bims-cagime Biomed News
on Cancer, aging and metabolism
Issue of 2024‒02‒18
27 papers selected by
Kıvanç Görgülü, Technical University of Munich

  1. Cancer Res. 2024 Feb 15. 84(4): 527-544
      Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly metastatic disease, yet effective treatments to inhibit PDAC metastasis are lacking. The rich PDAC tumor microenvironment plays a major role in disease progression. Macrophages are the most abundant immune cell population in PDAC tumors and can acquire a range of functions that either hinder or promote tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we identified that mesothelin secretion by pancreatic cancer cells co-opts macrophages to support tumor growth and metastasis of cancer cells to the lungs, liver, and lymph nodes. Mechanistically, secretion of high levels of mesothelin by metastatic cancer cells induced the expression of VEGF alpha (VEGFA) and S100A9 in macrophages. Macrophage-derived VEGFA fed back to cancer cells to support tumor growth, and S100A9 increased neutrophil lung infiltration and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. These results reveal a role for mesothelin in regulating macrophage functions and interaction with neutrophils to support PDAC metastasis.SIGNIFICANCE: Mesothelin secretion by cancer cells supports pancreatic cancer metastasis by inducing macrophage secretion of VEGFA and S100A9 to support cancer cell proliferation and survival, recruit neutrophils, and stimulate neutrophil extracellular trap formation. See related commentary by Alewine, p. 513.
  2. Cancer Res. 2024 Feb 15. 84(4): 513-514
      Although pancreatic cancer is a systemic disease that metastasizes early in its course, the signaling systems that promote this behavior remain incompletely understood. In this issue of Cancer Research, Luckett and colleagues identify a paracrine signaling pathway between cancer cells and macrophages that promotes pancreatic cancer metastasis. The authors used immunocompetent murine pancreatic cancer models with high versus low metastatic potential, genetic knockout and complementation strategies, and The Cancer Genome Atlas human data to demonstrate that tumor-secreted mesothelin repolarizes tumor and lung macrophages to a tumor-supportive phenotype. The repolarized macrophages increase secretion of VEGF and S100A9, raising local concentrations. In turn, VEGF enhances colony formation of cancer cells, while S100A9 promotes the recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps that support tumor metastasis. Together, these findings reveal a systemic signaling pathway that promotes pancreatic cancer metastasis by co-opting macrophages typically protective against cancer to instead promote its spread. See related article by Luckett et al., p. 527.
  3. EMBO Mol Med. 2024 Feb 15.
      We find that NUPR1, a stress-associated intrinsically disordered protein, induced droplet formation via liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). NUPR1-driven LLPS was crucial for the creation of NUPR1-dependent stress granules (SGs) in pancreatic cancer cells since genetic or pharmacological inhibition by ZZW-115 of NUPR1 activity impeded SGs formation. The KrasG12D mutation induced oncogenic stress, NUPR1 overexpression, and promoted SGs development. Notably, enforced NUPR1 expression induced SGs formation independently of mutated KrasG12D. Mechanistically, KrasG12D expression strengthened sensitivity to NUPR1 inactivation, inducing cell death, activating caspase 3 and releasing LDH. Remarkably, ZZW-115-mediated SG-formation inhibition hampered the development of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs) in Pdx1-cre;LSL-KrasG12D (KC) mice. ZZW-115-treatment of KC mice triggered caspase 3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and formation of the apoptotic bodies, leading to cell death, specifically in KrasG12D-expressing cells. We further demonstrated that, in developed PanINs, short-term ZZW-115 treatment prevented NUPR1-associated SGs presence. Lastly, a four-week ZZW-115 treatment significantly reduced the number and size of PanINs in KC mice. This study proposes that targeting NUPR1-dependent SGs formation could be a therapeutic approach to induce cell death in KrasG12D-dependent tumors.
