bims-biprem Biomed News
on Bioprinting for regenerative medicine
Issue of 2023‒08‒27
eleven papers selected by
Seerat Maqsood, University of Teramo

  1. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Aug 17. pii: 12881. [Epub ahead of print]24(16):
      Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a unique combination of technological advances in 3D printing and tissue engineering. It has emerged as a promising approach to address the dilemma in current dental treatments faced by clinicians in order to repair or replace injured and diseased tissues. The exploration of 3D bioprinting technology provides high reproducibility and precise control of the bioink containing the desired cells and biomaterial over the architectural and dimensional features of the scaffolds in fabricating functional tissue constructs that are specific to the patient treatment need. In recent years, the dental applications of different 3D bioprinting techniques, types of novel bioinks, and the types of cells used have been extensively explored. Most of the findings noted significant challenges compared to the non-biological 3D printing approach in constructing the bioscaffolds that mimic native tissues. Hence, this review focuses solely on the implementation of 3D bioprinting techniques and strategies based on cell-laden bioinks. It discusses the in vitro applications of 3D-bioprinted scaffolds on cell viabilities, cell functionalities, differentiation ability, and expression of the markers as well as the in vivo evaluations of the implanted bioscaffolds on the animal models for bone, periodontal, dentin, and pulp tissue regeneration. Finally, it outlines some perspectives for future developments in dental applications.
    Keywords:  bioink; cell laden; dental tissues regeneration; regenerative dentistry; three-dimensional bioprinting; tissue engineering
  2. Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr. 2023 Aug 01. 12(4): 616-618
    Keywords:  Pancreatic cancer; individualized therapy; preclinical model; three-dimensional bioprinting (3D bioprinting)
  3. Micromachines (Basel). 2023 Aug 21. pii: 1648. [Epub ahead of print]14(8):
      Liver diseases are the primary reason for morbidity and mortality in the world. Owing to a shortage of organ donors and postoperative immune rejection, patients routinely suffer from liver failure. Unlike 2D cell models, animal models, and organoids, 3D bioprinting can be successfully employed to print living tissues and organs that contain blood vessels, bone, and kidney, heart, and liver tissues and so on. 3D bioprinting is mainly classified into four types: inkjet 3D bioprinting, extrusion-based 3D bioprinting, laser-assisted bioprinting (LAB), and vat photopolymerization. Bioinks for 3D bioprinting are composed of hydrogels and cells. For liver 3D bioprinting, hepatic parenchymal cells (hepatocytes) and liver nonparenchymal cells (hepatic stellate cells, hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, and Kupffer cells) are commonly used. Compared to conventional scaffold-based approaches, marked by limited functionality and complexity, 3D bioprinting can achieve accurate cell settlement, a high resolution, and more efficient usage of biomaterials, better mimicking the complex microstructures of native tissues. This method will make contributions to disease modeling, drug discovery, and even regenerative medicine. However, the limitations and challenges of this method cannot be ignored. Limitation include the requirement of diverse fabrication technologies, observation of drug dynamic response under perfusion culture, the resolution to reproduce complex hepatic microenvironment, and so on. Despite this, 3D bioprinting is still a promising and innovative biofabrication strategy for the creation of artificial multi-cellular tissues/organs.
    Keywords:  3D bioprinting; artificial multi-cellular tissues/organs; biofabrication strategy; liver diseases
  4. Pharmaceutics. 2023 Aug 21. pii: 2169. [Epub ahead of print]15(8):
      Three-dimensional printing technology has been used for more than three decades in many industries, including the automotive and aerospace industries. So far, the use of this technology in medicine has been limited only to 3D printing of anatomical models for educational and training purposes, which is due to the insufficient functional properties of the materials used in the process. Only recent advances in the development of innovative materials have resulted in the flourishing of the use of 3D printing in medicine and pharmacy. Currently, additive manufacturing technology is widely used in clinical fields. Rapid development can be observed in the design of implants and prostheses, the creation of biomedical models tailored to the needs of the patient and the bioprinting of tissues and living scaffolds for regenerative medicine. The purpose of this review is to characterize the most popular 3D printing techniques.
