bims-biprem Biomed News
on Bioprinting for regenerative medicine
Issue of 2023‒10‒29
fourteen papers selected by
Seerat Maqsood, University of Teramo

  1. Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2023 Oct 26.
      In the 21st century, significant progress has been made in repairing damaged materials through material engineering. However, the creation of large-scale artificial materials still faces a major challenge in achieving proper vascularization. To address this issue, researchers have turned to biomaterials and three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques, which allow for the combination of multiple biomaterials with improved mechanical and biological properties that mimic natural materials. Hydrogels, known for their ability to support living cells and biological components, have played a crucial role in this research. Among the recent developments, 3D bioprinting has emerged as a promising tool for constructing hybrid scaffolds. However, there are several challenges in the field of bioprinting, including the need for nanoscale biomimicry, the formulation of hydrogel blends, and the ongoing complexity of vascularizing biomaterials, which requires further research. On a positive note, 3D bioprinting offers a solution to the vascularization problem due to its precise spatial control, scalability, and reproducibility compared to traditional fabrication methods. This paper aims to examine the recent advancements in 3D bioprinting technology for creating blood vessels, vasculature, and vascularized materials. It provides a comprehensive overview of the progress made and discusses the limitations and challenges faced in current 3D bioprinting of vascularized tissues. Additionally, the paper highlights the future research directions focusing on the development of 3D bioprinting techniques and bioinks for creating functional materials.
  2. Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr. 2023 Oct 01. 12(5): 806-809
    Keywords:  Liver regeneration; liver transplantation; model; three-dimensional bioprinting
  3. Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2023 Oct 26.
      Fabrication of functional organs is the holy grail of tissue engineering and the possibilities of repairing a partial or complete liver to treat chronic liver disorders are discussed in this review. Liver is the largest gland in the human body and plays a responsible role in majority of metabolic function and processes. Chronic liver disease is one of the leading causes of death globally and the current treatment strategy of organ transplantation holds its own demerits. Hence there is a need to develop an in vitro liver model that mimics the native microenvironment. The developed model should be a reliable to understand the pathogenesis, screen drugs and assist to repair and replace the damaged liver. The three-dimensional bioprinting is a promising technology that recreates in vivo alike in vitro model for transplantation, which is the goal of tissue engineers. The technology has great potential due to its precise control and its ability to homogeneously distribute cells on all layers in a complex structure. This review gives an overview of liver tissue engineering with a special focus on 3D bioprinting and bioinks for liver disease modelling and drug screening.
    Keywords:  3D bioprinting; Bioink; Disease model; Drug screening; Liver regeneration
  4. Bioengineering (Basel). 2023 Oct 21. pii: 1232. [Epub ahead of print]10(10):
      Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (TE) and adipose tissue engineering have undergone significant progress in recent years. This review focuses on the key findings in these areas, particularly highlighting the integration of 3D bioprinting techniques to overcome challenges and enhance tissue regeneration. In skeletal muscle TE, 3D bioprinting enables the precise replication of muscle architecture. This addresses the need for the parallel alignment of cells and proper innervation. Satellite cells (SCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been utilized, along with co-cultivation strategies for vascularization and innervation. Therefore, various printing methods and materials, including decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM), have been explored. Similarly, in adipose tissue engineering, 3D bioprinting has been employed to overcome the challenge of vascularization; addressing this challenge is vital for graft survival. Decellularized adipose tissue and biomimetic scaffolds have been used as biological inks, along with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), to enhance graft survival. The integration of dECM and alginate bioinks has demonstrated improved adipocyte maturation and differentiation. These findings highlight the potential of 3D bioprinting techniques in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue engineering. By integrating specific cell types, biomaterials, and printing methods, significant progress has been made in tissue regeneration. However, challenges such as fabricating larger constructs, translating findings to human models, and obtaining regulatory approvals for cellular therapies remain to be addressed. Nonetheless, these advancements underscore the transformative impact of 3D bioprinting in tissue engineering research and its potential for future clinical applications.