    Keywords:  Kras; NUPR1; Stress Granules; Synthetic Lethality; ZZW-115
  4. Nat Commun. 2024 Feb 15. 15(1): 1391
      In obesity, sustained adipose tissue (AT) inflammation constitutes a cellular memory that limits the effectiveness of weight loss interventions. Yet, the impact of fasting regimens on the regulation of AT immune infiltration is still elusive. Here we show that intermittent fasting (IF) exacerbates the lipid-associated macrophage (LAM) inflammatory phenotype of visceral AT in obese mice. Importantly, this increase in LAM abundance is strongly p53 dependent and partly mediated by p53-driven adipocyte apoptosis. Adipocyte-specific deletion of p53 prevents LAM accumulation during IF, increases the catabolic state of adipocytes, and enhances systemic metabolic flexibility and insulin sensitivity. Finally, in cohorts of obese/diabetic patients, we describe a p53 polymorphism that links to efficacy of a fasting-mimicking diet and that the expression of p53 and TREM2 in AT negatively correlates with maintaining weight loss after bariatric surgery. Overall, our results demonstrate that p53 signalling in adipocytes dictates LAM accumulation in AT under IF and modulates fasting effectiveness in mice and humans.
  5. Cell. 2024 Feb 12. pii: S0092-8674(24)00064-3. [Epub ahead of print]
    Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium
      Despite the successes of immunotherapy in cancer treatment over recent decades, less than <10%-20% cancer cases have demonstrated durable responses from immune checkpoint blockade. To enhance the efficacy of immunotherapies, combination therapies suppressing multiple immune evasion mechanisms are increasingly contemplated. To better understand immune cell surveillance and diverse immune evasion responses in tumor tissues, we comprehensively characterized the immune landscape of more than 1,000 tumors across ten different cancers using CPTAC pan-cancer proteogenomic data. We identified seven distinct immune subtypes based on integrative learning of cell type compositions and pathway activities. We then thoroughly categorized unique genomic, epigenetic, transcriptomic, and proteomic changes associated with each subtype. Further leveraging the deep phosphoproteomic data, we studied kinase activities in different immune subtypes, which revealed potential subtype-specific therapeutic targets. Insights from this work will facilitate the development of future immunotherapy strategies and enhance precision targeting with existing agents.
    Keywords:  histopathology; immune subtype; immunotherapy; kinase activity; multiomic deconvolution; proteogenomics; tumor immunity
  6. Nat Cancer. 2024 Feb 14.
      Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a highly metastatic disease and macrophages support liver metastases. Efferocytosis, or engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages, is an essential process in tissue homeostasis and wound healing, but its role in metastasis is less well understood. Here, we found that the colonization of the hepatic metastatic site is accompanied by low-grade tissue injury and that efferocytosis-mediated clearance of parenchymal dead cells promotes macrophage reprogramming and liver metastasis. Mechanistically, progranulin expression in macrophages is necessary for efficient efferocytosis by controlling lysosomal acidification via cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and the degradation of lysosomal cargo, resulting in LXRα/RXRα-mediated macrophage conversion and upregulation of arginase 1. Pharmacological blockade of efferocytosis or macrophage-specific genetic depletion of progranulin impairs macrophage conversion, improves CD8+ T cell functions, and reduces liver metastasis. Our findings reveal how hard-wired functions of macrophages in tissue repair contribute to liver metastasis and identify potential targets for prevention of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma liver metastasis.
  7. Nat Commun. 2024 Feb 10. 15(1): 1277
      Overexpression of the transmembrane matrix metalloproteinase MT1-MMP/MMP14 promotes cancer cell invasion. Here we show that MT1-MMP-positive cancer cells turn MT1-MMP-negative cells invasive by transferring a soluble catalytic ectodomain of MT1-MMP. Surprisingly, this effect depends on the presence of TKS4 and TKS5 in the donor cell, adaptor proteins previously implicated in invadopodia formation. In endosomes of the donor cell, TKS4/5 promote ADAM-mediated cleavage of MT1-MMP by bridging the two proteases, and cleavage is stimulated by the low intraluminal pH of endosomes. The bridging depends on the PX domains of TKS4/5, which coincidently interact with the cytosolic tail of MT1-MMP and endosomal phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. MT1-MMP recruits TKS4/5 into multivesicular endosomes for their subsequent co-secretion in extracellular vesicles, together with the enzymatically active ectodomain. The shed ectodomain converts non-invasive recipient cells into an invasive phenotype. Thus, TKS4/5 promote intercellular transfer of cancer cell invasiveness by facilitating ADAM-mediated shedding of MT1-MMP in acidic endosomes.
