bims-bac4me Biomed News
on Microbiome and trained immunity
Issue of 2023‒04‒30
nineteen papers selected by
Chun-Chi Chang
University Hospital Zurich

  1. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2023 ;13 1052020
      Mycoplasma pneumoniae, as one of the most common pathogens, usually causes upper respiratory tract infections and pneumonia in humans and animals. It accounts for 10% to 40% of community-acquired pneumonia in children. The alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) are the first barrier against pathogen infections, triggering innate immune responses by recruiting and activating immune cells when pathogens invade into the lung. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the most plentiful innate immune cells in the lung, and are the first to initiate immune responses with pathogens invasion. The cross-talk between the alveolar epithelium and macrophages is necessary to maintain physiological homeostasis and to eradicate invaded pathogen by regulating immune responses during Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. This review summarizes the communications between alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells during Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, including cytokines-medicated communications, signal transduction by extracellular vesicles, surfactant associated proteins-medicated signal transmission and establishment of intercellular gap junction channels.
    Keywords:  Mycoplasma pneumoniae; alveolar macrophages; cytokines; epithelial cells; extracellular vesicles
  2. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1128358
      Inflammasomes are supramolecular platforms that organize in response to various damage-associated molecular patterns and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Upon activation, inflammasome sensors (with or without the help of ASC) activate caspase-1 and other inflammatory caspases that cleave gasdermin D and pro-IL-1β/pro-IL-18, leading to pyroptosis and mature cytokine secretion. Pyroptosis enables intracellular pathogen niche disruption and intracellular content release at the cost of cell death, inducing pro-inflammatory responses in the neighboring cells. IL-1β is a potent pro-inflammatory regulator for neutrophil recruitment, macrophage activation, and T-cell expansion. Thus, pyroptosis and cytokine secretion are the two main mechanisms that occur downstream of inflammasome signaling; they maintain homeostasis, drive the innate immune response, and shape adaptive immunity. This review aims to discuss the possible mechanisms, timing, consequences, and significance of the two uncoupling preferences downstream of inflammasome signaling. While pyroptosis and cytokine secretion may be usually coupled, pyroptosis-predominant and cytokine-predominant uncoupling are also observed in a stimulus-, cell type-, or context-dependent manner, contributing to the pathogenesis and development of numerous pathological conditions such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, LPS-induced sepsis, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Hyperactive cells consistently release IL-1β without LDH leakage and pyroptotic death, thereby leading to prolonged inflammation, expanding the lifespans of pyroptosis-resistant neutrophils, and hyperactivating stimuli-challenged macrophages, dendritic cells, monocytes, and specific nonimmune cells. Death inflammasome activation also induces GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis with no IL-1β secretion, which may increase lethality in vivo. The sublytic GSDMD pore formation associated with lower expressions of pyroptotic components, GSDMD-mediated extracellular vesicles, or other GSDMD-independent pathways that involve unconventional secretion could contribute to the cytokine-predominant uncoupling; the regulation of caspase-1 dynamics, which may generate various active species with different activities in terms of GSDMD or pro-IL-1β, could lead to pyroptosis-predominant uncoupling. These uncoupling preferences enable precise reactions to different stimuli of different intensities under specific conditions at the single-cell level, promoting cooperative cell and host fate decisions and participating in the pathogen "game". Appropriate decisions in terms of coupling and uncoupling are required to heal tissues and eliminate threats, and further studies exploring the inflammasome tilt toward pyroptosis or cytokine secretion may be helpful.