    Keywords:  3D bioprinting; adipose tissue; skeletal muscle tissue engineering; tissue engineering
  5. 3D Print Addit Manuf. 2023 Oct 01. 10(5): 1015-1035
      Wounds are skin tissue damage due to trauma. Many factors inhibit the wound healing phase (hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and alteration), such as oxygenation, contamination/infection, age, effects of injury, sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, drugs, alcoholism, smoking, nutrition, hemostasis, debridement, and closing time. Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer in nature which is promising as the main matrix of wound dressings because of its good structure and mechanical stability, moisturizes the area around the wound, absorbs excess exudate, can form elastic gels with the characteristics of bio-responsiveness, biocompatibility, low toxicity, biodegradability, and structural similarity with the extracellular matrix (ECM). The addition of active ingredients as a model drug helps accelerate wound healing through antimicrobial and antioxidant mechanisms. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology can print cellulose as a bioink to produce wound dressings with complex structures mimicking ECM. The 3D printed cellulose-based wound dressings are a promising application in modern wound care. This article reviews the use of 3D printed cellulose as an ideal wound dressing and their properties, including mechanical properties, permeability aspect, absorption ability, ability to retain and provide moisture, biodegradation, antimicrobial property, and biocompatibility. The applications of 3D printed cellulose in the management of chronic wounds, burns, and painful wounds are also discussed.
    Keywords:  3D-bioprinting; 3D-printed; cellulose; wound dressing
  6. J Clin Med. 2023 Oct 14. pii: 6520. [Epub ahead of print]12(20):
      For patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), renal transplantation is the treatment of choice, constituting the most common solid organ transplantation. This study aims to provide a comprehensive review regarding the application of three-dimensional (3D) printing and bioprinting in renal transplantation and regenerative medicine. Specifically, we present studies where 3D-printed models were used in the training of surgeons through renal transplantation simulations, in patient education where patients acquire a higher understanding of their disease and the proposed operation, in the preoperative planning to facilitate decision-making, and in fabricating customized, tools and devices. Three-dimensional-printed models could transform how surgeons train by providing surgical rehearsal platforms across all surgical specialties, enabling training with tissue realism and anatomic precision. The use of 3D-printed models in renal transplantations has shown a positive impact on surgical outcomes, including the duration of the operation and the intraoperative blood loss. Regarding 3D bioprinting, the technique has shown promising results, especially in the field of microfluidic devices, with the development of tissue demonstrating proximal tubules, glomerulus, and tubuloinerstitium function, and in renal organoid development. Such models can be applied for renal disease modeling, drug development, and renal regenerative medicine.
    Keywords:  3D printing; bioprinting; kidney; transplantation
  7. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2023 Oct 25. 39(10): 4046-4056
      3D bioprinting technology is a rapidly developing technique that employs bioinks containing biological materials and living cells to construct biomedical products. However, 3D-printed tissues are static, while human tissues are in real-time dynamic states that can change in morphology and performance. To improve the compatibility between in vitro and in vivo environments, an in vitro tissue engineering technique that simulates this dynamic process is required. The concept of 4D printing, which combines "3D printing + time" provides a new approach to achieving this complex technique. 4D printing involves applying one or more smart materials that respond to stimuli, enabling them to change their shape, performance, and function under the corresponding stimulus to meet various needs. This article focuses on the latest research progress and potential application areas of 4D printing technology in the cardiovascular system, providing a theoretical and practical reference for the development of this technology.
