mice. Furthermore, TLB alleviated the damage to BBB and intestinal barrier, concomitant with reducing the expression of SIRT2, phosphorylated levels of c-Jun NH2 terminal kinases (JNK) and c-Jun, and expression of MMP9 protein in aged SAMP8 mice. Molecular docking and SPR unveiled TLB combined with SIRT2 and down-regulated SIRT2 protein expression. Mechanistically, the potential mechanism of SIRT2 in TLB that exerted anti-aging effect was validated in vitro. As expected, SIRT2 deficiency attenuated phosphorylated level of JNK in HT22 cells treated with d-galactose.
    CONCLUSION: These findings reveal, for the first time, SIRT2-mediated brain-gut barriers contribute to aging and aging-related diseases, and TLB can rescue aging-induced cognitive impairment by targeting SIRT2 and restoring gut microbiota disturbance to mediate the brain-gut axis. Overall, this work extends the potential application of TLB as a natural food additive in aging-related diseases.
    Keywords:  Aging; Blood-brain barrier; Gut microbiota; Intestinal barrier; Sirtuin 2; Trilobatin
  17. Nutrients. 2024 May 16. pii: 1506. [Epub ahead of print]16(10):
      Neem leaves have long been used in traditional medicine for promoting longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying their anti-aging effects remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the impact of neem leaf extract (NLE) extracted from a 50% ethanol solution on the chronological lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, revealing an extension in lifespan, heightened oxidative stress resistance, and a reduction in reactive oxygen species. To discern the active compounds in NLE, LC/MS and the GNPS platform were employed. The majority of identified active compounds were found to be flavonoids. Subsequently, compound-target pharmacological networks were constructed using the STP and STITCH platforms for both S. cerevisiae and Homo sapiens. GOMF and KEGG enrichment analyses of the predicted targets revealed that "oxidoreductase activity" was among the top enriched terms in both yeast and human cells. These suggested a potential regulation of oxidative stress response (OSR) by NLE. RNA-seq analysis of NLE-treated yeast corroborated the anti-oxidative effect, with "oxidoreductase activity" and "oxidation-reduction process" ranking high in enriched GO terms. Notably, CTT1, encoding catalase, emerged as the most significantly up-regulated gene within the "oxidoreductase activity" cluster. In a ctt1 null mutant, the enhanced oxidative stress resistance and extended lifespan induced by NLE were nullified. For human cells, NLE pretreatment demonstrated a decrease in reactive oxygen species levels and senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity in HeLa cells, indicative of anti-aging and anti-oxidative effects. This study unveils the anti-aging and anti-oxidative properties of NLE while delving into their mechanisms, providing novel insights for pharmacological interventions in aging using phytochemicals.
    Keywords:  Azadirachta indica; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; aging; antioxidant; catalase; chronological lifespan; network pharmacology
  18. Nucleic Acids Res. 2024 May 23. pii: gkae426. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cellular senescence, a major driver of aging, can be stimulated by DNA damage, and is counteracted by the DNA repair machinery. Here we show that in p16INK4a-deficient cells, senescence induction by the environmental genotoxin B[a]P or ionizing radiation (IR) completely depends on p21CIP1. Immunoprecipitation-based mass spectrometry interactomics data revealed that during senescence induction and maintenance, p21CIP1 specifically inhibits CDK4 and thereby activates the DREAM complex. Genome-wide transcriptomics revealed striking similarities in the response induced by B[a]P and IR. Among the top 100 repressed genes 78 were identical between B[a]P and IR and 76 were DREAM targets. The DREAM complex transcriptionally silences the main proliferation-associated transcription factors E2F1, FOXM1 and B-Myb as well as multiple DNA repair factors. Knockdown of p21CIP1, E2F4 or E2F5 diminished both, repression of these factors and senescence. The transcriptional profiles evoked by B[a]P and IR largely overlapped with the profile induced by pharmacological CDK4 inhibition, further illustrating the role of CDK4 inhibition in genotoxic stress-induced senescence. Moreover, data obtained by live-cell time-lapse microscopy suggest the inhibition of CDK4 by p21CIP1 is especially important for arresting cells which slip through mitosis. Overall, we identified the p21CIP1/CDK4/DREAM axis as a master regulator of genotoxic stress-induced senescence.
