bims-biprem Biomed News
on Bioprinting for regenerative medicine
Issue of 2024‒02‒04
fifteen papers selected by
Seerat Maqsood, University of Teramo

  1. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2024 Jan 31.
      In recent years, the ability to create intricate, live tissues and organs has been made possible thanks to three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. Although tissue engineering has received a lot of attention, there is growing interest in the use of 3D bioprinting for microorganisms. Microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, and algae, are essential to many industrial bioprocesses, such as bioremediation as well as the manufacture of chemicals, biomaterials, and pharmaceuticals. This review covers current developments in 3D bioprinting methods for microorganisms. We go over the bioink compositions designed to promote microbial viability and growth, taking into account factors like nutrient delivery, oxygen supply, and waste elimination. Additionally, we investigate the most important bioprinting techniques, including extrusion-based, inkjet, and laser-assisted approaches, as well as their suitability with various kinds of microorganisms. We also investigate the possible applications of 3D bioprinted microbes. These range from constructing synthetic microbial consortia for improved metabolic pathway combinations to designing spatially patterned microbial communities for enhanced bioremediation and bioprocessing. We also look at the potential for 3D bioprinting to advance microbial research, including the creation of defined microenvironments to observe microbial behavior. In conclusion, the 3D bioprinting of microorganisms marks a paradigm leap in microbial bioprocess engineering and has the potential to transform many application areas. The ability to design the spatial arrangement of various microorganisms in functional structures offers unprecedented possibilities and ultimately will drive innovation.
    Keywords:  3D bioprinting; Bioink; Bioprocess; Crosslinking; Hydrogel scaffolds; Microorganisms
  2. 3D Print Med. 2024 Jan 29. 10(1): 3
      BACKGROUND: The use of medical 3D printing (focusing on anatomical modeling) has continued to grow since the Radiological Society of North America's (RSNA) 3D Printing Special Interest Group (3DPSIG) released its initial guideline and appropriateness rating document in 2018. The 3DPSIG formed a focused writing group to provide updated appropriateness ratings for 3D printing anatomical models across a variety of congenital heart disease. Evidence-based- (where available) and expert-consensus-driven appropriateness ratings are provided for twenty-eight congenital heart lesion categories.METHODS: A structured literature search was conducted to identify all relevant articles using 3D printing technology associated with pediatric congenital heart disease indications. Each study was vetted by the authors and strength of evidence was assessed according to published appropriateness ratings.
    RESULTS: Evidence-based recommendations for when 3D printing is appropriate are provided for pediatric congenital heart lesions. Recommendations are provided in accordance with strength of evidence of publications corresponding to each cardiac clinical scenario combined with expert opinion from members of the 3DPSIG.
    CONCLUSIONS: This consensus appropriateness ratings document, created by the members of the RSNA 3DPSIG, provides a reference for clinical standards of 3D printing for pediatric congenital heart disease clinical scenarios.
    Keywords:  3D printing; Additive manufacturing; Anatomic model; And congenital heart disease; Appropriateness; Cardiac; Quality; Radiology
  3. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2024 Jan 30. 1-24
      Nowadays, cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) is considered important due to lack of repair of cartilaginous lesions and the absence of appropriate methods for treatment. In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds were fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) printing and were then coated with fibrin (F) and acellular solubilized extracellular matrix (ECM). After extracting adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), 3D-printed scaffolds were characterized and compared to hydrogel groups. After inducing the chondrogenic differentiation in the presence of Piascledine and comparing it with TGF-β3 for 28 days, the expression of genes involved in chondrogenesis (AGG, COLII) and the expression of the hypertrophic gene (COLX) were examined by real-time PCR. The expression of proteins COLII and COLX was also determined by immunohistochemistry. Glycosaminoglycan was measured by toluidine blue staining. 3D-printed scaffolds clearly improved cell proliferation, viability, water absorption and compressive strength compared to the hydrogel groups. Moreover, the use of compounds such as ECM and Piascledine in the process of ADSCs chondrogenesis induction increased cartilage-specific markers and decreased the hypertrophic marker compared to TGF-β3. In Piascledine groups, the expression of COLL II protein, COLL II and Aggrecan genes, and the amount of glycosaminoglycan showed a significant increase in the PCL/F/ECM compared to the PCL and PCL/F groups.
