bims-biprem Biomed News
on Bioprinting for regenerative medicine
Issue of 2023‒09‒10
eleven papers selected by
Seerat Maqsood, University of Teramo

  1. Bioengineered. 2023 12;14(1): 2251847
      The uterus undergoes significant modifications throughout pregnancy to support embryo development and fetal growth. However, conditions like fibroids, adenomyosis, cysts, and C-section scarring can cause myometrial damage. The importance of the uterus and the challenges associated with myometrial damage, and the need for alternative approaches are discussed in this review. The review also explores the recent studies in tissue engineering, which involve principles of combining cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules to create functional uterine tissues. It focuses on two key approaches in uterine tissue engineering: scaffold technique using decellularized, natural, and synthetic polymer and 3D bioprinting. These techniques create supportive structures for cell growth and tissue formation. Current treatment options for myometrial damage have limitations, leading to the exploration of regenerative medicine and integrative therapies. The review emphasizes the potential benefits of tissue engineering, including more effective and less invasive treatment options for myometrial damage. The challenges of developing biocompatible materials and optimizing cell growth and differentiation are discussed. In conclusion, uterine tissue engineering holds promise for myometrial regeneration and the treatment of related conditions. This review highlights the scientific advancements in the field and underscores the potential of tissue engineering as a viable approach. By addressing the limitations of current treatments, tissue engineering offers new possibilities for improving reproductive health and restoring uterine functionality. Future research shall focus on overcoming challenges and refining tissue engineering strategies to advance the field and provide effective solutions for myometrial damage and associated disorders.
    Keywords:  3D bioprinting; Uterus tissue engineering; myometrium; scaffolds; stem cells
  2. Biomed Pharmacother. 2023 Sep 06. pii: S0753-3322(23)01214-3. [Epub ahead of print]167 115416
      Hydrogels are three-dimensional polymer networks with hydrophilic properties. The modifiable properties of hydrogels and the structure resembling living tissue allow their versatile application. Therefore, increasing attention is focused on the use of hydrogels as bioinks for three-dimensional (3D) printing in tissue engineering. Bioprinting involves the fabrication of complex structures from several types of materials, cells, and bioactive compounds. Stem cells (SC), such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are frequently employed in 3D constructs. SCs have desirable biological properties such as the ability to differentiate into various types of tissue and high proliferative capacity. Encapsulating SCs in 3D hydrogel constructs enhances their reparative abilities and improves the likelihood of reaching target tissues. In addition, created constructs can simulate the tissue environment and mimic biological signals. Importantly, the immunogenicity of scaffolds is minimized through the use of patient-specific cells and the biocompatibility and biodegradability of the employed biopolymers. Regenerative medicine is taking advantage of the aforementioned capabilities in regenerating various tissues- muscle, bones, nerves, heart, skin, and cartilage.
    Keywords:  3D- printing; Bioprinting; Hydrogels; Regenerative medicine; Stem cells
  3. Heliyon. 2023 Sep;9(9): e19363
      The osseous tissue can be classified as a nanocomposite that encompasses a complex interweaving of organic and inorganic matrices. This intricate amalgamation consists of a collagen component and a mineral phase that are intricately arranged to form elaborate and perforated configurations. Hydroxyapatite, whether synthesized artificially or obtained from natural sources, has garnered considerable attention as a composite material in the field of bone tissue engineering due to its striking resemblance to bone in terms of structure and characteristics. Hydroxyapatite (HA) constitutes the predominant ceramic biomaterial for biomedical applications due to its ability to replicate the mineral composition of vertebrate bone. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that the present biomimetic substance exhibits unfavorable mechanical characteristics, characterized by insufficient tensile and compressive strength, thus rendering it unsuitable for effective employment in the field of bone tissue engineering. Due to its beneficial attributes, hydroxyapatite (HA) is frequently employed in conjunction with various polymers and crosslinkers as composites to enhance mechanical properties and overall efficacy of implantable biomaterials engineered. The restoration of skeletal defects through the use of customized replacements is an effective way to replace damaged or lost bone structures. This method not only restores the bones' original functions but also reinstates their initial aesthetic appearance. The utilization of hydroxyapatite-polymer composites within 3D-printed grafts necessitates meticulous optimization of both mechanical and biological properties, in order to ensure their suitability for employment in medical devices. The utilization of 3D-printing technology represents an innovative approach in the manufacturing of HA-based scaffolds, which offers advantageous prospects for personalized bone regeneration. The expeditious prototyping method, with emphasis on the application of 3D printing, presents a viable approach in the development of bespoke prosthetic implants, grounded on healthcare data sets. 4D printing approach is an evolved form of 3D printing that utilizes programmable materials capable of altering the intended shape of printed structures, contingent upon single or dual stimulating factors. These factors include aspects such as pH level, temperature, humidity, crosslinking degree, and leaching factors.
