bims-apauto Biomed News
on Apoptosis and autophagy
Issue of 2022‒03‒06
ten papers selected by
Su Hyun Lee
Seoul National University

  1. Autophagy. 2022 Feb 28. 1-12
      Macroautophagy/autophagy is a tightly regulated catabolic process, which contributes at baseline level to cellular homeostasis, and upon its stimulation to the adaptive cellular response to intra- and extracellular stress stimuli. Decrease of autophagy activity is occurring upon aging and thought to contribute to age-related-diseases. Recently, we uncovered, upon autophagy induction, the role of de novo DNMT3A (DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha)-mediated DNA methylation on expression of the MAP1LC3 (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3) proteins, core components of the autophagy pathway, which resulted in reduced baseline autophagy activity. Here, we report that serine/threonine kinase ULK3 (unc-51 like kinase 3)-dependent activation of GLI1 (GLI family zinc finger 1) contributes to the transcriptional upregulation of DNMT3A gene expression upon autophagy induction, thereby bringing additional understanding of the long-term effect of autophagy induction and a possible mechanism for its decline upon aging, pathological conditions, or in response to treatment interventions.Abbreviations: CBZ: carbamazepine; ChIP: chromatin immunoprecipitation; Clon: clonidine; DNMT3A: DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha; GLI1: GLI family zinc finger 1; GLI2: GLI family zinc finger 2; MAP1LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; PLA: proximity ligation assay; RT-qPCR: quantitative reverse transcription PCR; shRNA: small hairpin RNA; siRNA: small interfering RNA; Treh: trehalose; ULK3: unc-51 like kinase 3.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; DNMT3A; GLI1; ULK3; transcription
  2. Autophagy. 2022 Feb 28. 1-14
      Chloroquine (CQ), a lysosomotropic agent, is commonly used to inhibit lysosomal degradation and macroautophagy/autophagy. Here we investigated the cell-extrinsic effects of CQ on secretion. We showed that lysosomal and autophagy inhibition by CQ altered the secretome, and induced the release of Atg8 orthologs and autophagy receptors. Atg8-family proteins, in particular, were secreted inside small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) in a lipidation-dependent manner. CQ treatment enhanced the release of Atg8-family proteins inside sEVs. Using full-length ATG16L1 and an ATG16L1 mutant that enables Atg8-family protein lipidation on double but not on single membranes, we demonstrated that LC3B is released in two distinct sEV populations: one enriched with SDCBP/Syntenin-1, CD63, and endosomal lipidated LC3B, and another that contains LC3B but is not enriched with SDCBP/Syntenin-1 or CD63, and which our data supports as originating from a double-membrane source. Our findings underscore the context-dependency of sEV heterogeneity and composition, and illustrate the integration of autophagy and sEV composition in response to lysosomal inhibition.Abbreviations: ACTB: actin beta; ANOVA: analysis of variance; ATG4B: autophagy related 4B cysteine peptidase; Atg8: autophagy related 8; ATG16L1: autophagy related 16 like 1; ATP5F1A/ATP5a: ATP synthase F1 subunit alpha; CALCOCO2: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CASP3: caspase 3; CASP7: caspase 7; CQ: chloroquine; CD9: CD9 molecule; CD63: CD63 molecule; DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; DQ-BSA: dye quenched-bovine serum albumin; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERN1/IRE1a: endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; EV: extracellular vesicles; FBS: fetal bovine serum; FDR: false discovery rate; GABARAP: GABA type A receptor-associated protein; GABARAPL2: GABA type A receptor associated protein like 2; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GFP: green fluorescent protein; GO: gene ontology; HCQ: hydroxychloroquine; HSP90AA1: heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1; IP: immunoprecipitation; KO: knockout; LAMP2: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2; LIR: LC3-interacting region; LMNA: lamin A/C; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MS: mass spectrometry; NBR1: NBR1 autophagy cargo receptor; NCOA4: nuclear receptor coactivator 4; NTA: nanoparticle tracking analysis; PE: phosphatidylethanolamine; PECA: probe-level expression change averaging; SDCBP/syntenin-1: syndecan binding protein; SD: standard deviation; SE: secreted; sEV: small extracellular vesicles; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TAX1BP1: Tax1 binding protein 1; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; TMT: tandem-mass tag; TSG101: tumor susceptibility 101; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; WC: whole cell.
