bims-apauto Biomed News
on Apoptosis and autophagy
Issue of 2021‒05‒16
nine papers selected by
Su Hyun Lee
Seoul National University

  1. Cell Death Dis. 2021 May 13. 12(5): 481
      The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 (p27) has been involved in promoting autophagy and survival in conditions of metabolic stress. While the signaling cascade upstream of p27 leading to its cytoplasmic localization and autophagy induction has been extensively studied, how p27 stimulates the autophagic process remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which p27 promotes autophagy upon glucose deprivation. Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking p27 exhibit a decreased autophagy flux compared to wild-type cells and this is correlated with an abnormal distribution of autophagosomes. Indeed, while autophagosomes are mainly located in the perinuclear area in wild-type cells, they are distributed throughout the cytoplasm in p27-null MEFs. Autophagosome trafficking towards the perinuclear area, where most lysosomes reside, is critical for autophagosome-lysosome fusion and cargo degradation. Vesicle trafficking is mediated by motor proteins, themselves recruited preferentially to acetylated microtubules, and autophagy flux is directly correlated to microtubule acetylation levels. p27-/- MEFs exhibit a marked reduction in microtubule acetylation levels and restoring microtubule acetylation in these cells, either by re-expressing p27 or with deacetylase inhibitors, restores perinuclear positioning of autophagosomes and autophagy flux. Finally, we find that p27 promotes microtubule acetylation by binding to and stabilizing α-tubulin acetyltransferase (ATAT1) in glucose-deprived cells. ATAT1 knockdown results in random distribution of autophagosomes in p27+/+ MEFs and impaired autophagy flux, similar to that observed in p27-/- cells. Overall, in response to glucose starvation, p27 promotes autophagy by facilitating autophagosome trafficking along microtubule tracks by maintaining elevated microtubule acetylation via an ATAT1-dependent mechanism.
  2. Autophagy. 2021 May 08. 1-17
      CREG1 is a small glycoprotein which has been proposed as a transcription repressor, a secretory ligand, a lysosomal, or a mitochondrial protein. This is largely because of lack of antibodies for immunolocalization validated through gain- and loss-of-function studies. In the present study, we demonstrate, using antibodies validated for immunofluorescence microscopy, that CREG1 is mainly localized to the endosomal-lysosomal compartment. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses reveal an important role for CREG1 in both macropinocytosis and clathrin-dependent endocytosis. CREG1 also promotes acidification of the endosomal-lysosomal compartment and increases lysosomal biogenesis. Functionally, overexpression of CREG1 enhances macroautophagy/autophagy and lysosome-mediated degradation, whereas knockdown or knockout of CREG1 has opposite effects. The function of CREG1 in lysosomal biogenesis is likely attributable to enhanced endocytic trafficking. Our results demonstrate that CREG1 is an endosomal-lysosomal protein implicated in endocytic trafficking and lysosomal biogenesis.Abbreviations: AIFM1/AIF: apoptosis inducing factor mitochondria associated 1; AO: acridine orange; ATP6V1H: ATPase H+ transporting V1 subunit H; CALR: calreticulin; CREG: cellular repressor of E1A stimulated genes; CTSC: cathepsin C; CTSD: cathepsin D; EBAG9/RCAS1: estrogen receptor binding site associated antigen 9; EIPA: 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HEXA: hexosaminidase subunit alpha; IGF2R: insulin like growth factor 2 receptor; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; M6PR: mannose-6-phosphate receptor, cation dependent; MAPK1/ERK2: mitogen-activated protein kinase 1; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; PDIA2: protein disulfide isomerase family A member 2; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TF: transferrin; TFEB: transcription factor EB.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; endocytosis; gene targeting; hepatocytes; immunofluorescence
  3. J Cell Biol. 2021 Jul 05. pii: e202004182. [Epub ahead of print]220(7):
      LC3s are canonical proteins necessary for the formation of autophagosomes. We have previously established that two paralogs, LC3B and LC3C, have opposite activities in renal cancer, with LC3B playing an oncogenic role and LC3C a tumor-suppressing role. LC3C is an evolutionary late gene present only in higher primates and humans. Its most distinct feature is a C-terminal 20-amino acid peptide cleaved in the process of glycine 126 lipidation. Here, we investigated mechanisms of LC3C-selective autophagy. LC3C autophagy requires noncanonical upstream regulatory complexes that include ULK3, UVRAG, RUBCN, PIK3C2A, and a member of ESCRT, TSG101. We established that postdivision midbody rings (PDMBs) implicated in cancer stem-cell regulation are direct targets of LC3C autophagy. LC3C C-terminal peptide is necessary and sufficient to mediate LC3C-dependent selective degradation of PDMBs. This work establishes a new noncanonical human-specific selective autophagic program relevant to cancer stem cells.