  19. FASEB J. 2024 May 31. 38(10): e23664
      Adipogenesis, a pivotal cellular process involving the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to mature adipocytes, plays a significant role in various physiological functions. Dysregulation of adipogenesis is implicated in conditions such as obesity. However, the complete molecular understanding of adipogenesis remains elusive. This study aimed to uncover the novel role of lamina-associated polypeptide 2 alpha (LAP2α) in human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) adipogenesis and its impact on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and associated metabolic disturbances. LAP2α expression was assessed during the adipogenic differentiation of hASCs using RT-qPCR and western blotting. The functional role of LAP2α in adipogenesis was explored both in vitro and in vivo through loss- and gain-of-function studies. Moreover, mice with HFD-induced obesity received lentivirus injection to assess the effect of LAP2α knockdown on fat accumulation. Molecular mechanisms underlying LAP2α in adipogenic differentiation were investigated using RT-qPCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, and Oil Red O staining. LAP2α expression was upregulated during hASCs adipogenic differentiation. LAP2α knockdown hindered adipogenesis, while LAP2α overexpression promoted adipogenic differentiation. Notably, LAP2α deficiency resisted HFD-induced obesity, improved glucose intolerance, mitigated insulin resistance, and prevented fatty liver development. Mechanistically, LAP2α knockdown attenuated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation by reducing the protein level of phosphorylated STAT3. A STAT3 activator (Colivelin) counteracted the negative impact of LAP2α deficiency on hASCs adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, our current study established LAP2α as a crucial regulator of hASCs adipogenic differentiation, unveiling a new therapeutic target for obesity prevention.
    Keywords:  STAT3; adipogenesis; human adipose‐derived stem cells; lamina‐associated polypeptide 2α; obesity
  20. Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle). 2024 May 23.
      SIGNIFICANCE: It has long been hypothesized that naturally occurring electric fields (EFs) aid wound healing by guiding cell migration. Consequently, the application of EFs has significant potential for promoting wound healing. However, the mechanisms underlying the cellular response to EFs remain unclear. Recent Advances: Although the directed migration of isolated single cells under EFs has been studied for decades, only recently has experimental evidence demonstrated the distinct collective migration of large sheets of keratinocytes and corneal epithelial cells in response to applied EFs. Accumulating evidence suggests that the emergent properties of cell groups in response to EF guidance offer new opportunities for EF-assisted directional migration.CRITICAL ISSUES: In this review, we provide an overview of the field of collective electrotaxis, highlighting key advances made in recent years. We also discuss advanced engineering strategies utilized to manipulate collective electrotaxis.
    FUTURE DIRECTIONS: We outline a series of unanswered questions in this field and propose potential applications of collective electrotaxis in developing electrical stimulation technologies for wound healing.
  21. Neurobiol Aging. 2024 May 16. pii: S0197-4580(24)00096-4. [Epub ahead of print]141 1-13
      Calorie restriction (CR) is a robust intervention that can slow biological aging and extend lifespan. In the brain, terminally differentiated neurons and glia accumulate oxidative damage with age, reducing their optimal function. We investigated if CR could reduce oxidative DNA damage to white matter oligodendrocytes and microglia. This study utilized post-mortem brain tissue from rhesus monkeys that died after decades on a 30 % reduced calorie diet. We found that CR subjects had significantly fewer cells with oxidative damage within the corpus callosum and the cingulum bundle. Oligodendrocytes specifically showed the greatest response to CR with a robust reduction in DNA damage. Additionally, we observed alterations in microglia morphology with CR subjects having a higher proportion of ramified, homeostatic microglia and fewer pro-inflammatory, hypertrophic microglia relative to controls. Furthermore, we determined that the observed attenuation in damaged DNA occurs primarily within mitochondria. Overall, these data suggest that long-term CR can reduce oxidative DNA damage and offer a neuroprotective effect in a cell-type-specific manner in the aging monkey brain.
    Keywords:  Aging; Calorie restriction; Microglia; Oligodendrocytes; Oxidative stress; Rhesus macaque
  22. Front Pharmacol. 2024 ;15 1335786
      Background: Polygonatum sibiricum (PS) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) first recorded in Mingyi Bielu. The book documents that PS can nourish five internal organs, be taken for a long time, relax the body and prolong lifespan. Presently, PS is widely used in TCM to prevent premature graying of hair. Based on TCM theory and clinical trials, the wine steaming processed product from PS provides a better effect. However, no published study has elucidated the anti-aging mechanism.Purpose: The study aim was to investigate the anti-aging mechanism of PS and its wine steaming processed product in mice, specifically focusing on the effect of D-galactose (D-gal) surrounding the intestinal flora and the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant response elements (Keap1/Nrf2/ARE) pathway.
    Methods: The chemical components in Raw PS (RPS) and Wine-steamed PS (WPS) were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS). An aging model using Kunming mice was established through intraperitoneally injected D-gal. Concentrations of RPS and WPS at 5, 10, or 15 g/kg/day levels were administered intragastrically, respectively. The body weight, liver and spleen indexes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and malondialdehyde (MDA) activities in serum and brain tissue were recorded. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained brain tissue was histopathologically examined. The expressions of Keap1, Nrf2 and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the brain tissue at the mRNA and protein levels were respectively detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot (WB). Moreover, an Illumina Hiseq platform was used for 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) high-throughput sequencing to evaluate the proportions of intestinal flora in aging mice.