    Keywords:  4D bioprinting; biomedical; cardiac tissue; regenerative medicine; smart material
  8. 3D Print Addit Manuf. 2023 Oct 01. 10(5): 1140-1163
      A three-dimensional (3D) printing is a robotically controlled state-of-the-art technology that is promising for all branches of engineering with a meritorious emphasis to biomedical engineering. The purpose of 3D printing (3DP) is to create exact superstructures without any framework in a brief period with high reproducibility to create intricate and complex patient-tailored structures for organ regeneration, drug delivery, imaging processes, designing personalized dose-specific tablets, developing 3D models of organs to plan surgery and to understand the pathology of disease, manufacturing cost-effective surgical tools, and fabricating implants and organ substitute devices for prolonging the lives of patients, etc. The formulation of bioinks and programmed G codes help to obtain precise 3D structures, which determines the stability and functioning of the 3D-printed structures. Three-dimensional printing for medical applications is ambitious and challenging but made possible with the culmination of research expertise from various fields. Exploring and expanding 3DP for biomedical and clinical applications can be life-saving solutions. The 3D printers are cost-effective and eco-friendly, as they do not release any toxic pollutants or waste materials that pollute the environment. The sampling requirements and processing parameters are amenable, which further eases the production. This review highlights the role of 3D printers in the health care sector, focusing on their roles in tablet development, imaging techniques, disease model development, and tissue regeneration.
    Keywords:  3D printed tablets; 3D printers; 3D printing in regeneration; bioinks
  9. Pharmaceutics. 2023 Oct 17. pii: 2478. [Epub ahead of print]15(10):
      BACKGROUND: To make the regenerative process more effective and efficient, tissue engineering (TE) strategies have been implemented. Three-dimensional scaffolds (electrospun or 3D-printed), due to their suitable designed architecture, offer the proper location of the position of cells, as well as cell adhesion and the deposition of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, the possibility to guarantee a concomitant release of drugs can promote tissue regeneration.METHODS: A PLA/PCL copolymer was used for the manufacturing of electrospun and hybrid scaffolds (composed of a 3D-printed support coated with electrospun fibers). Dexamethasone was loaded as an anti-inflammatory drug into the electrospun fibers, and the drug release kinetics and scaffold biological behavior were evaluated.
    RESULTS: The encapsulation efficiency (EE%) was higher than 80%. DXM embedding into the electrospun fibers resulted in a slowed drug release rate, and a slower release was seen in the hybrid scaffolds. The fibers maintained their nanometric dimensions (less than 800 nm) even after deposition on the 3D-printed supports. Cell adhesion and proliferation was favored in the DXM-loading hybrid scaffolds.
    CONCLUSIONS: The hybrid scaffolds that were developed in this study can be optimized as a versatile platform for soft tissue regeneration.
    Keywords:  3D-printing; dexamethasone; electrospinning; hybrid scaffolds; tissue engineering
  10. Pharm Pat Anal. 2023 Oct 26.
      Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is emerging as an innovative manufacturing technology for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, since the US FDA approval of Spritam as a 3D-printed drug. In the present review, we have highlighted the potential benefits of 3DP technology in healthcare, such as the ability to create patient-specific medical devices and implants, as well as the possibility of on-demand production of drugs and personalized dosage forms. We have further discussed future research to optimize 3DP processes and materials for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Cohesively, we have put forward the current state of active patents and applications related to 3DP technology in the healthcare and pharmaceutical industries including hearing aids, prostheses, medical devices and drug-delivery systems.
    Keywords:  biomedical applications; drug formulation; pharmaceutical applications; recent patents; three-dimensional printing
  11. Biomed Mater. 2023 Oct 25.
      Despite technological advancements in bone tissue engineering, it is still a challenge to fabricate a scaffold with high bioactivity as well as high mechanical strength that can promote osteogenesis as well as bear load. Here we developed a 3D printed gel-polymer multi-layered hybrid scaffold. The innermost layer is porous gel-based framework made of gelatin/carboxymethyl-chitin/nano-hydroxyapatite and is cryogenically 3D printed. Further, the second and middle layer of micro-engineered polycaprolactone (PCL) is infused in the gel with controlled penetration and tuneable coating thickness. The PCL surface is further coated with a third and final thin layer of gel matrix used for the first layer. This triple-layered structure demonstrates >3000% and >700% increase in compression strength and modulus post 8 weeks degradation, respectively, 83% reduction in degradation after 12 weeks, and 81% reduction in swelling as compared to only gel scaffolds. Further, nearly 300%, 250%, 50%, and 440% increase in cellular attachment, proliferation, protein generation, and mineralization, respectively are achieved as compared to only PCL scaffolds. Thus, these hybrid scaffolds offer high mechanical strength, slow degradation rate, high bioactivity, and high osteoconductivity. These multifunctional scaffolds have potential for reconstructing non-load-bearing bone defects like sinus lift, jaw cysts, and moderate load-bearing like reconstructing hard palate, orbital palate, and other craniomaxillofacial bone defects.&#xD.