    Keywords:  3D printing; adipose-derived stem cells; cartilage tissue engineering; extracellular matrix; fibrin; piascledine; polycaprolactone
  4. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2024 Feb 15. 25(2): 123-134
      The technology of three-dimensional (3D) printing emerged in the late 1970s and has since undergone considerable development to find numerous applications in mechanical engineering, industrial design, and biomedicine. In biomedical science, several studies have initially found that 3D printing technology can play an important role in the treatment of diseases in hepatopancreatobiliary surgery. For example, 3D printing technology has been applied to create detailed anatomical models of disease organs for preoperative personalized surgical strategies, surgical simulation, intraoperative navigation, medical training, and patient education. Moreover, cancer models have been created using 3D printing technology for the research and selection of chemotherapy drugs. With the aim to clarify the development and application of 3D printing technology in hepatopancreatobiliary surgery, we introduce seven common types of 3D printing technology and review the status of research and application of 3D printing technology in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary surgery.
    Keywords:  3D printing; Cancer model; Hepatopancreatobiliary surgery; Organ model
  5. Cell Stem Cell. 2024 Feb 01. pii: S1934-5909(23)00439-3. [Epub ahead of print]31(2): 260-274.e7
      Probing how human neural networks operate is hindered by the lack of reliable human neural tissues amenable to the dynamic functional assessment of neural circuits. We developed a 3D bioprinting platform to assemble tissues with defined human neural cell types in a desired dimension using a commercial bioprinter. The printed neuronal progenitors differentiate into neurons and form functional neural circuits within and between tissue layers with specificity within weeks, evidenced by the cortical-to-striatal projection, spontaneous synaptic currents, and synaptic response to neuronal excitation. Printed astrocyte progenitors develop into mature astrocytes with elaborated processes and form functional neuron-astrocyte networks, indicated by calcium flux and glutamate uptake in response to neuronal excitation under physiological and pathological conditions. These designed human neural tissues will likely be useful for understanding the wiring of human neural networks, modeling pathological processes, and serving as platforms for drug testing.
    Keywords:  3D bioprinting; functional neural network; human pluripotent stem cells
  6. Med Sci (Paris). 2024 Jan;40(1): 92-97
      Pre-implant bone surgery in oral surgery allows to reconstruct maxillary atrophies related to traumatic, infectious or tumoral processes. In this context, the ideal biomaterial remains autogenous bone, but biomaterials (of natural or synthetic origin) allow to limit the morbidity linked to bone harvesting, and to simplify these surgical procedures. In this article, we illustrate how 3D printing technologies can be used as an adjuvant to treat bone defects of complex shape or to create anatomical models used to plan interventions. Finally, some perspectives brought by tissue engineering and bioprinting (creation of complex in vitro models) are presented.
  7. Biofabrication. 2024 Feb 02.
      Although 3D printing techniques are used to mimic macro- and micro-structures as well as multi-structural human tissues in tissue engineering, efficient target tissue regeneration requires bioactive 3D printing scaffolds. In this study, we developed a bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-immobilized polycaprolactone (PCL) 3D printing scaffold with leaf-stacked structure (LSS) (3D-PLSS-BMP) as a bioactive patient-tailored bone graft. The unique LSS was introduced on the strand surface of the scaffold via heating/cooling in tetraglycol without significant deterioration in physical properties. The BMP-2 adsorbed on 3D-PLSS-BMP was continuously released from LSS over a period of 32 days. The LSS can be a microtopographical cue for improved focal cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. In vitro cell culture and in vivo animal studies demonstrated the biological (bioactive BMP-2) and physical (microrough structure) mechanisms of3D-PLSS-BMPfor accelerated bone regeneration. Thus, bioactive molecule-immobilized 3D printing scaffold with LSS represents a promising physically and biologically activated bone graft as well as an advanced tool for widespread application in clinical and research fields.
