bims-apauto Biomed News
on Apoptosis and autophagy
Issue of 2022‒11‒20
five papers selected by
Su Hyun Lee
Seoul National University

  1. Cell Death Differ. 2022 Nov 14.
      Apoptosis is a regulated cellular pathway that ensures that a cell dies in a structured fashion to prevent negative consequences for the tissue or the organism. Dysfunctional apoptosis is a hallmark of numerous pathologies, and treatments for various diseases are successful based on the induction of apoptosis. Under homeostatic conditions, apoptosis is a non-inflammatory event, as the activation of caspases ensures that inflammatory pathways are disabled. However, there is an increasing understanding that under specific conditions, such as caspase inhibition, apoptosis and the apoptotic machinery can be re-wired into a process which is inflammatory. In this review we discuss how the death receptor and mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis can activate inflammation. Furthermore, we will highlight how cell death due to mitotic stress might be a special case when it comes to cell death and the induction of inflammation.
  2. Cell Death Dis. 2022 Nov 18. 13(11): 973
      Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most aggressive and lethal forms of skin cancer. Some specific driver mutations have been described in multiple oncogenes including BRAF and NRAS that are mutated in 60-70% and 15-20% of melanoma, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Small Heat Shock Protein B8 (HSPB8) on cell growth and migration of both BLM (BRAFwt/NRASQ61R) and A375 (BRAFV600E/NRASwt) human melanoma cell lines. HSPB8 is a member of the HSPB family of chaperones involved in protein quality control (PQC) system and contributes to chaperone assisted selective autophagy (CASA) as well as in the regulation of mitotic spindle. In cancer, HSPB8 has anti- or pro-tumoral action depending on tumor type. In melanoma cell lines characterized by low HSPB8 levels, we demonstrated that the restoration of HSPB8 expression causes cell growth arrest, reversion of EMT (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition)-like phenotype switching and antimigratory effect, independently from the cell mutational status. We demonstrated that HSPB8 regulates the levels of the active prenylated form of NRAS in NRAS-mutant and NRAS-wild-type melanoma cell lines. Consequently, the inhibition of NRAS impairs the activation of Akt/mTOR pathway inducing autophagy activation. Autophagy can play a dual role in regulating cell death and survival. We have therefore demonstrated that HSPB8-induced autophagy is a crucial event that counteracts cell growth in melanoma. Collectively, our results suggest that HSPB8 has an antitumoral action in melanoma cells characterized by BRAF and NRAS mutations.
  3. Autophagy. 2022 Nov 16.
      In recent years, an increasing number of studies have started to investigate the roles of ions and ion channels in macroautophagy/autophagy. One finding is that calcium regulates multiple stages of autophagy with lysosomal calcium release being important for autophagosome and lysosome fusion. MCOLN3/TRPML3, as a calcium-permeable channel that is located on both lysosomes and autophagosomes, has been suggested as an autophagy regulator and a candidate to provide the calcium for autophagic fusion, but how this channel is activated remains unclear. In a recent article, Kim et al. demonstrate that MCOLN3 is a PtdIns3P downstream effector, and the activation of its channel function is critical for autophagosome biogenesis.
    Keywords:  Autophagosome; MCOLN3/TRPML3; PtdIns3P; calcium; fusion
  4. Autophagy. 2022 Nov 17.
      The functions of mammalian Atg8 proteins (mATG8s) expand beyond canonical autophagy and include processes collectively referred to as Atg8ylation. Global modulation of protein synthesis under stress conditions is governed by MTOR and liquid-liquid phase separated condensates containing ribonucleoprotein particles known as stress granules (SGs). We report that lysosomal damage induces SGs acting as a hitherto unappreciated inhibitor of protein translation via EIF2A/eIF2α phosphorylation while favoring an ATF4-dependent integrated stress response. SGs are induced by lysosome-damaging agents, SARS-CoV-2 open reading frame 3a protein (ORF3a) expression, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and exposure to proteopathic MAPT/tau. Proteomic studies revealed recruitment to damaged lysosomes of the core SG proteins NUFIP2 and G3BP1 along with the GABARAPs of the mATG8 family. The recruitment of these proteins is independent of SG condensates or canonical autophagy. GABARAPs interact directly with NUFIP2 and G3BP1 whereas Atg8ylation is needed for their recruitment to damaged lysosomes. At the lysosome, NUFIP2 contributes to MTOR inactivation together with LGALS8 (galectin 8) via the Ragulator-RRAGA-RRAGB complex. The separable functions of NUFIP2 and G3BP1 in SG formation vis-a-vis their role in MTOR inactivation are governed by GABARAP and Atg8ylation. Thus, cells employ membrane Atg8ylation to control and coordinate SG and MTOR responses to lysosomal damage.
    Keywords:  Atg8ylation; MTOR; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; NUFIP2; PKR; SARS-CoV-2 ORF3a; integrated stress response; lysosomal damage; proteopathic tau; stress granules
  5. Apoptosis. 2022 Nov 18.
      It has been 10 years since the concept of ferroptosis was put forward and research focusing on ferroptosis has been increasing continuously. Ferroptosis is driven by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, which can be antagonized by glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), ferroptosis inhibitory protein 1 (FSP1), dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) and Fas-associated factor 1 (FAF1). Various cellular metabolic events, including lipid metabolism, can modulate ferroptosis sensitivity. It is worth noting that the reprogramming of lipid metabolism in cancer cells can promote the occurrence and development of tumors. The metabolic flexibility of cancer cells opens the possibility for the coordinated targeting of multiple lipid metabolic pathways to trigger cancer cells ferroptosis. In addition, cancer cells must obtain immortality, escape from programmed cell death including ferroptosis, to promote cancer progression, which provides new perspectives for improving cancer therapy. Targeting the vulnerability of ferroptosis has received attention as one of the significant possible strategies to treat cancer given its role in regulating tumor cell survival. We review the impact of iron and lipid metabolism on ferroptosis and the potential role of the crosstalk of lipid metabolism reprogramming and ferroptosis in antitumor immunity and sum up agents targeting lipid metabolism and ferroptosis for cancer therapy.
    Keywords:  Anti-tumor immunity; Ferroptosis; Ferroptotic cancer therapy; Lipid metabolism