bims-apauto Biomed News
on Apoptosis and autophagy
Issue of 2022‒11‒06
three papers selected by
Su Hyun Lee
Seoul National University

  1. IUBMB Life. 2022 Nov 04.
      When p62/Sequestosome-1 binds to a ubiquitinated protein, it undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation and forms a membraneless organelle, p62 body. There are two major physiological functions of the p62 body. One is effective autophagic degradation of ubiquitinated proteins and the other is antioxidant stress response, both of which contribute to cellular homeostasis. In this review, I review the history of p62 research in relation to autophagy and outline the formation, degradation, and physiological functions of the p62 body. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  KEAP1; NRF2; autophagy; p62; phase separation
  2. Autophagy. 2022 Oct 30. 1-12
      TERF2/TRF2 is a pleiotropic telomeric protein that plays a crucial role in tumor formation and progression through several telomere-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Here, we uncovered a novel function for this protein in regulating the macroautophagic/autophagic process upon different stimuli. By using both biochemical and cell biology approaches, we found that TERF2 binds to the non-histone chromatin-associated protein HMGB1, and this interaction is functional to the nuclear/cytoplasmic protein localization. Specifically, silencing of TERF2 alters the redox status of the cells, further exacerbated upon EBSS nutrient starvation, promoting the cytosolic translocation and the autophagic activity of HMGB1. Conversely, overexpression of wild-type TERF2, but not the mutant unable to bind HMGB1, negatively affects the cytosolic translocation of HMGB1, counteracting the stimulatory effect of EBSS starvation. Moreover, genetic depletion of HMGB1 or treatment with inflachromene, a specific inhibitor of its cytosolic translocation, completely abolished the pro-autophagic activity of TERF2 silencing. In conclusion, our data highlighted a novel mechanism through which TERF2 modulates the autophagic process, thus demonstrating the key role of the telomeric protein in regulating a process that is fundamental, under both physiological and pathological conditions, in defining the fate of the cells.Abbreviations: ALs: autolysosomes; ALT: alternative lengthening of telomeres; ATG: autophagy related; ATM: ATM serine/threonine kinase; CQ: Chloroquine; DCFDA: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate; DDR: DNA damage response; DHE: dihydroethidium; EBSS: Earle's balanced salt solution; FACS: fluorescence-activated cell sorting; GFP: green fluorescent protein; EGFP: enhanced green fluorescent protein; GSH: reduced glutathione; GSSG: oxidized glutathione; HMGB1: high mobility group box 1; ICM: inflachromene; IF: immunofluorescence; IP: immunoprecipitation; NAC: N-acetyl-L-cysteine; NHEJ: non-homologous end joining; PLA: proximity ligation assay; RFP: red fluorescent protein; ROS: reactive oxygen species; TIF: telomere-induced foci; TERF2/TRF2: telomeric repeat binding factor 2.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; HMGB1; ROS; TERF2/TRF2; cancer; cell biology; oxidative stress
  3. Autophagy. 2022 Oct 30. 1-14
      Much of our understanding of the intracellular regulation of macroautophagy/autophagy comes from in vitro studies. However, there remains a paucity of knowledge about how this process is regulated within different tissues during development, aging and disease in vivo. Because upregulation of autophagy is considered a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diverse disorders, it is vital that we understand how this pathway functions in different tissues and this is best done by in vivo analysis. Similarly, to understand the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of disease, it is important to study this process in the whole animal to investigate how tissue-specific changes in flux and cell-autonomous versus non-cell-autonomous effects alter disease progression. To this end, we have developed an inducible expression system to up- or downregulate autophagy in vivo, in zebrafish. We have used a modified version of the Gal4-UAS expression system to allow inducible expression of autophagy up- or downregulating transgenes by addition of tamoxifen. Using this inducible expression system, we have tested which transgenes robustly up- or downregulate autophagy and have validated these tools using Lc3-II blots and puncta analysis and disease rescue in a zebrafish model of neurodegeneration. These tools allow the temporal control of autophagy via the administration of tamoxifen and spatial control via tissue or cell-specific ERT2-Gal4 driver lines and will enable the investigation of how cell- or tissue-specific changes in autophagic flux affect processes such as aging, inflammation and neurodegeneration in vivo.Abbreviations: ANOVA: analysis of variance; Atg: autophagy related; Bcl2l11/Bim: BCL2 like 11; d.p.f.: days post-fertilization; Cryaa: crystallin, alpha a: DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide; Elavl3: ELAV like neuron-specific RNA binding protein 3; ER: estrogen receptor; ERT2: modified ligand-binding domain of human ESR1/estrogen receptor α; Gal4: galactose-responsive transcription factor 4; GFP: green fluorescent protein; h.p.f.: hours post-fertilization; HSP: heat-shock protein; Map1lc3/Lc3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; RFP: red fluorescent protein; SD: standard deviation; SEM: standard error of the mean; UAS: upstream activating sequence; Ubb: ubiquitin b.
    Keywords:  ATG4B; ATG5; LC3-II; autophagy; neurodegeneration; tamoxifen; zebrafish