  8. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2024 Feb 20. 121(8): e2317343121
      Glucose and amino acid metabolism are critical for glioblastoma (GBM) growth, but little is known about the specific metabolic alterations in GBM that are targetable with FDA-approved compounds. To investigate tumor metabolism signatures unique to GBM, we interrogated The Cancer Genome Atlas for alterations in glucose and amino acid signatures in GBM relative to other human cancers and found that GBM exhibits the highest levels of cysteine and methionine pathway gene expression of 32 human cancers. Treatment of patient-derived GBM cells with the FDA-approved single cysteine compound N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reduced GBM cell growth and mitochondrial oxygen consumption, which was worsened by glucose starvation. Normal brain cells and other cancer cells showed no response to NAC. Mechanistic experiments revealed that cysteine compounds induce rapid mitochondrial H2O2 production and reductive stress in GBM cells, an effect blocked by oxidized glutathione, thioredoxin, and redox enzyme overexpression. From analysis of the clinical proteomic tumor analysis consortium (CPTAC) database, we found that GBM cells exhibit lower expression of mitochondrial redox enzymes than four other cancers whose proteomic data are available in CPTAC. Knockdown of mitochondrial thioredoxin-2 in lung cancer cells induced NAC susceptibility, indicating the importance of mitochondrial redox enzyme expression in mitigating reductive stress. Intraperitoneal treatment of mice bearing orthotopic GBM xenografts with a two-cysteine peptide induced H2O2 in brain tumors in vivo. These findings indicate that GBM is uniquely susceptible to NAC-driven reductive stress and could synergize with glucose-lowering treatments for GBM.
    Keywords:  cysteine; glioblastoma; hydrogen peroxide; mitochondrial metabolism; reductive stress
  9. Int J Cancer. 2024 Feb 14.
      Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal cancer, often diagnosed at stages that dis-qualify for surgical resection. Neoadjuvant therapies offer potential tumor regression and improved resectability. Although features of the tumor biology (e.g., molecular markers) may guide adjuvant therapy, biological alterations after neoadjuvant therapy remain largely unexplored. We performed mass spectrometry to characterize the proteomes of 67 PDAC resection specimens of patients who received either neoadjuvant chemo (NCT) or chemo-radiation (NCRT) therapy. We employed data-independent acquisition (DIA), yielding a proteome coverage in excess of 3500 proteins. Moreover, we successfully integrated two publicly available proteome datasets of treatment-naïve PDAC to unravel proteome alterations in response to neoadjuvant therapy, highlighting the feasibility of this approach. We found highly distinguishable proteome profiles. Treatment-naïve PDAC was characterized by enrichment of immunoglobulins, complement and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Post-NCT and post-NCRT PDAC presented high abundance of ribosomal and metabolic proteins as compared to treatment-naïve PDAC. Further analyses on patient survival and protein expression identified treatment-specific prognostic candidates. We present the first proteomic characterization of the residual PDAC mass after NCT and NCRT, and potential protein candidate markers associated with overall survival. We conclude that residual PDAC exhibits fundamentally different proteome profiles as compared to treatment-naïve PDAC, influenced by the type of neoadjuvant treatment. These findings may impact adjuvant or targeted therapy options.
    Keywords:  data-independent acquisition; mass spectrometry; neoadjuvant therapy; pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; proteogenomics
  10. Sci Adv. 2024 Feb 16. 10(7): eadi1736
      In breast cancers, aberrant activation of the RAS/MAPK pathway is strongly associated with mesenchymal features and stemness traits, suggesting an interplay between this mitogenic signaling pathway and epithelial-to-mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). By using inducible models of human mammary epithelial cells, we demonstrate herein that the oncogenic activation of RAS promotes ZEB1-dependent EMP, which is necessary for malignant transformation. Notably, EMP is triggered by the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from neighboring RAS-activated senescent cells, with a prominent role for IL-6 and IL-1α. Our data contrast with the common view of cellular senescence as a tumor-suppressive mechanism and EMP as a process promoting late stages of tumor progression in response to signals from the tumor microenvironment. We highlighted here a pro-tumorigenic cooperation of RAS-activated mammary epithelial cells, which leverages on oncogene-induced senescence and EMP to trigger cellular reprogramming and malignant transformation.
