bims-biprem Biomed News
on Bioprinting for regenerative medicine
Issue of 2024‒05‒12
six papers selected by
Seerat Maqsood, University of Teramo

  1. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2024 May 09. 1-14
      INTRODUCTION: Three-Dimensional (3D) microneedles have recently gained significant attention due to their versatility, biocompatibility, enhanced permeation, and predictable behavior. The incorporation of biological agents into these 3D constructs has advanced the traditional microneedle into an effective platform for wide-ranging applications.AREAS COVERED: This review discusses the current state of microneedle fabrication as well as the developed 3D printed microneedles incorporating labile pharmaceutical agents and biological materials for potential biomedical applications. The mechanical and processing considerations for the preparation of microneedles and the barriers to effective 3D printing of microneedle constructs have additionally been reviewed along with their therapeutic applications and potential for tissue engineering and regenerative applications. Additionally, the regulatory considerations for microneedle approval have been discussed as well as the current clinical trial and patent landscapes.
    EXPERT OPINION: The fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are evolving at a significant pace with researchers constantly focused on incorporating advanced manufacturing techniques for the development of versatile, complex, and biologically specific platforms. 3D bioprinted microneedles, fabricated using conventional 3D printing techniques, have resultantly provided an alternative to 2D bioscaffolds through the incorporation of biological materials within 3D constructs while providing further mechanical stability, increased bioactive permeation and improved innervation into surrounding tissues. This advancement therefore potentially allows for a more effective biomimetic construct with improved tissue-specific cellular growth for the enhanced treatment of physiological conditions requiring tissue regeneration and replacement.
    Keywords:  3D printing; Microneedles; additive manufacturing; bioactive delivery; biomedical applications; regulatory considerations
  2. Curr Drug Targets. 2024 May 06.
    Keywords:  3D drug delivery system; 3D phar-maceutics.; 3D printing; 3D technology; 3D-printed medications; personalised medicines
  3. Biomacromolecules. 2024 May 10.
      3D-printed hydrogel scaffolds biomimicking the extracellular matrix (ECM) are key in cartilage tissue engineering as they can enhance the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) through the presence of active nanoparticles such as graphene oxide (GO). Here, biomimetic hydrogels were developed by cross-linking alginate, gelatin, and chondroitin sulfate biopolymers in the presence of GO as a bioactive filler, with excellent processability for developing bioactive 3D printed scaffolds and for the bioprinting process. A novel bioink based on our hydrogel with embedded human MSCs presented a cell survival rate near 100% after the 3D bioprinting process. The effects of processing and filler concentration on cell differentiation were further quantitatively evaluated. The nanocomposited hydrogels render high MSC proliferation and viability, exhibiting intrinsic chondroinductive capacity without any exogenous factor when used to print scaffolds or bioprint constructs. The bioactivity depended on the GO concentration, with the best performance at 0.1 mg mL-1. These results were explained by the rational combination of the three biopolymers, with GO nanoparticles having carboxylate and sulfate groups in their structures, therefore, biomimicking the highly negatively charged ECM of cartilage. The bioactivity of this biomaterial and its good processability for 3D printing scaffolds and 3D bioprinting techniques open up a new approach to developing novel biomimetic materials for cartilage repair.
  4. Adv Healthc Mater. 2024 May 07. e2304196
      For many clinically prevalent severe injuries, the inherent regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle remains inadequate. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) seeks to meet this clinical demand. With continuous progress in biomedicine and related technologies including micro/nanotechnology and 3D printing, numerous studies have uncovered various intrinsic mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle regeneration and developed tailored biomaterial systems based on these understandings. Here, we discussed the skeletal muscle structure and regeneration process and explored in detail the diverse biomaterial systems derived from various technologies. Biomaterials serve not merely as local niches for cell growth, but also as scaffolds endowed with structural or physicochemical properties that provide tissue regenerative cues such as topographical, electrical, and mechanical signals. They can also act as delivery systems for stem cells and bioactive molecules that have been shown as key participants in endogenous repair cascades. To achieve bench-to-bedside translation, we have also summarized the typical effect enabled by biomaterial systems and the potential underlying molecular mechanisms. We hope to provide insights into the roles of biomaterials in SMTE from cellular and molecular perspectives. Finally, we provided perspectives on the advancement of SMTE, for which gene therapy, exosomes, and hybrid biomaterials may hold promise to make important contributions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  3D bioprinting; biomaterials; exosomes; micro/nanotechnologies; ncRNA; skeletal muscle; tissue engineering
  5. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2024 Apr 26. pii: 760. [Epub ahead of print]14(9):
      Currently, a major challenge in material engineering is to develop a cell-safe biomaterial with significant utility in processing technology such as 3D bioprinting. The main goal of this work was to optimize the composition of a new graphene oxide (GO)-based bioink containing additional extracellular matrix (ECM) with unique properties that may find application in 3D bioprinting of biomimetic scaffolds. The experimental work evaluated functional properties such as viscosity and complex modulus, printability, mechanical strength, elasticity, degradation and absorbability, as well as biological properties such as cytotoxicity and cell response after exposure to a biomaterial. The findings demonstrated that the inclusion of GO had no substantial impact on the rheological properties and printability, but it did enhance the mechanical properties. This enhancement is crucial for the advancement of 3D scaffolds that are resilient to deformation and promote their utilization in tissue engineering investigations. Furthermore, GO-based hydrogels exhibited much greater swelling, absorbability and degradation compared to non-GO-based bioink. Additionally, these biomaterials showed lower cytotoxicity. Due to its properties, it is recommended to use bioink containing GO for bioprinting functional tissue models with the vascular system, e.g., for testing drugs or hard tissue models.
    Keywords:  bioink; bioprinting; extracellular matrix; graphene oxide; tissue engineering
  6. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2024 Apr 25. pii: 749. [Epub ahead of print]14(9):
      In this study we propose to use for bioprinting a bioink enriched with a recombinant RE15mR protein with a molecular weight of 26 kDa, containing functional sequences derived from resilin and elastin. The resulting protein also contains RGD sequences in its structure, as well as a metalloproteinase cleavage site, allowing positive interaction with the cells seeded on the construct and remodeling the structure of this protein in situ. The described protein is produced in a prokaryotic expression system using an E. coli bacterial strain and purified by a process using a unique combination of known methods not previously used for recombinant elastin-like proteins. The positive effect of RE15mR on the mechanical, physico-chemical, and biological properties of the print is shown in the attached results. The addition of RE15mR to the bioink resulted in improved mechanical and physicochemical properties and promoted the habitation of the prints by cells of the L-929 line.
    Keywords:  3D bioprinting; cytotoxicity; recombinant proteins; resilin- and elastin-like engineered polypeptide