    Keywords:  3D printing; applications of biomaterials in medicine; polymer biomaterials
  5. Biomolecules. 2023 Jul 28. pii: 1180. [Epub ahead of print]13(8):
      Three-dimensional (3D) printing plays an important role in cardiovascular disease through the use of personalised models that replicate the normal anatomy and its pathology with high accuracy and reliability. While 3D printed heart and vascular models have been shown to improve medical education, preoperative planning and simulation of cardiac procedures, as well as to enhance communication with patients, 3D bioprinting represents a potential advancement of 3D printing technology by allowing the printing of cellular or biological components, functional tissues and organs that can be used in a variety of applications in cardiovascular disease. Recent advances in bioprinting technology have shown the ability to support vascularisation of large-scale constructs with enhanced biocompatibility and structural stability, thus creating opportunities to replace damaged tissues or organs. In this review, we provide an overview of the use of 3D bioprinting in cardiovascular disease with a focus on technologies and applications in cardiac tissues, vascular constructs and grafts, heart valves and myocardium. Limitations and future research directions are highlighted.
    Keywords:  3D bioprinting; 3D printing; cardiovascular disease; cells; tissues
  6. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2023 ;11 1185841
      Damage to bone leads to pain and loss of movement in the musculoskeletal system. Although bone can regenerate, sometimes it is damaged beyond its innate capacity. Research interest is increasingly turning to tissue engineering (TE) processes to provide a clinical solution for bone defects. Despite the increasing biomimicry of tissue-engineered scaffolds, significant gaps remain in creating the complex bone substitutes, which include the biochemical and physical conditions required to recapitulate bone cells' natural growth, differentiation and maturation. Combining advanced biomaterials with new additive manufacturing technologies allows the development of 3D tissue, capable of forming cell aggregates and organoids based on natural and stimulated cues. Here, we provide an overview of the structure and mechanical properties of natural bone, the role of bone cells, the remodelling process, cytokines and signalling pathways, causes of bone defects and typical treatments and new TE strategies. We highlight processes of selecting biomaterials, cells and growth factors. Finally, we discuss innovative tissue-engineered models that have physiological and anatomical relevance for cancer treatments, injectable stimuli gels, and other therapeutic drug delivery systems. We also review current challenges and prospects of bone TE. Overall, this review serves as guide to understand and develop better tissue-engineered bone designs.
    Keywords:  3D bioprinting; biofabrication; biomaterials; bone tissue; growth factor; hydrogel; organoid; tissue engineering and regenerative medicine
  7. Biomater Sci. 2023 Aug 21.
      Cardiovascular diseases have remained the leading cause of death worldwide for the past 20 years. The current clinical therapeutic measures, including bypass surgery, stent implantation and pharmacotherapy, are not enough to repair the massive loss of cardiomyocytes after myocardial ischemia. Timely replenishment with functional myocardial tissue via biomedical engineering is the most direct and effective means to improve the prognosis and survival rate of patients. It is widely recognized that 4D printing technology introduces an additional dimension of time in comparison with traditional 3D printing. Additionally, in the context of 4D bioprinting, both the printed material and the resulting product are designed to be biocompatible, which will be the mainstream of bioprinting in the future. Thus, this review focuses on the application of 4D bioprinting in cardiovascular diseases, discusses the bottleneck of the development of 4D bioprinting, and finally looks forward to the future direction and prospect of this revolutionary technology.
  8. Pharmaceutics. 2023 Aug 10. pii: 2118. [Epub ahead of print]15(8):
      Dental tissues are composed of multiple tissues with complex organization, such as dentin, gingiva, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. These tissues have different mechanical and biological properties that are essential for their functions. Therefore, dental diseases and injuries pose significant challenges for restorative dentistry, as they require innovative strategies to regenerate damaged or missing dental tissues. Biomimetic bioconstructs that can effectively integrate with native tissues and restore their functionalities are desirable for dental tissue regeneration. However, fabricating such bioconstructs is challenging due to the diversity and complexity of dental tissues. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in polymer-based tissue engineering and three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies for dental tissue regeneration. It also discusses the current state-of-the-art, focusing on key techniques, such as polymeric biomaterials and 3D printing with or without cells, used in tissue engineering for dental tissues. Moreover, the final section of this paper identifies the challenges and future directions of this promising research field.