    Keywords:  ASC; caspase-1; death inflammasome; hyperactivation; inflammasome; inflammation; interleukin-1β; pyroptosis
  3. Cell Host Microbe. 2023 Apr 20. pii: S1931-3128(23)00148-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      Treating and preventing infections by antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens is a worldwide problem. Pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus produce an array of virulence determinants, making it difficult to identify single targets for the development of vaccines or monoclonal therapies. We described a human-derived anti-S. aureus monoclonal antibody (mAb)-centyrin fusion protein ("mAbtyrin") that simultaneously targets multiple bacterial adhesins, resists proteolysis by bacterial protease GluV8, avoids Fc engagement by S. aureus IgG-binding proteins SpA and Sbi, and neutralizes pore-forming leukocidins via fusion with anti-toxin centyrins, while maintaining Fc- and complement-mediated functions. Compared with the parental mAb, mAbtyrin protected human phagocytes and boosted phagocyte-mediated killing. The mAbtyrin also reduced pathology, reduced bacterial burden, and protected from different types of infections in preclinical animal models. Finally, mAbtyrin synergized with vancomycin, enhancing pathogen clearance in an animal model of bacteremia. Altogether, these data establish the potential of multivalent mAbs for treating and preventing S. aureus diseases.
    Keywords:  AMR; MRSA; antimicrobial resistance; biologics; centyrins; infection; mAbtyrins; monoclonal antibodies; pathogenesis; toxins
  4. Pharmaceutics. 2023 Apr 12. pii: 1224. [Epub ahead of print]15(4):
      (1) Background alteration of the skin microbiota, dysbiosis, causes skin barrier impairment resulting in disease development. Staphylococcus aureus, the main pathogen associated with dysbiosis, secretes several virulence factors, including α-toxin that damages tight junctions and compromises the integrity of the skin barrier. The use of members of the resident microbiota to restore the skin barrier, bacteriotherapy, represents a safe treatment for skin conditions among innovative options. The aim of this study is the evaluation of a wall fragment derived from a patented strain of Cutibacterium acnes DSM28251 (c40) alone and conjugated to a mucopolysaccharide carrier (HAc40) in counteracting S. aureus pathogenic action on two tight junction proteins (Claudin-1 and ZO-1) in an ex vivo porcine skin infection model. Methods: skin biopsies were infected with live S. aureus strains ATCC29213 and DSM20491. Tissue was pre-incubated or co-incubated with c40 and HAc40. (3) Results: c40 and HAc40 prevent and counteract Claudin-1 and Zo-1 damage (4) Conclusions: c40 and the functional ingredient HAc40 represent a potential non-pharmacological treatment of skin diseases associated with cutaneous dysbiosis of S. aureus. These findings offer numerous avenues for new research.
    Keywords:  Cutibacterium acnes; Staphylococcus aureus; bacteriotherapy; cutaneous diseases; skin dysbiosis
  5. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2023 Apr 21. pii: S1053-2498(23)01825-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA) is associated with increased BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) inflammation and lung allograft injury in lung transplant recipients (LTR). However, the effect of PsA on macrophage responses in this population is incompletely understood. We examined human alveolar macrophage (AMΦ) responses to PsA and Pseudomonas dominant microbiome in healthy LTR.METHODS: We stimulated THP-1 derived macrophages (THP-1MΦ) and human AMΦ from LTR with different bacteria and LTR BAL derived microbiome characterized as Pseudomonas-dominant. Macrophage responses were assessed by high dimensional flow cytometry, including their intracellular production of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-1RA, and TGF-β). Pharmacological inhibitors were utilized to evaluate the role of the inflammasome in PsA-macrophage interaction.
    RESULTS: We observed upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β) following stimulation by PsA compared to other bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus (S.Aur), Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus pneumoniae) in both THP-1MΦ and LTR AMΦ, predominated by IL-1β. IL-1β production from THP-1MΦ was sustained after PsA stimulation for up to 96 hours and 48 hours in LTR AMΦ. Treatment with the inflammasome inhibitor BAY11-7082 abrogated THP-1MΦ IL-1β production after PsA exposure. BAL Pseudomonas-dominant microbiota elicited an increased IL-1β, similar to PsA, an effect abrogated by the addition of antibiotics.
    CONCLUSION: PsA and PsA-dominant lung microbiota induce sustained IL-1β production in LTR AMΦ. Pharmacological targeting of the inflammasome reduces PsA-macrophage-IL-1β responses, underscoring their use in lung transplant recipients.