  11. Nat Methods. 2024 Feb;21(2): 195-212
      Increasing evidence shows that flaws in machine learning (ML) algorithm validation are an underestimated global problem. In biomedical image analysis, chosen performance metrics often do not reflect the domain interest, and thus fail to adequately measure scientific progress and hinder translation of ML techniques into practice. To overcome this, we created Metrics Reloaded, a comprehensive framework guiding researchers in the problem-aware selection of metrics. Developed by a large international consortium in a multistage Delphi process, it is based on the novel concept of a problem fingerprint-a structured representation of the given problem that captures all aspects that are relevant for metric selection, from the domain interest to the properties of the target structure(s), dataset and algorithm output. On the basis of the problem fingerprint, users are guided through the process of choosing and applying appropriate validation metrics while being made aware of potential pitfalls. Metrics Reloaded targets image analysis problems that can be interpreted as classification tasks at image, object or pixel level, namely image-level classification, object detection, semantic segmentation and instance segmentation tasks. To improve the user experience, we implemented the framework in the Metrics Reloaded online tool. Following the convergence of ML methodology across application domains, Metrics Reloaded fosters the convergence of validation methodology. Its applicability is demonstrated for various biomedical use cases.
  12. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2024 Feb 11.
    Cancer Cachexia Endpoints Working Group
      There is no consensus on the optimal endpoint(s) in cancer cachexia trials. Endpoint variation is an obstacle when comparing interventions and their clinical value. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize and evaluate endpoints used to assess appetite and dietary intake in cancer cachexia clinical trials. A search for studies published from 1 January 1990 until 2 June 2021 was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Eligible studies examined cancer cachexia treatment versus a comparator in adults with assessments of appetite and/or dietary intake as study endpoints, a sample size ≥40 and an intervention lasting ≥14 days. Reporting was in line with PRISMA guidance, and a protocol was published in PROSPERO (2022 CRD42022276710). This review is part of a series of systematic reviews examining cachexia endpoints. Of the 5975 articles identified, 116 were eligible for the wider review series and 80 specifically examined endpoints of appetite (65 studies) and/or dietary intake (21 studies). Six trials assessed both appetite and dietary intake. Appetite was the primary outcome in 15 trials and dietary intake in 7 trials. Median sample size was 101 patients (range 40-628). Forty-nine studies included multiple primary tumour sites, while 31 studies involved single primary tumour sites (15 gastrointestinal, 7 lung, 7 head and neck and 2 female reproductive organs). The most frequently reported appetite endpoints were visual analogue scale (VAS) and numerical rating scale (NRS) (40%). The appetite item from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ) C30/C15 PAL (38%) and the appetite question from North Central Cancer Treatment Group anorexia questionnaire (17%) were also frequently applied. Of the studies that assessed dietary intake, 13 (62%) used food records (prospective registrations) and 10 (48%) used retrospective methods (24-h recall or dietary history). For VAS/NRS, a mean change of 1.3 corresponded to Hedge's g of 0.5 and can be considered a moderate change. For food records, a mean change of 231 kcal/day or 11 g of protein/day corresponded to a moderate change. Choice of endpoint in cachexia trials will depend on factors pertinent to the trial to be conducted. Nevertheless, from trials assessed and available literature, NRS or EORTC QLQ C30/C15 PAL seems suitable for appetite assessments. Appetite and dietary intake endpoints are rarely used as primary outcomes in cancer cachexia. Dietary intake assessments were used mainly to monitor compliance and are not validated in cachexia populations. Given the importance to cachexia studies, dietary intake endpoints must be validated before they are used as endpoints in clinical trials.
    Keywords:  appetite; cachexia; cancer; dietary intake; endpoints; outcomes; trials
  13. Nat Methods. 2024 Feb;21(2): 182-194
      Validation metrics are key for tracking scientific progress and bridging the current chasm between artificial intelligence research and its translation into practice. However, increasing evidence shows that, particularly in image analysis, metrics are often chosen inadequately. Although taking into account the individual strengths, weaknesses and limitations of validation metrics is a critical prerequisite to making educated choices, the relevant knowledge is currently scattered and poorly accessible to individual researchers. Based on a multistage Delphi process conducted by a multidisciplinary expert consortium as well as extensive community feedback, the present work provides a reliable and comprehensive common point of access to information on pitfalls related to validation metrics in image analysis. Although focused on biomedical image analysis, the addressed pitfalls generalize across application domains and are categorized according to a newly created, domain-agnostic taxonomy. The work serves to enhance global comprehension of a key topic in image analysis validation.