    Keywords:  additive manufacturing; bone inspired; cryogenic 3D printing; hydrogel; polymer coating; tissue engineering
  12. Bioact Mater. 2024 Feb;32 222-241
      Microneedles (MNs) is an emerging technology that employs needles ranging from 10 to 1000 μm in height, as a minimally invasive technique for various procedures such as therapeutics, disease monitoring and diagnostics. The commonly used method of fabrication, micromolding, has the advantage of scalability, however, micromolding is unable to achieve rapid customizability in dimensions, geometries and architectures, which are the pivotal factors determining the functionality and efficacy of the MNs. 3D printing offers a promising alternative by enabling MN fabrication with high dimensional accuracy required for precise applications, leading to improved performance. Furthermore, enabled by its customizability and one-step process, there is propitious potential for growth for 3D-printed MNs especially in the field of personalized and on-demand medical devices. This review provides an overview of considerations for the key parameters in designing MNs, an introduction on the various 3D-printing techniques for fabricating this new generation of MNs, as well as highlighting the advancements in biomedical applications facilitated by 3D-printed MNs. Lastly, we offer some insights into the future prospects of 3D-printed MNs, specifically its progress towards translation and entry into market.
    Keywords:  3D printing; Biosensing; Drug delivery; Extraction of biological specimen; Microneedles
  13. 3D Print Addit Manuf. 2023 Oct 01. 10(5): 1046-1054
      Nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) are an essential solution for peripheral nerve repair and regeneration in tissue engineering and medicine. However, the ability of current NGCs is limited to repairing longer nerve gap (i.e., >20 mm) because it cannot meet the following two conditions simultaneously: (1) directional guidance of the axial high-density channels and (2) regenerative stimulation of the extracellular matrix secreted by Schwann cells (SCs). Therefore, we propose a multi-material 3D bioprinting process to fabricate multi-channel nerve guide conduits (MNGCs) containing SCs. In the article, cell-laden methacrylate gelatin (GelMA) was used as the bulk material of MNGCs. To improve the printing accuracy of the axial channels and the survival rate of SCs, we systematically optimized the printing temperature parameter based on hydrogel printability analysis. The multi-material bioprinting technology was used to realize the alternate printing of supporting gelatin and cell-laden GelMA. Then, the high-accuracy channels were fabricated through the UV cross-linking of GelMA and the dissolving technique of gelatin. The SCs distributed around the channels with a high survival rate, and the cell survival rate maintained above 90%. In general, the study on multi-material 3D printing was carried out from the fabricating technology and material analysis, which will provide a potential solution for the fabrication of MNGCs containing SCs.
    Keywords:  3D bioprinting; GelMA; Schwann cells; multi-channel nerve guidance conduits; printability analysis
  14. 3D Print Addit Manuf. 2023 Oct 01. 10(5): 930-940
      The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an overload on the health care system on a global scale. Because the disease affects the respiratory system, patients may require ventilator equipment for breathing, and consequently, numerous tracheal intubations have been performed. The video laryngoscope is a medical device that aids this procedure. It is used by anesthesiologists to visualize the anatomical structures of the larynx during tube insertion. Unfortunately, many hospitals worldwide are unable to afford sufficient units of this medical device. To satisfy the high demand, low-cost alternatives employing three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques have been developed for health care professional's use. With the intention of ensuring the efficiency, reproducibility, and security of the 3D-printed laryngoscope, this article presents a novel model with versions for pediatric and adult use, which was developed under the supervision of a medical team. The mechanical performance of 3D-printed prototypes (of the proposed models) was evaluated using mechanical assays, and the results indicated a satisfactory safety factor.
    Keywords:  3D printing; COVID-19; laryngoscope; mechanical essays; medical device