    Keywords:  3D printing; 4D printing; Bone tissue engineering; Hydroxyapatite; Polymer; Scaffold
  4. Nano Converg. 2023 Sep 07. 10(1): 41
      Recently, the 3D printing of conductive hydrogels has undergone remarkable advances in the fabrication of complex and functional structures. In the field of neural engineering, an increasing number of reports have been published on tissue engineering and bioelectronic approaches over the last few years. The convergence of 3D printing methods and electrically conducting hydrogels may create new clinical and therapeutic possibilities for precision regenerative medicine and implants. In this review, we summarize (i) advancements in preparation strategies for conductive materials, (ii) various printing techniques enabling the fabrication of electroconductive hydrogels, (iii) the required physicochemical properties of the printed constructs, (iv) their applications in bioelectronics and tissue regeneration for neural engineering, and (v) unconventional approaches and outlooks for the 3D printing of conductive hydrogels. This review provides technical insights into 3D printable conductive hydrogels and encompasses recent developments, specifically over the last few years of research in the neural engineering field.
    Keywords:  3D printing; Conductive hydrogels; Neural engineering
  5. Molecules. 2023 Aug 24. pii: 6213. [Epub ahead of print]28(17):
      The introduction of new materials for the production of various types of constructs that can connect directly to tissues has enabled the development of such fields of science as medicine, tissue, and regenerative engineering. The implementation of these types of materials, called biomaterials, has contributed to a significant improvement in the quality of human life in terms of health. This is due to the constantly growing availability of new implants, prostheses, tools, and surgical equipment, which, thanks to their specific features such as biocompatibility, appropriate mechanical properties, ease of sterilization, and high porosity, ensure an improvement of living. Biodegradation ensures, among other things, the ideal rate of development for regenerated tissue. Current tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies aim to restore the function of damaged tissues. The current gold standard is autografts (using the patient's tissue to accelerate healing), but limitations such as limited procurement of certain tissues, long operative time, and donor site morbidity have warranted the search for alternative options. The use of biomaterials for this purpose is an attractive option and the number of biomaterials being developed and tested is growing rapidly.
    Keywords:  applications of biodegradable polymers in medicine; applications of biomaterials in medicine; biodegradable polymers; biomaterials
  6. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2023 ;pii: S1877-1173(23)00062-5. [Epub ahead of print]199 179-197
      Stem cell biology and tissue engineering are essential techniques for cardiac tissue construction. We have succeeded in fabricating human cardiac tissue using the mass production technology of human iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and cell sheet engineering, and we are developing regenerative medicine and tissue models to apply this tissue to heart disease research. Cardiac tissue fabrication and tissue functional evaluation technologies for contractile and electrophysiological function are indispensable, which lead to the functional improvement of bioengineered human cardiac tissue.
    Keywords:  cardiomyocyte; cell sheet engineering; regenerative medicine; tissue model
  7. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2023 ;10 1191705
      Introduction: The use of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and printing technology, together with extended reality applied to advanced heart failure adult patients with complex anatomy, is rapidly spreading in clinical practice. We report practical experience with application to acute and chronic heart failure: planning and performing mechanical circulatory device insertion or heart transplantation.Methods: From November 2019 until February 2022, 53 3D virtual biomodels were produced for intervention planning (using Virtual/Augmented Reality and/or 3D printing), following a specific segmentation and preprocessing workflow for biomodelling, in patients with advanced heart failure due to structural heart disease or cardiomyopathies. Four of those patients were complex cases requiring mechanical circulatory support implant procedures in our center.
    Results: One short-term and three long-term ventricular assist device system were successfully clinically implanted after application of this technique. In other two cases with extremely high procedural risk, visualized after application of this multimodality imaging, heart transplantation was elected.
    Conclusion: 3D printing based planning and virtual procedure simulation, are of great importance to select appropriate candidates for mechanical circulatory support in case of complex patient anatomy and may help to diminish periprocedural complications. Extended reality represents a perspective tool in planification of complex surgical procedures or ventricular assist device insertion in this setting.