  14. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2023 ;11 1211498
      Lysosomes are crucial organelles essential for various cellular processes, and any damage to them can severely compromise cell viability. This study uncovers a previously unrecognized function of the calcium- and phospholipid-binding protein Annexin A7 in lysosome repair, which operates independently of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) machinery. Our research reveals that Annexin A7 plays a role in repairing damaged lysosomes, different from its role in repairing the plasma membrane, where it facilitates repair through the recruitment of ESCRT-III components. Notably, our findings strongly suggest that Annexin A7, like the ESCRT machinery, is dispensable for membrane contact site formation within the newly discovered phosphoinositide-initiated membrane tethering and lipid transport (PITT) pathway. Instead, we speculate that Annexin A7 is recruited to damaged lysosomes and promotes repair through its membrane curvature and cross-linking capabilities. Our findings provide new insights into the diverse mechanisms underlying lysosomal membrane repair and highlight the multifunctional role of Annexin A7 in membrane repair.
    Keywords:  Annexin A7; ER-lysosome membrane contact sites (MCSs); L-Leucyl-L-Leucine O-methyl ester (LLOMe); endosomal sorting complexes required for transport III (ESCRT-III); lysosomal integrity; lysosomal membrane permeabilization; lysosome membrane repair; organelle repair
  15. Mol Cell. 2024 Feb 02. pii: S1097-2765(24)00051-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Aberrantly slow ribosomes incur collisions, a sentinel of stress that triggers quality control, signaling, and translation attenuation. Although each collision response has been studied in isolation, the net consequences of their collective actions in reshaping translation in cells is poorly understood. Here, we apply cryoelectron tomography to visualize the translation machinery in mammalian cells during persistent collision stress. We find that polysomes are compressed, with up to 30% of ribosomes in helical polysomes or collided disomes, some of which are bound to the stress effector GCN1. The native collision interface extends beyond the in vitro-characterized 40S and includes the L1 stalk and eEF2, possibly contributing to translocation inhibition. The accumulation of unresolved tRNA-bound 80S and 60S and aberrant 40S configurations identifies potentially limiting steps in collision responses. Our work provides a global view of the translation machinery in response to persistent collisions and a framework for quantitative analysis of translation dynamics in situ.
    Keywords:  cryoelectron tomography; initiation; polysome; ribosome collision; ribosome quality control; translation regulation
  16. Nat Metab. 2024 Feb 13.
      The canonical biological function of selenium is in the production of selenocysteine residues of selenoproteins, and this forms the basis for its role as an essential antioxidant and cytoprotective micronutrient. Here we demonstrate that, via its metabolic intermediate hydrogen selenide, selenium reduces ubiquinone in the mitochondria through catalysis by sulfide quinone oxidoreductase. Through this mechanism, selenium rapidly protects against lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis in a timescale that precedes selenoprotein production, doing so even when selenoprotein production has been eliminated. Our findings identify a regulatory mechanism against ferroptosis that implicates sulfide quinone oxidoreductase and expands our understanding of selenium in biology.
