bims-biprem Biomed News
on Bioprinting for regenerative medicine
Issue of 2023‒08‒20
twelve papers selected by
Seerat Maqsood
University of Teramo

  1. Int J Pharm. 2023 Aug 12. pii: S0378-5173(23)00733-0. [Epub ahead of print] 123313
      Rapid development of tissue engineering in recent years has increased the importance of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology as novel strategy for fabrication functional 3D tissue and organoid models for pharmaceutical research. 3D bioprinting technology gives hope for eliminating many problems associated with traditional cell culture methods during drug screening. However, there is a still long way to wider clinical application of this technology due to the numerous difficulties associated with development of bioinks, advanced printers and in-depth understanding of human tissue architecture. In this review, the work associated with relatively well-known extrusion-based bioprinting (EBB), jetting-based bioprinting (JBB), and vat photopolymerization bioprinting (VPB) is presented and discussed with the latest advances and limitations in this field. Next we discuss state-of-the-art research of 3D bioprinted in vitro models including liver, kidney, lung, heart, intestines, eye, skin as well as neural and bone tissue that have potential applications in the development of new drugs.
    Keywords:  3D printing; drug screening; organoid models; pharmaceutical application; tissue models
  2. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2023 Aug 12.
      Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has progressed exceedingly in the area of tissue engineering. Despite the tremendous potential of 3D printing, building scaffolds with complex 3D structure, especially with soft materials, still exist as a challenge due to the low mechanical strength of the materials. Recently, sacrificial materials have emerged as a possible solution to address this issue, as they could serve as temporary support or templates to fabricate scaffolds with intricate geometries, porous structures, and interconnected channels without deformation or collapse. Here, we outline the various types of scaffold biomaterials with sacrificial materials, their pros and cons, and mechanisms behind the sacrificial material removal, compare the manufacturing methods such as salt leaching, electrospinning, injection-molding, bioprinting with advantages and disadvantages, and discuss how sacrificial materials could be applied in tissue-specific applications to achieve desired structures. We finally conclude with future challenges and potential research directions.
    Keywords:  3D printing; bioprinting; sacrificial biomaterials; scaffold fabrication; tissue engineering
  3. RSC Adv. 2023 Aug 04. 13(34): 24053-24063
      The advent of improved fabrication technologies, particularly 3D printing, has enabled the engineering of bone tissue for patient-specific healing and the fabrication of in vitro tissue models for ex vivo testing. However, inks made from natural polymers often fall short in terms of mechanical strength, stability, and the induction of osteogenesis. Our research focused on developing novel printable formulations using a gelatin/pectin polymeric matrix that integrate synergistic reinforcement components i.e. graphene oxide (GO) and oxidized nanocellulose fibers (CNF). Using 3D printing technology and the aforementioned biomaterial composite inks, bone-like scaffolds were created. To simulate critical-sized flaws and demonstrate scaffold fidelity, 3D scaffolds were successfully printed using formulations with varied GO concentrations (0.25, 0.5, and 1% wt with respect to polymer content). The addition of GO to hydrogel inks enhanced not only the compressive modulus but also the printability and scaffold fidelity compared to the pure colloid-gelatin/pectin system. Due to its strong potential for 3D bioprinting, the sample containing 0.5% GO is shown to have the greatest perspectives for bone tissue models and tissue engineering applications.
  4. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2023 Aug 17. pii: szad046. [Epub ahead of print]
      Whole organ tissue engineering encompasses a variety of approaches, including 3D printed tissues, cell-based self-assembly, and cellular incorporation into synthetic or xenogeneic extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds. This review article addresses the importance of whole organ tissue engineering for various solid organ applications, focusing on the use of extracellular (ECM) matrix scaffolds in such engineering endeavors. In this work, we focus on the emerging barriers to translation of ECM scaffold-based tissue-engineered organs and highlight potential solutions to overcome the primary challenges in the field. The 3 main factors that are essential for developing ECM scaffold-based whole organs are (1) recapitulation of a functional vascular tree, (2) delivery and orientation of cells into parenchymal void spaces left vacant in the scaffold during the antigen elimination and associated cellular removal processes, and (3) driving differentiation of delivered cells toward the appropriate site-specific lineage. The insights discussed in this review will allow the potential of allogeneic or xenogeneic ECM scaffolds to be fully maximized for future whole organ tissue-engineering efforts.
    Keywords:  extracellular matrix; scaffold; tissue engineered; tissue engineering; vascular
  5. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2023 Aug 18.
      The use of 'smart materials,' or 'stimulus-responsive' materials, has proven useful in a variety of fields, including tissue engineering and medication delivery. Many factors, including temperature, pH, redox-state, light, and magnetic fields, are being studied for their potential to affect a material's properties, interactions, structure, and/or dimensions. New tissue engineering and drug delivery methods are made possible by the ability of living systems to respond to both external stimuli and their own internal signals (for example, materials composed of stimuli-responsive polymers that self-assemble or undergo phase transitions or morphology transformation. The researcher examines the potential of smart materials as controlled drug release vehicles in tissue engineering, aiming to enable the localized regeneration of injured tissue by delivering precisely dosed drugs at precisely timed intervals.