    Results: The proportions of saccharides, flavonoids, and triterpene acids were different between RPS and WPS. In the aging model mice, WPS outperformed RPS in improving body weight and mental state by increasing the spleen index, SOD and GSH-PX activities, decreasing the liver index and MDA activities, and restoring the histopathological morphology in D-gal-induced aging mice. At the mRNA levels, RPS and WPS significantly reduced the expression of Keap1 and increased the expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1. The trend in protein expressions was similar to that of the mRNA results, and WPS had a stronger effect than RPS. Fecal microbiota analysis showed that RPS and WPS restored intestinal microbiota proportions to normal levels.
    Conclusion: The results demonstrated that PS and its WPS had a positive effect in relieving oxidative stress in aging mice. WPS outperformed RPS, which might be related to the activation of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway and regulation of intestinal flora.
    Keywords:  Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; Polygonatum sibiricum; heme oxygenase 1; intestinal flora; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2; oxidative stress
  23. Cells. 2024 May 08. pii: 800. [Epub ahead of print]13(10):
      In recent years, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein have emerged as a revolutionary gene editing tool to treat inherited disorders affecting different organ systems, such as blood and muscles. Both hematological and neuromuscular genetic disorders benefit from genome editing approaches but face different challenges in their clinical translation. The ability of CRISPR/Cas9 technologies to modify hematopoietic stem cells ex vivo has greatly accelerated the development of genetic therapies for blood disorders. In the last decade, many clinical trials were initiated and are now delivering encouraging results. The recent FDA approval of Casgevy, the first CRISPR/Cas9-based drug for severe sickle cell disease and transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia, represents a significant milestone in the field and highlights the great potential of this technology. Similar preclinical efforts are currently expanding CRISPR therapies to other hematologic disorders such as primary immunodeficiencies. In the neuromuscular field, the versatility of CRISPR/Cas9 has been instrumental for the generation of new cellular and animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), offering innovative platforms to speed up preclinical development of therapeutic solutions. Several corrective interventions have been proposed to genetically restore dystrophin production using the CRISPR toolbox and have demonstrated promising results in different DMD animal models. Although these advances represent a significant step forward to the clinical translation of CRISPR/Cas9 therapies to DMD, there are still many hurdles to overcome, such as in vivo delivery methods associated with high viral vector doses, together with safety and immunological concerns. Collectively, the results obtained in the hematological and neuromuscular fields emphasize the transformative impact of CRISPR/Cas9 for patients affected by these debilitating conditions. As each field suffers from different and specific challenges, the clinical translation of CRISPR therapies may progress differentially depending on the genetic disorder. Ongoing investigations and clinical trials will address risks and limitations of these therapies, including long-term efficacy, potential genotoxicity, and adverse immune reactions. This review provides insights into the diverse applications of CRISPR-based technologies in both preclinical and clinical settings for monogenic blood disorders and muscular dystrophy and compare advances in both fields while highlighting current trends, difficulties, and challenges to overcome.
    Keywords:  CRISPR/Cas9; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; blood disorders; gene editing; neuromuscular disorders; β-hemoglobinopathies
  24. Geroscience. 2024 May 18.
      Aging is associated with the onset and progression of multiple diseases, which limit health span. Chronic low-grade inflammation in the absence of overt infection is considered the simmering source that triggers age-associated diseases. Failure of many cellular processes during aging is mechanistically linked to inflammation; however, the overall decline in the cellular homeostasis mechanism of autophagy has emerged as one of the top and significant inducers of inflammation during aging, frequently known as inflammaging. Thus, physiological or pharmacological interventions aimed at improving autophagy are considered geroprotective. Rapamycin analogs (rapalogs) are known for their ability to inhibit mTOR and thus regulate autophagy. This study assessed the efficacy of everolimus, a rapalog, in regulating inflammatory cytokine production in T cells from older adults. CD4+ T cells from older adults were treated with a physiological dose of everolimus (0.01 µM), and indices of autophagy and inflammation were assessed to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effect of everolimus on inflammation. Everolimus (Ever) upregulated autophagy and broadly alleviated inflammatory cytokines produced by multiple T cell subsets. Everolimus's ability to alleviate the cytokines produced by Th17 subsets of T cells, such as IL-17A and IL-17F, was dependent on autophagy and antioxidant signaling pathways. Repurposing the antineoplastic drug everolimus for curbing inflammaging is promising, given the drug's ability to restore multiple cellular homeostasis mechanisms.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; CD4+ T cells; Everolimus; Inflammaging; NRF2; ROS; Th17 cytokines