  17. EMBO J. 2024 Feb 15.
      The Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein, which is frequently mutated in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), is a master regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) that is involved in oxidative stresses. However, whether VHL possesses HIF-independent tumor-suppressing activity remains largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that VHL suppresses nutrient stress-induced autophagy, and its deficiency in sporadic ccRCC specimens is linked to substantially elevated levels of autophagy and correlates with poorer patient prognosis. Mechanistically, VHL directly binds to the autophagy regulator Beclin1, after its PHD1-mediated hydroxylation on Pro54. This binding inhibits the association of Beclin1-VPS34 complexes with ATG14L, thereby inhibiting autophagy initiation in response to nutrient deficiency. Expression of non-hydroxylatable Beclin1 P54A abrogates VHL-mediated autophagy inhibition and significantly reduces the tumor-suppressing effect of VHL. In addition, Beclin1 P54-OH levels are inversely correlated with autophagy levels in wild-type VHL-expressing human ccRCC specimens, and with poor patient prognosis. Furthermore, combined treatment of VHL-deficient mouse tumors with autophagy inhibitors and HIF2α inhibitors suppresses tumor growth. These findings reveal an unexpected mechanism by which VHL suppresses tumor growth, and suggest a potential treatment for ccRCC through combined inhibition of both autophagy and HIF2α.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Beclin1; Hydroxylation; VHL; ccRCC
  18. Gastroenterology. 2024 Feb 04. pii: S0016-5085(24)00129-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Genetic testing uptake for cancer susceptibility in family members of cancer patients is suboptimal. Among relatives of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients, The GENetic Education, Risk Assessment, and TEsting (GENERATE) study evaluated two online genetic education/testing delivery models and their impact on patient-reported psychological outcomes (PRPOs).METHODS: Eligible participants had ≥1 first-degree relative with PDAC, or ≥1 first-/second-degree relative with PDAC with a known pathogenic germline variant in one of thirteen PDAC predisposition genes. Participants were randomized by family, between 5/8/2019-6/1/2021. Arm 1 participants underwent a remote interactive telemedicine session and online genetic education. Arm 2 participants were offered online genetic education only. All participants were offered germline testing. The primary outcome was genetic testing uptake, compared by permutation tests and mixed-effects logistic regression models. We hypothesized that Arm 1 participants would have a higher genetic testing uptake than Arm 2. Validated surveys were administered to assess patient-reported anxiety, depression, and cancer worry at baseline and 3-months post-intervention.
    RESULTS: 424 families were randomized, including 601 participants (n=296 Arm 1; n=305 Arm 2), 90% of whom completed genetic testing (Arm 1 (87%); Arm 2 (93%), p=0.014). Arm 1 participants were significantly less likely to complete genetic testing compared to Arm 2 (adjusted ratio (Arm1/Arm2) 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.98). Among participants who completed PRPO questionnaires (Arm 1 (n=194); Arm 2 (n=206)), the intervention did not impact mean anxiety, depression or cancer worry scores.
    CONCLUSIONS: Remote genetic education and testing can be a successful and complementary option for delivering genetics care.
    Keywords:  Healthcare delivery; cascade genetic testing
  19. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2024 Feb 16.
      Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic cell death mechanism characterized by iron-dependent membrane lipid peroxidation. Here, we review what is known about the cellular mechanisms mediating the execution and regulation of ferroptosis. We first consider how the accumulation of membrane lipid peroxides leads to the execution of ferroptosis by altering ion transport across the plasma membrane. We then discuss how metabolites and enzymes that are distributed in different compartments and organelles throughout the cell can regulate sensitivity to ferroptosis by impinging upon iron, lipid and redox metabolism. Indeed, metabolic pathways that reside in the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets, peroxisomes and other organelles all contribute to the regulation of ferroptosis sensitivity. We note how the regulation of ferroptosis sensitivity by these different organelles and pathways seems to vary between different cells and death-inducing conditions. We also highlight transcriptional master regulators that integrate the functions of different pathways and organelles to modulate ferroptosis sensitivity globally. Throughout this Review, we highlight open questions and areas in which progress is needed to better understand the cell biology of ferroptosis.
  20. Autophagy. 2024 Feb 15. 1-9
      Mitophagy is the process of selective autophagy that removes superfluous and dysfunctional mitochondria. Mitophagy was first characterized in mammalian cells and is now recognized to follow several pathways including basal forms in specific organs. Mitophagy pathways are regulated by multiple, often interconnected factors. The present review aims to streamline this complexity and evaluate common elements that may define the evolutionary origin of mitophagy. Key issues surrounding mitophagy signaling at the mitochondrial surface may fundamentally derive from mitochondrial membrane dynamics. Elements of such membrane dynamics likely originated during the endosymbiosis of the alphaproteobacterial ancestor of our mitochondria but underwent an evolutionary leap forward in basal metazoa that determined the currently known variations in mitophagy signaling.Abbreviations: AGPAT, 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase; ATG, autophagy related; BCL2L13, BCL2 like 13; BNIP3, BCL2 interacting protein 3; BNIP3L, BCL2 interacting protein 3 like; CALCOCO, calcium binding and coiled-coil domain; CL, cardiolipin; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; ERMES, ER-mitochondria encounter structure; FBXL4, F-box and leucine rich repeat protein 4; FUNDC1, FUN14 domain containing 1; GABARAPL1, GABA type A receptor associated protein like 1; HIF, hypoxia inducible factor; IMM, inner mitochondrial membrane; LBPA/BMP, lysobisphosphatidic acid; LIR, LC3-interacting region; LPA, lysophosphatidic acid; MAM, mitochondria-associated membranes; MAP1LC3/LC3, microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MCL, monolysocardiolipin; ML, maximum likelihood; NBR1, NBR1 autophagy cargo receptor; OMM, outer mitochondrial membrane; PA, phosphatidic acid; PACS2, phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2; PC/PLC, phosphatidylcholine; PE, phosphatidylethanolamine; PHB2, prohibitin 2; PINK1, PTEN induced kinase 1; PtdIns, phosphatidylinositol; SAR, Stramenopiles, Apicomplexa and Rhizaria; TAX1BP1, Tax1 binding protein 1; ULK1, unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; VDAC/porin, voltage dependent anion channel.