    Keywords:  Lung Allograft Injury; Lung Transplant; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; macrophage; microbiome
  6. Cell. 2023 Apr 24. pii: S0092-8674(23)00328-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      Pathogen infection and tissue injury are universal insults that disrupt homeostasis. Innate immunity senses microbial infections and induces cytokines/chemokines to activate resistance mechanisms. Here, we show that, in contrast to most pathogen-induced cytokines, interleukin-24 (IL-24) is predominately induced by barrier epithelial progenitors after tissue injury and is independent of microbiome or adaptive immunity. Moreover, Il24 ablation in mice impedes not only epidermal proliferation and re-epithelialization but also capillary and fibroblast regeneration within the dermal wound bed. Conversely, ectopic IL-24 induction in the homeostatic epidermis triggers global epithelial-mesenchymal tissue repair responses. Mechanistically, Il24 expression depends upon both epithelial IL24-receptor/STAT3 signaling and hypoxia-stabilized HIF1α, which converge following injury to trigger autocrine and paracrine signaling involving IL-24-mediated receptor signaling and metabolic regulation. Thus, parallel to innate immune sensing of pathogens to resolve infections, epithelial stem cells sense injury signals to orchestrate IL-24-mediated tissue repair.
    Keywords:  STAT3; angiogenesis; coordinated tissue repair; epithelial stem cells; hypoxia; innate immune signaling; interferons; interleukin-24; microbiome-independent responses; tissue injury
  7. Development. 2023 Apr 15. pii: dev201510. [Epub ahead of print]150(8):
      The cells of the innate immune system are the sentinels of tissue homeostasis, acting as 'first responders' to cellular damage and infection. Although the complex interplay of different immune cells during the initial inflammatory phases of infection and repair has been documented over many decades, recent studies have begun to define a more direct role for specific immune cells in the modulation of tissue repair. One particular cell of the innate immune system, the macrophage, has emerged as a central integrator of the complex molecular processes that drive tissue repair and, in some cases, the development of specific cell types. Although macrophages display directed orchestration of stem cell activities, bidirectional cellular crosstalk mechanisms allow stem cells to regulate macrophage behaviour within their niche, thus increasing the complexity of niche regulation and control. In this Review, we characterize the roles of macrophage subtypes in individual regenerative and developmental processes and illustrate the surprisingly direct role for immune cells in coordinating stem cell formation and activation.
    Keywords:  Immune crosstalk; Macrophage; Niche; Stem cell development; Stem cells; Tissue regeneration
  8. Inflammopharmacology. 2023 Apr 27.
      Chronic pain is not only one of the most common health problems, it is often challenging to treat adequately. Chronic pain has a high prevalence globally, affecting approximately 20% of the adult population. Chronic inflammatory pain and neuropathic (nerve) pain conditions are areas of large unmet medical need because analgesic/adjuvant agents recommended for alleviation of these types of chronic pain often lack efficacy and/or they produce dose-limiting side effects. Recent work has implicated the NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3) inflammasome in the pathobiology of chronic pain, especially neuropathic and inflammatory pain conditions. NLRP3 is activated by damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This in turn leads to recruitment and activation of caspase-1 an enzyme that cleaves the inactive IL-1β and IL-18 precursors to their respective mature pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-18) for release into the cellular milieu. Caspase-1 also cleaves the pyroptosis-inducing factor, gasdermin D, that leads to oligomerization of its N-terminal fragment to form pores in the host cell membrane. This then results in cellular swelling, lysis and release of cytoplasmic contents in an inflammatory form of cell death, termed pyroptosis. The ultimate outcome may lead to the development of neuropathic pain and/or chronic inflammatory pain. In this review, we address a role for NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the pathogenesis of various chronic pain conditions.