    Keywords:  Photothermal therapy; Stimuli responsive material; Tissue engineering; drug delivery; medicine.; sonodynamic treatment
  6. Front Pharmacol. 2023 ;14 1256907
    Keywords:  regenerative medicine; therapeutic grafts; tissue damage; tissue engineering; tissue repair
  7. Biochem Mol Biol Educ. 2023 Aug 16.
      Three dimensional (3D) design and printing are customizable and cost-effective approaches to developing small equipment and other items for use in various interdisciplinary applications. However, many pedagogical approaches to 3D printing focus more on the generation of artifacts than on the involvement of students as creators. Moreover, library makerspaces offer 3D printing services but cannot always engage the students with practical applications of their designs. We sought to determine if promoted use of 3D printing could be developed in biology laboratory trainees, ranging from undergraduate students to postdoctoral fellows. We combined two instructional workshops in the San Diego State University Library build IT makerspace, with two individual assignments to build items for the research laboratory. Evaluation of the course revealed that participants had expected the design and print processes to be of high complexity, but learned that the necessary skills could be acquired and applied in a relatively short period of time. Also, we found that trainees became proficient in 3D design and printing, and that a majority of individuals used 3D printing for subsequent applications. This effective translation of 3D printing to the research laboratory can be a paradigm for how 3D fabrication is taught. Moreover, this approach required the collaboration of library makerspace and research faculty, underlining the value of embedded librarianship in enhancing training and knowledge.
    Keywords:  3D printing; embedded librarianship; experiential learning
  8. Int J Biol Macromol. 2023 Aug 11. pii: S0141-8130(23)03183-5. [Epub ahead of print] 126287
      Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have gained significant attraction from both industrial and academic sectors, thanks to their biodegradability, non-toxicity, and renewability with remarkable mechanical characteristics. Desirable mechanical characteristics of CNCs include high stiffness, high strength, excellent flexibility, and large surface-to-volume ratio. Additionally, the mechanical properties of CNCs can be tailored through chemical modifications for high-end applications including tissue engineering, actuating, and biomedical. Modern manufacturing methods including 3D/4D printing are highly advantageous for developing sophisticated and intricate geometries. This review highlights the major developments of additive manufactured CNCs, which promote sustainable solutions across a wide range of applications. Additionally, this contribution also presents current challenges and future research directions of CNC-based composites developed through 3D/4D printing techniques for myriad engineering sectors including tissue engineering, wound healing, wearable electronics, robotics, and anti-counterfeiting applications. Overall, this review will greatly help research scientists from chemistry, materials, biomedicine, and other disciplines to comprehend the underlying principles, mechanical properties, and applications of additively manufactured CNC-based structures.
    Keywords:  3D/4D printing; Additive manufacturing; Cellulose nanocrystals; Nanocellulose; Sustainable materials
  9. ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2023 Aug 16.
      Novel tissue regeneration strategies are constantly being developed worldwide. Research on bone regeneration is noteworthy, as many promising new approaches have been documented with novel strategies currently under investigation. Innovative biomaterials that allow the coordinated and well-controlled repair of bone fractures and bone loss are being designed to reduce the need for autologous or allogeneic bone grafts eventually. The current engineering technologies permit the construction of synthetic, complex, biomimetic biomaterials with properties nearly as good as those of natural bone with good biocompatibility. To ensure that all these requirements meet, bioactive molecules are coupled to structural scaffolding constituents to form a final product with the desired physical, chemical, and biological properties. Bioactive molecules that have been used to promote bone regeneration include protein growth factors, peptides, amino acids, hormones, lipids, and flavonoids. Various strategies have been adapted to investigate the coupling of bioactive molecules with scaffolding materials to sustain activity and allow controlled release. The current manuscript is a thorough survey of the strategies that have been exploited for the delivery of biomolecules for bone regeneration purposes, from choosing the bioactive molecule to selecting the optimal strategy to synthesize the scaffold and assessing the advantages and disadvantages of various delivery strategies.
    Keywords:  bioactive materials; biomaterials; biomolecule delivery systems; biomolecules; bone healing; bone regeneration; composites; scaffolds
  10. Biomater Sci. 2023 Aug 17.
      The field of biomaterials has experienced substantial evolution in recent years, driven by advancements in materials science and engineering. This has led to an expansion of the biomaterials definition to include biocompatibility, bioactivity, bioderived materials, and biological tissues. Consequently, the intended performance of biomaterials has shifted from a passive role wherein a biomaterial is merely accepted by the body to an active role wherein a biomaterial instructs its biological environment. In the future, the integration of bioinspired designs and dynamic behavior into fabrication technologies will revolutionize the field of biomaterials. This perspective presents the recent advances in the evolution of biomaterials in fabrication technologies and provides a brief insight into smart biomaterials.
  11. Cell Rep Med. 2023 Aug 15. pii: S2666-3791(23)00309-9. [Epub ahead of print]4(8): 101156
      We describe a general approach to produce bone and cartilaginous structures utilizing the self-regenerative capacity of the intercostal rib space to treat a deformed metacarpophalangeal joint and microtia. Anatomically precise 3D molds were positioned on the perichondro-periosteal or perichondral flap of the intercostal rib without any other exogenous elements. We find anatomically precise metacarpal head and auricle constructs within the implanted molds after 6 months. The regenerated metacarpal head was used successfully to surgically repair the deformed metacarpophalangeal joint. Auricle reconstructive surgery in five unilateral microtia patients yielded good aesthetic and functional results. Long-term follow-up revealed the auricle constructs were safe and stable. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis reveal early infiltration of a cell population consistent with mesenchymal stem cells, followed by IL-8-stimulated differentiation into chondrocytes. Our results demonstrate the repair and regeneration of tissues using only endogenous factors and a viable treatment strategy for bone and tissue structural defects.
    Keywords:  auricular reconstruction; cartilage regeneration; endogenous stem cells; joint reconstruction; regeneration medicine; tissue regeneration