    Keywords:  BNIP3; cardiolipin; evolution; membrane dynamics; mitochondria; mitophagy
  21. J Microsc. 2024 Feb 15.
      Genetically encoded, fluorescent protein (FP)-based Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensors are microscopy imaging tools tailored for the precise monitoring and detection of molecular dynamics within subcellular microenvironments. They are characterised by their ability to provide an outstanding combination of spatial and temporal resolutions in live-cell microscopy. In this review, we begin by tracing back on the historical development of genetically encoded FP labelling for detection in live cells, which lead us to the development of early biosensors and finally to the engineering of single-chain FRET-based biosensors that have become the state-of-the-art today. Ultimately, this review delves into the fundamental principles of FRET and the design strategies underpinning FRET-based biosensors, discusses their diverse applications and addresses the distinct challenges associated with their implementation. We place particular emphasis on single-chain FRET biosensors for the Rho family of guanosine triphosphate hydrolases (GTPases), pointing to their historical role in driving our understanding of the molecular dynamics of this important class of signalling proteins and revealing the intricate relationships and regulatory mechanisms that comprise Rho GTPase biology in living cells.
    Keywords:  FRET; RhoGTPase; biosensor; fluorescent protein
  22. Sci Adv. 2024 Feb 16. 10(7): eadk1835
      The TP53 tumor suppressor gene is mutated early in most of the patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The most frequent TP53 alterations are missense mutations that contribute to tumor aggressiveness. Here, we used an autochthonous somatic TNBC mouse model, in which mutant p53 can be toggled on and off genetically while leaving the tumor microenvironment intact and wild-type for p53 to identify physiological dependencies on mutant p53. In TNBCs that develop in this model, deletion of two different hotspot p53R172H and p53R245W mutants triggers ferroptosis in vivo, a cell death mechanism involving iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. Mutant p53 protects cells from ferroptosis inducers, and ferroptosis inhibitors reverse the effects of mutant p53 loss in vivo. Single-cell transcriptomic data revealed that mutant p53 protects cells from undergoing ferroptosis through NRF2-dependent regulation of Mgst3 and Prdx6, which encode two glutathione-dependent peroxidases that detoxify lipid peroxides. Thus, mutant p53 protects TNBCs from ferroptotic death.
  23. Nature. 2024 Feb 14.
    Sanger Mouse Genetics Project
      Genomic instability arising from defective responses to DNA damage1 or mitotic chromosomal imbalances2 can lead to the sequestration of DNA in aberrant extranuclear structures called micronuclei (MN). Although MN are a hallmark of ageing and diseases associated with genomic instability, the catalogue of genetic players that regulate the generation of MN remains to be determined. Here we analyse 997 mouse mutant lines, revealing 145 genes whose loss significantly increases (n = 71) or decreases (n = 74) MN formation, including many genes whose orthologues are linked to human disease. We found that mice null for Dscc1, which showed the most significant increase in MN, also displayed a range of phenotypes characteristic of patients with cohesinopathy disorders. After validating the DSCC1-associated MN instability phenotype in human cells, we used genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening to define synthetic lethal and synthetic rescue interactors. We found that the loss of SIRT1 can rescue phenotypes associated with DSCC1 loss in a manner paralleling restoration of protein acetylation of SMC3. Our study reveals factors involved in maintaining genomic stability and shows how this information can be used to identify mechanisms that are relevant to human disease biology1.