    Keywords:  3D printing; augmented reality; heart transplantation; ventricular assist device; virtual device implant; virtual reality
  8. Materials (Basel). 2023 Aug 28. pii: 5871. [Epub ahead of print]16(17):
      Scientific research has achieved numerous milestones in the field of materials applied to medicine for biomedical prosthetics [...].
  9. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2023 ;11 1240861
      Addressing critical bone defects necessitates innovative solutions beyond traditional methods, which are constrained by issues such as immune rejection and donor scarcity. Smart polymeric biomaterials that respond to external stimuli have emerged as a promising alternative, fostering endogenous bone regeneration. Light-responsive polymers, employed in 3D-printed scaffolds and photothermal therapies, enhance antibacterial efficiency and bone repair. Thermo-responsive biomaterials show promise in controlled bioactive agent release, stimulating osteocyte differentiation and bone regeneration. Further, the integration of conductive elements into polymers improves electrical signal transmission, influencing cellular behavior positively. Innovations include advanced 3D-printed poly (l-lactic acid) scaffolds, polyurethane foam scaffolds promoting cell differentiation, and responsive polymeric biomaterials for osteogenic and antibacterial drug delivery. Other developments focus on enzyme-responsive and redox-responsive polymers, which offer potential for bone regeneration and combat infection. Biomaterials responsive to mechanical, magnetic, and acoustic stimuli also show potential in bone regeneration, including mechanically-responsive polymers, magnetic-responsive biomaterials with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, and acoustic-responsive biomaterials. In conclusion, smart biopolymers are reshaping scaffold design and bone regeneration strategies. However, understanding their advantages and limitations is vital, indicating the need for continued exploratory research.
    Keywords:  bone regeneration; osteogenic; polymer; smart biomaterials; stimuli
  10. Cell Tissue Bank. 2023 Sep 03.
      Utilization of acellular scaffolds, extracellular matrix (ECM) without cell content, is growing in tissue engineering, due to their high biocompatibility, bioactivity ad mechanical support. Hence, the purpose of this research was to study the characteristics and biocompatibility of decellularized rat skin scaffolds using the osmotic shock method. First, the skin of male Wistar rats was harvested and cut into 1 × 1 cm2 pieces. Then, some of the harvested parts were subjected to the decellularization process by applying osmotic shock. Comparison of control and scaffold samples was conducted in order to assure cell elimination and ECM conservation by means of histological evaluations, quantification of biochemical factors, measurement of DNA amount, and photographing the ultrastructure of the samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In order to evaluate stem cell viability and adhesion to the scaffold, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) were seeded on the acellular scaffolds. Subsequently, MTT test and SEM imaging of the scaffolds containing cultured cells were applied. The findings indicated that in the decellularized scaffolds prepared by osmotic shock method, not only the cell content was removed, but also the ECM components and its ultrastructure were preserved. Also, the 99% viability and adhesion of AD-MSCs cultured on the scaffolds indicate the biocompatibility of the decellularized skin scaffold. In conclusion, decellularized rat skin scaffolds are biocompatible and appropriate scaffolds for future investigations of tissue engineering applications.
    Keywords:  Decellularization; Extracellular matrix; Rat skin; Scaffold; Tissue engineering
  11. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Aug 24. pii: 13157. [Epub ahead of print]24(17):
      Bone tissue engineering has attracted great interest in the last few years, as the frequency of tissue-damaging or degenerative diseases has increased exponentially. To obtain an ideal treatment solution, researchers have focused on the development of optimum biomaterials to be applied for the enhancement of bioactivity and the regeneration process, which are necessary to support the proper healing process of osseous tissues. In this regard, hydroxyapatite (HA) has been the most widely used material in the biomedical field due to its great biocompatibility and similarity with the native apatite from the human bone. However, HA still presents some deficiencies related to its mechanical properties, which are essential for HA to be applied in load-bearing applications. Bioactivity is another vital property of HA and is necessary to further improve regeneration and antibacterial activity. These drawbacks can be solved by doping the material with trace elements, adapting the properties of the material, and, finally, sustaining bone regeneration without the occurrence of implant failure. Considering these aspects, in this review, we have presented some general information about HA properties, synthesis methods, applications, and the necessity for the addition of doping ions into its structure. Also, we have presented their influence on the properties of HA, as well as the latest applications of doped materials in the biomedical field.
    Keywords:  biocompatibility; bone tissue engineering; doping; hydroxyapatite; mechanical properties