    Keywords:  Chronic pain; IL-18; IL-1β; Inflammatory pain; NLRP3 inflammasome; Neuropathic pain
  9. Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Apr 07. pii: 6901. [Epub ahead of print]24(8):
      The human body is a superorganism that harbors trillions of microbes, most of which inhabit the gut. To colonize our bodies, these microbes have evolved strategies to regulate the immune system and maintain intestinal immune homeostasis by secreting chemical mediators. There is much interest in deciphering these chemicals and furthering their development as novel therapeutics. In this work, we present a combined experimental and computational approach to identifying functional immunomodulatory molecules from the gut microbiome. Based on this approach, we report the discovery of lactomodulin, a unique peptide from Lactobacillus rhamnosus that exhibits dual anti-inflammatory and antibiotic activities and minimal cytotoxicity in human cell lines. Lactomodulin reduces several secreted proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α. As an antibiotic, lactomodulin is effective against a range of human pathogens, and is most potent against antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE). The multifunctional activity of lactomodulin affirms that the microbiome encodes evolved functional molecules with promising therapeutic potential.
    Keywords:  Lactobacillus; anti-inflammatory; antibiotics; immunomodulatory; microbiome
  10. Pathogens. 2023 Mar 27. pii: 518. [Epub ahead of print]12(4):
      Inborn errors of immunity (IEI) can present with infections, autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, granulomas, and malignancy. IEIs are due to genetic abnormalities that disrupt normal host-immune response or immune regulation. The microbiome appears essential for maintaining host immunity, especially in patients with a defective immune system. Altered gut microbiota in patients with IEI can lead to clinical symptoms. Microbial dysbiosis is the consequence of an increase in pro-inflammatory bacteria or a reduction in anti-inflammatory bacteria. However, functional and compositional differences in microbiota are also involved. Dysbiosis and a reduced alpha-diversity are well documented, particularly in conditions like common variable immunodeficiency. Deranged microbiota is also seen in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, severe combined immunodeficiency, chronic granulomatous disease, selective immunoglobulin-A deficiency, Hyper IgE syndrome (HIGES), X-linked lymphoproliferative disease-2, immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, x-linked syndrome, and defects of IL10 signalling. Distinct gastrointestinal, respiratory, and cutaneous symptoms linked to dysbiosis are seen in several IEIs, emphasizing the importance of microbiome identification. In this study, we discuss the processes that maintain immunological homeostasis between commensals and the host and the disruptions thereof in patients with IEIs. As the connection between microbiota, host immunity, and infectious illnesses is better understood, microbiota manipulation as a treatment strategy or infection prevention method would be more readily employed. Therefore, optimal prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, and fecal microbial transplantation can be promising strategies to restore the microbiota and decrease disease pathology in patients with IEIs.
    Keywords:  PIDs; dysbiosis; inborn errors of immunity; microbes; primary immunodeficiency diseases
  11. JCI Insight. 2023 Apr 24. pii: e160978. [Epub ahead of print]8(8):
      The main cause of malignancy-related mortality is metastasis. Although metastatic progression is driven by diverse tumor-intrinsic mechanisms, there is a growing appreciation for the contribution of tumor-extrinsic elements of the tumor microenvironment, especially macrophages, which correlate with poor clinical outcomes. Macrophages consist of bone marrow-derived and tissue-resident populations. In contrast to bone marrow-derived macrophages, the transcriptional pathways that govern the pro-metastatic activities of tissue-resident macrophages (TRMs) remain less clear. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are a TRM population with critical roles in tissue homeostasis and metastasis. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a hallmark of cancer and has been identified as a pathologic regulator of AMs in infection. We tested the hypothesis that β-catenin expression in AMs enhances metastasis in solid tumor models. Using a genetic β-catenin gain-of-function approach, we demonstrated that (a) enhanced β-catenin in AMs heightened lung metastasis; (b) β-catenin activity in AMs drove a dysregulated inflammatory program strongly associated with Tnf expression; and (c) localized TNF-α blockade abrogated this metastatic outcome. Last, β-catenin gene CTNNB1 and TNF expression levels were positively correlated in AMs of patients with lung cancer. Overall, our findings revealed a Wnt/β-catenin/TNF-α pro-metastatic axis in AMs with potential therapeutic implications against tumors refractory to the antineoplastic actions of TNF-α.