    Keywords:  ATG16L1; Atg8; CD63; MAP1LC3B; SDCBP/syntenin-1; autophagy; chloroquine; endosome; extracellular vesicle; lysosome
  3. Autophagy. 2022 Feb 27. 1-2
      Macroautophagy/autophagy plays crucial roles in aging and the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. Studies in various animal models demonstrate the conserved requirement for autophagy-related genes in multiple anti-aging interventions. A recent study from the Shirasu-Hiza lab showed that a newly designed intermittent time-restricted feeding (iTRF) dietary regimen can robustly extend fly healthspan and lifespan through circadian rhythm-dependent activation of autophagy. The night-specific induction of autophagy is both necessary and sufficient for iTRF-mediated health benefits. The study provides the intriguing possibility that novel behavioral or pharmaceutical interventions that promote night-specific autophagy can be used to promote healthy aging.
    Keywords:  Aging; autophagy; circadian rhythm; lifespan; time-restricted feeding
  4. Nat Commun. 2022 Mar 04. 13(1): 1172
      Hypoxia is a physiological stress that frequently occurs in solid tissues. Autophagy, a ubiquitous degradation/recycling system in eukaryotic cells, renders cells tolerant to multiple stressors. However, the mechanisms underlying autophagy initiation upon hypoxia remains unclear. Here we show that protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) catalyzes symmetrical dimethylation of the autophagy initiation protein ULK1 at arginine 170 (R170me2s), a modification removed by lysine demethylase 5C (KDM5C). Despite unchanged PRMT5-mediated methylation, low oxygen levels decrease KDM5C activity and cause accumulation of ULK1 R170me2s. Dimethylation of ULK1 promotes autophosphorylation at T180, a prerequisite for ULK1 activation, subsequently causing phosphorylation of Atg13 and Beclin 1, autophagosome formation, mitochondrial clearance and reduced oxygen consumption. Further, expression of a ULK1 R170K mutant impaired cell proliferation under hypoxia. This study identifies an oxygen-sensitive methylation of ULK1 with an important role in hypoxic stress adaptation by promoting autophagy induction.
  5. Autophagy. 2022 Mar 01. 1-3
      Minimal residual disease (MRD) refers to a low number of cells that persist anti-cancer treatment and is the major cause of relapse in solid cancers and leukemias. In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a paradigm for stem cell-driven cancer, MRD is maintained by tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-insensitive leukemic stem cells (LSCs), which may rely on fundamental metabolic processes to resist drug treatment. Macroautophagy/autophagy is a cytoprotective process that has been highlighted as critical for sustaining LSC survival during TKI treatment in robust experimental models of CML. Our recent study shows that the autophagy-initiating kinase ULK1 is required for maintaining energy and redox balance in CML LSCs. Pharmacological inhibition of ULK1 results in stress-induced differentiation of LSCs, rendering them sensitive to TKI treatment, uncovering a promising strategy for selective eradication of LSCs in CML patients.Abbreviations CML: chronic myeloid leukemia; LSC: leukemic stem cell; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; MRD: minimal residual disease; TKI: tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; ULK1; cancer; drug resistance; leukemia; leukemic stem cells
  6. Nat Commun. 2022 Mar 01. 13(1): 1105
      Acute myeloid leukemia remains difficult to treat due to strong genetic heterogeneity between and within individual patients. Here, we show that Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) acts as a targetable determinant of different metabolic states in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). PDK1low AMLs are OXPHOS-driven, are enriched for leukemic granulocyte-monocyte progenitor (L-GMP) signatures, and are associated with FLT3-ITD and NPM1cyt mutations. PDK1high AMLs however are OXPHOSlow, wild type for FLT3 and NPM1, and are enriched for stemness signatures. Metabolic states can even differ between genetically distinct subclones within individual patients. Loss of PDK1 activity releases glycolytic cells into an OXPHOS state associated with increased ROS levels resulting in enhanced apoptosis in leukemic but not in healthy stem/progenitor cells. This coincides with an enhanced dependency on glutamine uptake and reduced proliferation in vitro and in vivo in humanized xenograft mouse models. We show that human leukemias display distinct metabolic states and adaptation mechanisms that can serve as targets for treatment.