    Keywords:  3D printing; bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2); bone reconstruction; leaf-stacked structure; tissue engineering
  8. J Craniofac Surg. 2024 Feb 01.
      Three-dimensional (3D) printing has demonstrated efficacy in multiple surgical specialties. As accessibility improves, its use in specific fields deserves further attention. We conducted a systematic review of the implementation and outcomes of 3D printing in pediatric craniofacial surgery, as none has been performed. A systematic review was conducted according to Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and were queried with combinations of the terms: "3D printing," "craniofacial," "surgery," and "pediatric." Original human studies containing patients <18 years old implementing 3D printing to aid in craniofacial surgery were included. Study selection, grading, and data extraction were performed independently by multiple authors. After screening 120 articles, 7 (3 case series and 4 case reports) were included, published from 2017 to 2022. All studies addressed patients with different disease processes including craniosynostosis, cleft lip/palate, and mandibular hypoplasia. 3D printing was used to create mock surgical models in 2 studies, intraoperative cutting guides/molds (CGs) in 6 studies, and cranioplasty implants in 2 studies. Two case series determined the accuracy of the CGs was acceptable within historical comparison, while 4 articles included subjective statements on improved accuracy. Five studies noted reduced operating time, 2 noted reduced intraoperative blood loss, and 1 felt the use of 3D printed materials was responsible for shorter hospitalization duration. No adverse events were reported. Despite the limitations of the current literature, all studies concluded that the use of 3D printing in pediatric craniofacial surgery was beneficial. Definitive conclusions cannot be made until further controlled research is performed.
  9. Curr Med Chem. 2024 Jan 29.
      Numerous techniques exist for the production of liposomes; however, these methods need to be revised due to their incapacity to achieve precise management of the dimensions and uniformity of liposomes and their inefficient utilization of reagents and resources. One particular challenge lies in replicating accurate form and size control seen in biological cells, as accomplishing this level of precision through macroscale approaches proves exceptionally arduous. The advent of microfluidic technology tackles this problem by lowering liposome synthesis to a centimeter-level chip, drastically cutting related costs, and enhancing liposome manufacturing efficiency and mobility. Although various microfluidic technologies for micro or nanoparticle preparation have been established, manufacturing microfluidic devices poses challenges due to their high cost and time-consuming nature. However, a promising and cost-effective solution lies in additive production, commonly guided by 3D printing. This innovative technique has demonstrated significant potential and has been successfully applied to create microfluidic chips. Here, we will explore using 3D printing to produce microfluidic devices specifically designed for liposome production. Moreover, the biomedical applications of the liposomes produced by 3D printing-fabricated chips will be fully discussed.
    Keywords:  3D printing; drug delivery; liposome; microfluidics; nanoparticle.
  10. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2024 Jan 31.
      Owing to dysfunction of the uterus, millions of couples around the world suffer from infertility. Different from conventional treatments, tissue engineering provides a new and promising approach to deal with difficult problems such as human tissue or organ failure. Adopting scaffold-based tissue engineering, three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds in combination with stem cells and appropriate biomolecules may be constructed for uterine tissue regeneration. In this study, a hierarchical tissue engineering scaffold, which mimicked the uterine tissue structure and functions, was designed, and the biomimicking scaffolds were then successfully fabricated using solvent casting, layer-by-layer assembly, and 3D bioprinting techniques. For the multilayered, hierarchical structured scaffolds, poly(l-lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate) (PLLA-co-TMC, "PLATMC" in short) and poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) blends were first used to fabricate the shape-morphing layer of the scaffolds, which was to mimic the function of myometrium in uterine tissue. The PLATMC/PLGA polymer blend scaffolds were highly stretchable. Subsequently, after etching of the PLATMC/PLGA surface and employing estradiol (E2), polydopamine (PDA), and hyaluronic acid (HA), PDA@E2/HA multilayer films were formed on PLATMC/PLGA scaffolds to build an intelligent delivery platform to enable controlled and sustained release of E2. The PDA@E2/HA multilayer films also improved the biological performance of the scaffold. Finally, a layer of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-laden hydrogel [which was a blend of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) and gelatin (Gel)] was 3D printed on the PDA@E2/HA multilayer films of the scaffold, thereby completing the construction of the hierarchical scaffold. BMSCs in the GelMA/Gel hydrogel layer exhibited excellent cell viability and could spread and be released eventually upon biodegradation of the GelMA/Gel hydrogel. It was shown that the hierarchically structured scaffolds could evolve from the initial flat shape into the tubular structure completely in an aqueous environment at 37 °C, fulfilling the requirement for curved scaffolds for uterine tissue engineering. The biomimicking scaffolds with a hierarchical structure and curved shape, high stretchability, and controlled and sustained E2 release appear to be very promising for uterine tissue regeneration.