    Keywords:  Breast cancer; Macrophages; Mouse models; Oncology
  12. iScience. 2023 May 19. 26(5): 106653
      Severe bacterial pneumonia leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with a high incidence rate and mortality. It is well-known that continuous and dysregulated macrophage activation is vital for aggravating the progression of pneumonia. Here, we designed and produced an antibody-like molecule, peptidoglycan recognition protein 1-mIgG2a-Fc (PGLYRP1-Fc). PGLYRP1 was fused to the Fc region of mouse IgG2a with high binding to macrophages. We demonstrated that PGLYRP1-Fc ameliorated lung injury and inflammation in ARDS, without affecting bacterial clearance. Besides, PGLYRP1-Fc reduced AKT/nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation via the Fc segment bound Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-dependent mechanism, making macrophage unresponsive, and immediately suppressed proinflammatory response upon bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulus in turn. These results confirm that PGLYRP1-Fc protects against ARDS by promoting host tolerance with reduced inflammatory response and tissue damage, irrespective of the host's pathogen burden, and provide a promising therapeutic strategy for bacterial infection.
    Keywords:  Biochemistry; Immunology; Molecular biology
  13. Innate Immun. 2023 Apr 24. 17534259231162192
      The skin is the first line of defense to cutaneous microbes and viruses, and epidermal keratinocytes play a critical role in preventing infection by viruses and pathogens through activation of the type I interferon (IFN) response. Using RNAseq analysis, here we report that the conditional deletion of C/EBPβ transcription factor in mouse epidermis (CKOβ mice) resulted in the upregulation of IFNβ and numerous keratinocyte interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). The expression of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (cPRRs), that recognize viral RNA and DNA, were significantly increased, and enriched in the RNAseq data set. cPRRs stimulate a type I IFN response that can trigger cell death to eliminate infected cells. To determine if the observed increases in cPRRs had functional consequences, we transfected CKOβ primary keratinocytes with the pathogen and viral mimics poly(I:C) (dsRNA) or poly(dA:dT) (synthetic B-DNA) that directly activate PRRs. Transfected CKOβ primary keratinocytes displayed an amplified type I IFN response which was accompanied by increased activation of IRF3, enhanced ISG expression, enhanced activation of caspase-8, caspase-3 and increased apoptosis. Our results identify C/EBPβ as a critical repressor of the keratinocyte type I IFN response, and demonstrates that the loss of C/EBPβ primes keratinocytes to the activation of cytosolic PRRs by pathogen RNA and DNA to induce cell death mediated by caspase-8 and caspase-3.
    Keywords:  C/EBPβ; cell death; keratinocytes; type I IFN response
  14. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1162004
      Upon migrating into the tissues, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-derived monocytes differentiate into macrophages, playing a crucial role in determining innate immune responses towards external pathogens and internal stimuli. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation remain largely unexplored. Here we divulge a previously uncharacterized but essential role for an axon guidance molecule, fibronectin leucine-rich transmembrane protein 2 (FLRT2), in monocyte-to-macrophage maturation. FLRT2 is almost undetectable in human monocytic cell lines, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and mouse primary monocytes but significantly increases in fully differentiated macrophages. Myeloid-specific deletion of FLRT2 (Flrt2ΔMyel ) contributes to decreased peritoneal monocyte-to-macrophage generation in mice in vivo, accompanied by impaired macrophage functions. Gain- and loss-of-function studies support the promoting effect of FLRT2 on THP-1 cell and human PBMC differentiation into macrophages. Mechanistically, FLRT2 directly interacts with Unc-5 netrin receptor B (UNC5B) via its extracellular domain (ECD) and activates Akt/mTOR signaling. In vivo administration of mTOR agonist MYH1485 reverses the impaired phenotypes observed in Flrt2ΔMyel mice. Together, these results identify FLRT2 as a novel pivotal endogenous regulator of monocyte differentiation into macrophages. Targeting the FLRT2/UNC5B-Akt/mTOR axis may provide potential therapeutic strategies directly relevant to human diseases associated with aberrant monocyte/macrophage differentiation.