  7. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2022 Mar 01. 79(3): 167
      The cellular defense mechanisms against cumulative endo-lysosomal stress remain incompletely understood. Here, we identify Ubr1 as a protein quality control (QC) E3 ubiquitin-ligase that counteracts proteostasis stresses by facilitating endosomal cargo-selective autophagy for lysosomal degradation. Astrocyte regulatory cluster membrane protein MLC1 mutations cause endosomal compartment stress by fusion and enlargement. Partial lysosomal clearance of mutant endosomal MLC1 is accomplished by the endosomal QC ubiquitin ligases, CHIP and Ubr1 via ESCRT-dependent route. As a consequence of the endosomal stress, a supportive QC mechanism, dependent on both Ubr1 and SQSTM1/p62 activities, targets ubiquitinated and arginylated MLC1 mutants for selective endosomal autophagy (endophagy). This QC pathway is also activated for arginylated Ubr1-SQSTM1/p62 autophagy cargoes during cytosolic Ca2+-assault. Conversely, the loss of Ubr1 and/or arginylation elicited endosomal compartment stress. These findings underscore the critical housekeeping role of Ubr1 and arginylation-dependent endophagy/autophagy during endo-lysosomal proteostasis perturbations and suggest a link of Ubr1 to Ca2+ homeostasis and proteins implicated in various diseases including cancers and brain disorders.
    Keywords:  Lysosome; Protein homeostasis network; Protein stability; Regeneration; Reprogramming; Stress response
  8. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022 ;10 811701
      Autophagy is pivotal in the maintenance of organelle function and intracellular nutrient balance. Besides the role of autophagy in the homeostasis and physiology of the individual tissues and whole organism in vivo, dysregulated autophagy has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases including metabolic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory or immunological disorders, cancer and aging. Search for autophagy modulators has been widely conducted to amend dysregulation of autophagy or pharmacologically modulate autophagy in those diseases. Current data support the view that autophagy modulation could be a new modality for treatment of metabolic syndrome associated with lipid overload, human-type diabetes characterized by deposition of islet amyloid or other diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, infection and cardiovascular diseases. While clinically available bona fide autophagy modulators have not been developed yet, it is expected that on-going investigation will lead to the development of authentic autophagy modulators that can be safely administered to patients in the near future and will open a new horizon for treatment of incurable or difficult diseases.
    Keywords:  autophagy; endoplasmic reticulum; lysosome; metabolic diseases; mitochondria; modulator
  9. Autophagy. 2022 Feb 27. 1-14
      Defective mitophagy contributes to normal aging and various neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. The newly developed methodologies to visualize and quantify mitophagy allow for additional progress in defining the pathophysiological significance of mitophagy in various model organisms. However, current knowledge regarding mitophagy relevant to human physiology is still limited. Model organisms such as mice might not be optimal models to recapitulate all the key aspects of human disease phenotypes. The development of the human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) may provide an exquisite approach to bridge the gap between animal mitophagy models and human physiology. To explore this premise, we take advantage of the pH-dependent fluorescent mitophagy reporter, mt-Keima, to assess mitophagy in hiPSCs and hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). We demonstrate that mt-Keima expression does not affect mitochondrial function or cardiomyocytes contractility. Comparison of hiPSCs and hiPSC-CMs during different stages of differentiation revealed significant variations in basal mitophagy. In addition, we have employed the mt-Keima hiPSC-CMs to analyze how mitophagy is altered under certain pathological conditions including treating the hiPSC-CMs with doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic drug well known to cause life-threatening cardiotoxicity, and hypoxia that stimulates ischemia injury. We have further developed a chemical screening to identify compounds that modulate mitophagy in hiPSC-CMs. The ability to assess mitophagy in hiPSC-CMs suggests that the mt-Keima hiPSCs should be a valuable resource in determining the role mitophagy plays in human physiology and hiPSC-based disease models. The mt-Keima hiPSCs could prove a tremendous asset in the search for pharmacological interventions that promote mitophagy as a therapeutic target.
    Keywords:  Cardiomyocytes; cardiomyopathy; induced pluripotent stem cells; mitochondrial; mitophagy; mt-Keima
  10. Genes Dis. 2022 Mar;9(2): 347-357
      The treatment of cancer mainly involves surgical excision supplemented by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drugs act by interfering with tumor growth and inducing the death of cancer cells. Anti-tumor drugs were developed to induce apoptosis, but some patient's show apoptosis escape and chemotherapy resistance. Therefore, other forms of cell death that can overcome the resistance of tumor cells are important in the context of cancer treatment. Ferroptosis is a newly discovered iron-dependent, non-apoptotic type of cell death that is highly negatively correlated with cancer development. Ferroptosis is mainly caused by the abnormal increase in iron-dependent lipid reactive oxygen species and the imbalance of redox homeostasis. This review summarizes the progression and regulatory mechanism of ferroptosis in cancer and discusses its possible clinical applications in cancer diagnosis and treatment.
    Keywords:  Cancer; Cancer therapy; Clinical application; Ferroptosis; Lipid peroxidation; Pathogenesis