  24. Cell Death Discov. 2024 Feb 12. 10(1): 74
      Overactivation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) triggers a noncanonical form of programmed cell death (PCD) called parthanatos, yet the mechanisms of its induction are not fully understood. We have recently demonstrated that the aggresome-like induced structures (ALIS) composed of the autophagy receptor SQSTM1/p62 and K48-linked polyubiquitinated proteins (p62-based ALIS) mediate parthanatos. In this study, we identified the D1 dopamine receptor agonist YM435 as a unique parthanatos inhibitor that acts as the disaggregating agent for the p62-based ALIS. We found that YM435 structurally reduces aggregability of the ALIS, and then increases its hydrophilicity and liquidity, which prevents parthanatos. Moreover, dopamine and L-DOPA, a dopamine precursor, also prevented parthanatos by reducing the aggregability of the ALIS. Together, these observations suggest that aggregability of the p62-based ALIS determines the sensitivity to parthanatos, and the pharmacological properties of YM435 that reduces the aggregability may be suitable for therapeutic drugs for parthanatos-related diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases.
  25. J Biol Chem. 2024 Feb 12. pii: S0021-9258(24)00119-4. [Epub ahead of print] 105743
      The lysosome is an acid organelle that contains a variety of hydrolytic enzymes and plays a significant role in intracellular degradation to maintain cellular homeostasis. Genetic variants in lysosome-related genes can lead to severe congenital diseases, such as lysosomal storage diseases. In the present study, we investigated the impact of depleting lysosomal acid lipase A (LIPA), a lysosomal esterase that metabolizes esterified cholesterol or triglyceride, on lysosomal function. Under nutrient-rich conditions, LIPA gene knockout (LIPAKO) cells exhibited impaired autophagy, whereas, under starved conditions, they showed normal autophagy. The cause underlying the differential autophagic activity was increased sensitivity of LIPAKO cells to ammonia which was produced from L-glutamine in the medium. Further investigation revealed that ammonia did not affect upstream signals involved in autophagy induction, autophagosome-lysosome fusion, and hydrolytic enzyme activities in LIPAKO cells. On the other hand, LIPAKO cells showed defective lysosomal acidity upon ammonia loading. Microscopic analyses revealed that lysosomes of LIPAKO cells enlarged, whereas the amount of lysosomal proton pump V-ATPase did not proportionally increase. Since the enlargement of lysosomes in LIPAKO cells was not normalized under starved conditions, this is the primary change that occurred in the LIPAKO cells, and autophagy was affected by impaired lysosomal function under the specific conditions. These findings expand our comprehension of the pathogenesis of Wolman's disease, which is caused by a defect in the LIPA gene, and suggest that conditions, such as hyperlipidemia, may easily disrupt lysosomal functions.
    Keywords:  LIPA; V-ATPase; ammonia; autophagy; lysosomal acidity
  26. Cell Rep. 2024 Feb 13. pii: S2211-1247(24)00071-8. [Epub ahead of print]43(2): 113743
      Cells attach to the world through either cell-extracellular matrix adhesion or cell-cell adhesion, and traditional biomaterials imitate the matrix for integrin-based adhesion. However, materials incorporating cadherin proteins that mimic cell-cell adhesion offer an alternative to program cell behavior and integrate into living tissues. We investigated how cadherin substrates affect collective cell migration and cell cycling in epithelia. Our approach involved biomaterials with matrix proteins on one-half and E-cadherin proteins on the other, forming a "Janus" interface across which we grew a single sheet of cells. Tissue regions over the matrix side exhibited normal collective dynamics, but an abrupt behavior shift occurred across the Janus boundary onto the E-cadherin side, where cells attached to the substrate via E-cadherin adhesions, resulting in stalled migration and slowing of the cell cycle. E-cadherin surfaces disrupted long-range mechanical coordination and nearly doubled the length of the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, linked to the lack of integrin focal adhesions on the E-cadherin surface.
    Keywords:  CP: Cell biology; E-cadherin; biomaterials; cell adhesion; cell cycle; collective migration