    Keywords:  3D bioprinting; cell-laden hydrogel; controlled release; multilayer film; shape morphing; uterine tissue engineering
  11. Small. 2024 Feb 02. e2309269
      3D printing and electrospinning are versatile techniques employed to produce 3D structures, such as scaffolds and ultrathin fibers, facilitating the creation of a cellular microenvironment in vitro. These two approaches operate on distinct working principles and utilize different polymeric materials to generate the desired structure. This review provides an extensive overview of these techniques and their potential roles in biomedical applications. Despite their potential role in fabricating complex structures, each technique has its own limitations. Electrospun fibers may have ambiguous geometry, while 3D-printed constructs may exhibit poor resolution with limited mechanical complexity. Consequently, the integration of electrospinning and 3D-printing methods may be explored to maximize the benefits and overcome the individual limitations of these techniques. This review highlights recent advancements in combined techniques for generating structures with controlled porosities on the micro-nano scale, leading to improved mechanical structural integrity. Collectively, these techniques also allow the fabrication of nature-inspired structures, contributing to a paradigm shift in research and technology. Finally, the review concludes by examining the advantages, disadvantages, and future outlooks of existing technologies in addressing challenges and exploring potential opportunities.
    Keywords:  3D printing; biomimetic structures; combined technique; electrospinning; tissue engineering
  12. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2024 Jan 24. pii: S1751-6161(24)00063-8. [Epub ahead of print]152 106431
      In recent years, significant advancements have been made in developing architected materials, known for their benefits like being lightweight, customizable mechanical performance, and excellent energy absorption. The capabilities of 3D printing technology have facilitated the emergence of a diverse range of architected structures, featuring various unit cell types and geometries for different applications. This study explores the unique opportunity offered by multimaterial 3D printing in fine-tuning the mechanical performance of architected structures. The exploration of the programmability of these structures involves a systematic assessment of various material candidates. After careful evaluation, the selection process led to the choice of PLA and PCL biopolymers for the multimaterial structure. Experimental results emphasize the key role of design configurations in influencing mechanical characteristics, particularly in enhancing the energy absorption capacity of architected structures. By skillfully manipulating the local structure and composition through the synergistic combination of soft and hard materials, the study demonstrates the ability to achieve a diverse range of mechanical responses. The discovered insights present a promising approach that holds applicability in the design and development of multifunctional devices. This is especially significant in the biomedical field, where there is a growing demand for versatile devices.
    Keywords:  3D printing; Additive manufacturing; Architected structures; Mechanical response; Multimaterial
  13. Biomed Mater. 2024 Feb 02.
      Bioprinting shows promise for bioengineered scaffolds and 3D disease models, but assessing the viability of embedded cells is challenging. Conventional assays are limited by the technical problems that derive from using multi-layered bioink matrices dispersing cells in three dimensions. &#xD;In this study, we tested bioprinted osteogenic bioinks as a model system. Alginate- or gelatin-based bioinks were loaded with/without ceramic microparticles and osteogenic cells (bone tumour cells, with or without normal bone cells). Despite demonstrating 80-90% viability through manual counting and live/dead staining, this was time-consuming and operator-dependent. Moreover, for the alginate-bioprinted scaffold, cell spheroids could not be distinguished from single cells. The indirect assay (alamarBlue), was faster but less accurate than live/dead staining due to dependence on hydrogel permeability. Automated confocal microscope acquisition and cell counting of live/dead staining was more reproducible, reliable, faster, efficient, and avoided overestimates compared to manual cell counting by optical microscopy. Finally, for 1.2 mm-thick 3D bioprints, dual-photon confocal scanning with vital staining greatly improved the precision of the evaluation of cell distribution and viability and cell-cell interactions through the z-axis. &#xD;In summary, automated confocal microscopy and cell counting provided superior accuracy for the assessment of cell viability and interactions in 3D bioprinted models compared to most commonly and currently used techniques&#xD.