    Keywords:  FLRT2; MTOR signaling; UNC5B; differentiation; macrophage; monocyte
  15. Redox Biol. 2023 Apr 23. pii: S2213-2317(23)00110-6. [Epub ahead of print]62 102709
      Although metabolic reprogramming during the differentiation of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) has been extensively studied, the molecular switch to alter energy metabolism remains undefined. The present study explores the critical role of mitochondrial dynamics in the reprogramming and consequent generation of Treg cells. The results showed that during Treg cell differentiation, mitochondrial fusion but not fission led to elevation of oxygen consumption rate values, facilitation of metabolic reprogramming, and increase of number of Treg cells and expression of Foxp3 in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, mitochondrial fusion favored fatty acid oxidation but restricted glycolysis in Treg cells through down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) played a crucial role in the induction of mitochondrial fusion, which activated Smad2/3, promoted the expression of PGC-1α and therefore facilitated the expression of mitochondrial fusion proteins. In conclusion, during Treg cell differentiation, TGF-β1 promotes PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial fusion, which drives metabolic reprogramming from glycolysis to fatty acid oxidation via suppressing HIF-1α expression, and therefore favors the generation of Treg cells. The signals and proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion are potential therapeutic targets for Treg cell-related diseases.
    Keywords:  Differentiation; Metabolic reprogramming; Mitochondrial fusion; TGF-β1; Treg cells
  16. Bio Protoc. 2023 Apr 20. 13(8): e4657
      A robust in vitro model of the human respiratory epithelium, including the alveolar and the airway epithelium, is essential for understanding the biology and pathology of the human respiratory system. We previously described a protocol to derive human lung organoids from primary lung tissues. We now describe a protocol to induce bidirectional differentiation to generate mature alveolar or airway organoids. The lung organoids are consecutively expanded for over one year with high stability, while the differentiated alveolar and airway organoids morphologically and functionally simulate the human alveolar and airway epithelium to a near-physiological level. Thus, we establish a robust organoid culture system of the entire human respiratory epithelium, the first two-phase bipotential organoid culture system that enables long-term expansion and bidirectional differentiation of respiratory epithelial cells. The long-term expandable lung organoids and differentiated organoids generate a stable and renewable source of respiratory epithelial cells, enabling scientists to reconstruct and expand the human respiratory epithelium in culture dishes. The respiratory organoid system provides a unique and physiologically active in vitro model of the human respiratory epithelium for various applications, including studying respiratory viral infection, disease modeling, drug screening, and pre-clinical testing. Graphical abstract.
    Keywords:  Airway organoids; Alveolar organoids; Distal differentiation; Long-term expansion; Lung organoids; Proximal differentiation
  17. Methods Mol Biol. 2023 ;2654 477-492
      Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) are commonly used as a research tool to investigate interactions between antigen-presenting cells and T cells. Generation of these cells involves the isolation of CD14 positive monocytes from peripheral blood and their in vitro differentiation into immature moDC by the cytokines GM-CSF and IL-4. Their functional characteristics can then be manipulated by maturing these cells with a cocktail of agents, which can be tailored to induce either immune activating or tolerogenic properties. Here, we describe a protocol for the generation of moDC with stable tolerogenic function, referred to as tolerogenic dendritic cells. These cells have been developed as an immunotherapeutic tool for the treatment of autoimmune disease but have also proven useful to dissect mechanisms of T cell tolerance induction in vitro.
    Keywords:  1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3; Dendritic cells; Dexamethasone; Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor; Human; Interleukin-4; Monocytes; Peripheral blood mononuclear cells; Tolerogenic dendritic cells; Toll-like receptor 4 ligand