    Keywords:  3D printing; dental tissues; polymers; tissue engineering
  9. Life (Basel). 2023 Aug 01. pii: 1673. [Epub ahead of print]13(8):
      Bioinspired polymers have emerged as a promising field in biomaterials research, offering innovative solutions for various applications in biomedical engineering. This manuscript provides an overview of the advancements and potential of bioinspired polymers in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and biomedicine. The manuscript discusses their role in enhancing mechanical properties, mimicking the extracellular matrix, incorporating hydrophobic particles for self-healing abilities, and improving stability. Additionally, it explores their applications in antibacterial properties, optical and sensing applications, cancer therapy, and wound healing. The manuscript emphasizes the significance of bioinspired polymers in expanding biomedical applications, addressing healthcare challenges, and improving outcomes. By highlighting these achievements, this manuscript highlights the transformative impact of bioinspired polymers in biomedical engineering and sets the stage for further research and development in the field.
    Keywords:  bioinspired polymers; biomedical engineering; biomedicine; regenerative medicine; tissue engineering
  10. Materials (Basel). 2023 Aug 18. pii: 5681. [Epub ahead of print]16(16):
      Three-dimensional (3D) printing, alternatively known as additive manufacturing, is a transformative technology enabling precise, customized, and efficient manufacturing of components with complex structures. It revolutionizes traditional processes, allowing rapid prototyping, cost-effective production, and intricate designs. The 3D printed graphene-based materials combine graphene's exceptional properties with additive manufacturing's versatility, offering precise control over intricate structures with enhanced functionalities. To gain comprehensive insights into the development of 3D printed graphene and graphene/polymer composites, this review delves into their intricate fabrication methods, unique structural attributes, and multifaceted applications across various domains. Recent advances in printable materials, apparatus characteristics, and printed structures of typical 3D printing techniques for graphene and graphene/polymer composites are addressed, including extrusion methods (direct ink writing and fused deposition modeling), photopolymerization strategies (stereolithography and digital light processing) and powder-based techniques. Multifunctional applications in energy storage, physical sensor, stretchable conductor, electromagnetic interference shielding and wave absorption, as well as bio-applications are highlighted. Despite significant advancements in 3D printed graphene and its polymer composites, innovative studies are still necessary to fully unlock their inherent capabilities.
    Keywords:  3D printing; additive manufacturing; graphene; graphene/polymer composites; multifunctional applications
  11. Gels. 2023 Aug 08. pii: 637. [Epub ahead of print]9(8):
      Collagen, an abundant extracellular matrix protein, has shown hemostatic, chemotactic, and cell adhesive characteristics, making it an attractive choice for the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. The aim of this study was to synthesize a fibrillar colloidal gel from Type 1 bovine collagen, as well as three dimensionally (3D) print scaffolds with engineered pore architectures. 3D-printed scaffolds were also subjected to post-processing through chemical crosslinking (in N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide) and lyophilization. The scaffolds were physicochemically characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and mechanical (tensile) testing. In vitro experiments using Presto Blue and Alkaline Phosphatase assays were conducted to assess cellular viability and the scaffolds' ability to promote cellular proliferation and differentiation. Rheological analysis indicated shear thinning capabilities in the collagen gels. Crosslinked and lyophilized 3D-printed scaffolds were thermally stable at 37 °C and did not show signs of denaturation, although crosslinking resulted in poor mechanical strength. PB and ALP assays showed no signs of cytotoxicity as a result of crosslinking. Fibrillar collagen was successfully formulated into a colloidal gel for extrusion through a direct inkjet writing printer. 3D-printed scaffolds promoted cellular attachment and proliferation, making them a promising material for customized, patient-specific tissue regenerative applications.
    Keywords:  3D printing; additive manufacturing; bovine collagen; crosslinking; lyophilizing; tissue engineering