    Keywords:  3D models; bioprinting; bone in vitro models; cell viability; confocal microscopy
  14. Zhongguo Gu Shang. 2024 Jan 25. 37(1): 7-14
      OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effect of unilateral percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) combined with 3D printing technology for the treatment of thoracolumbar osteoporotic compression fracture.METHODS: A total of 77 patients with thoracolumbar osteoporotic compression fractures from October 2020 to April 2022 were included in the study, all of which were vertebral body compression fractures caused by trauma. According to different treatment methods, they were divided into experimental group and control group. Thirty-two patients used 3D printing technology to improve unilateral transpedicle puncture vertebroplasty in the experimental group, there were 5 males and 27 females, aged from 63 to 91 years old with an average of (77.59±8.75) years old. Forty-five patients were treated with traditional bilateral pedicle puncture vertebroplasty, including 7 males and 38 females, aged from 60 to 88 years old with an average of(74.89±7.37) years old. Operation time, intraoperative C-arm X-ray times, anesthetic dosage, bone cement injection amount, bone cement diffusion good and good rate, complications, vertebral height, kyphotic angle (Cobb angle), visual analogue scale(VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI) and other indicators were recorded before and after surgery, and statistically analyzed.
    RESULTS: All patients were followed up for 6 to 23 months, with preoperative imaging studies, confirmed for thoracolumbar osteoporosis compression fractures, two groups of patients with postoperative complications, no special two groups of patients' age, gender, body mass index (BMI), time were injured, the injured vertebral distribution had no statistical difference(P>0.05), comparable data. Two groups of patients with bone cement injection, bone cement dispersion rate, preoperative and postoperative vertebral body height, protruding after spine angle(Cobb angle), VAS, ODI had no statistical difference(P>0.05). The operative time, intraoperative fluoroscopy times and anesthetic dosage were statistically different between the two groups(P<0.05). Compared with the traditional bilateral puncture group, the modified unilateral puncture group combined with 3D printing technology had shorter operation time, fewer intraoperative fluoroscopy times and less anesthetic dosage. The height of anterior vertebral edge, kyphosis angle (Cobb angle), VAS score and ODI of the affected vertebrae were statistically different between two groups at each time point after surgery(P<0.05).
    CONCLUSION: In the treatment of thoracolumbar osteoporotic compression fractures, 3D printing technology is used to improve unilateral puncture PVP, which is convenient and simple, less trauma, short operation time, fewer fluoroscopy times, satisfactory distribution of bone cement, vertebral height recovery and kyphotic Angle correction, and good functional improvement.
    Keywords:  3D printing technology; Osteoporotic fracture; Vertebroplasty
  15. Int J Biol Macromol. 2024 Jan 28. pii: S0141-8130(24)00591-9. [Epub ahead of print]261(Pt 1): 129788
      Currently, people eat Undaria pinnatifida (UP) in a single way, and processing homogeneity is serious. However, UP has not gained any traction in the 3D printing industry to date. This study explored the incorporation of soy protein isolate (SPI), pea protein (PP), xanthan gum (XG), guar gum (GG), corn starch (CS), and potato starch (PS) into UP slurry liquid, the primary component of the study, to formulate a UP gel ink. The UP gel 3D printing ink system based on UP paste was established and characterized. The results show that hydrogen bonds are formed, and three-dimensional gel network structure is formed in all UP gel inks. UP gel inks containing high concentrations of SPI and GG exhibited good texture and rheological qualities and good 3D printing effect, with storage modulus (G') values of 8440.405 ± 3.893 and 8111.730 ± 3.585 Pa. The loss of modulus (G″) values were 1409.107 ± 3.524 and 1071.673 ± 3.669 Pa. Unfortunately, the properties of other UP gel inks are not suitable, resulting in poor 3D printing results. The food 3D printing method developed in this study provides valuable insights for expanding food 3D printing material choices and achieving high-value applications of UP.
    Keywords:  3D food printing; Additives; Gel network structure; Rheological properties; Undaria pinnatifida gel inks