  4. Cell Chem Biol. 2021 Apr 27. pii: S2451-9456(21)00201-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Ubiquitylation, a highly regulated post-translational modification, controls many cellular pathways that are critical to cell homeostasis. Ubiquitin ligases recruit substrates and promote ubiquitin transfer onto targets, inducing proteasomal degradation or non-degradative signaling. Accumulating evidence highlights the critical role of dysregulated ubiquitin ligases in processes associated with the initiation and progression of cancer. Depending on the substrate specificity and biological context, a ubiquitin ligase can act either as a tumor promoter or as a tumor suppressor. In this review, we focus on the regulatory roles of ubiquitin ligases and how perturbations of their functions contribute to cancer pathogenesis. We also briefly discuss current strategies for targeting or exploiting ubiquitin ligases for cancer therapy.
  5. Autophagy. 2021 May 12. 1-18
      Macroautophagy/autophagy plays an important role during the development of human cancer. BECN1 (beclin 1), a core player in autophagy regulation, is downregulated in many kinds of malignancy. The underlying mechanism, however, has not been fully illuminated. Here, we found that CUL3 (cullin 3), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, could interact with BECN1 and promote the K48-linked ubiquitination and degradation of this protein; In addition, CUL3 led to a decrease in autophagic activity through downregulating BECN1. We also found that KLHL38 was a substrate adaptor of the CUL3 E3 ligase complex-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of BECN1. In breast and ovarian cancer, CUL3 could promote the proliferation of tumor cells, and the expression of CUL3 was related to poor prognosis in patients. Our study reveals the underlying mechanism of BECN1 ubiquitination and degradation that affects autophagic activity and subsequently leads to tumor progression, providing a novel therapeutic strategy that regulates autophagy to combat cancer.Abbreviations: ATG: autophagy-related BECN1: beclin 1 CHX: cycloheximide CoIP: co-immunoprecipitation CUL3: cullin 3 IP: immunoprecipitation MS: mass spectrometry PtdIns3K: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase UPS: ubiquitin-proteasome system.
    Keywords:  Autophagosome; E3 ubiquitin ligase; KLHL; posttranslational modification; proliferation; proteasome
  6. Autophagy. 2020 Dec 01. 1-16
      As a highly dynamic organelle, mitochondria undergo constant fission and fusion to change their morphology and function, coping with various stress conditions. Loss of the balance between fission and fusion leads to impaired mitochondria function, which plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Yet the mechanisms behind mitochondria dynamics regulation remain to be fully illustrated. Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a lysosome-dependent process that selectively degrades proteins to maintain cellular proteostasis. In this study, we demonstrated that MARCHF5, an E3 ubiquitin ligase required for mitochondria fission, is a CMA substrate. MARCHF5 interacted with key CMA regulators and was degraded by lysosomes. Severe oxidative stress compromised CMA activity and stabilized MARCHF5, which facilitated DNM1L translocation and led to excessive fission. Increase of CMA activity promoted MARCHF5 turnover, attenuated DNM1L translocation, and reduced mitochondria fragmentation, which alleviated mitochondrial dysfunction under oxidative stress. Furthermore, we showed that conditional expression of LAMP2A, the key CMA regulator, in dopaminergic (DA) neurons helped maintain mitochondria morphology and protected DA neuronal viability in a rodent PD model. Our work uncovers a critical role of CMA in maintaining proper mitochondria dynamics, and loss of this regulatory control may occur in PD and underlie its pathogenic process.Abbreviations: CMA: chaperone-mediated autophagy; DA: dopaminergic; DNM1L: dynamin 1 like; FCCP: carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone; HSPA8: heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 8; LAMP2A: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2A; MARCHF5: membrane-associated ring-CH-type finger 5; MMP: mitochondria membrane potential; OCR: oxygen consumption rate; 6-OHDA: 6-hydroxydopamine; PD: Parkinson disease; SNc: substantia nigra pars compacta; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; TH: tyrosine hydroxylase; TMRE: tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester perchlorate; WT: wild type.
    Keywords:  Autophagy/mitochondria/oxidative stress/Parkinson disease/proteostasis
  7. Autophagy. 2021 May 10. 1-20
      Eukaryotic cells use post-translational modifications to diversify and dynamically coordinate the function and properties of protein networks within various cellular processes. For example, the process of autophagy strongly depends on the balanced action of kinases and phosphatases. Highly conserved from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to humans, autophagy is a tightly regulated self-degradation process that is crucial for survival, stress adaptation, maintenance of cellular and organismal homeostasis, and cell differentiation and development. Many studies have emphasized the importance of kinases and phosphatases in the regulation of autophagy and identified many of the core autophagy proteins as their direct targets. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on kinases and phosphatases acting on the core autophagy machinery and discuss the relevance of phosphoregulation for the overall process of autophagy.
    Keywords:  Autophagosome; PAS; macroautophagy; phagophore; posttranslational modification
  8. Autophagy. 2021 May 09. 1-19
      Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease globally. NAFLD is a consequence of fat accumulation in the liver leading to lipotoxicity. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the critical role of autophagy in NAFLD. This study uncovers the unexpected role of immune surveillance protein DDX58/Rig-1 (DExD/H box helicase 58) in activating macroautophagy/autophagy and protecting from lipotoxicity associated with NAFLD. Here we show for the first time that DDX58 protein is significantly reduced in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse model, an aggressive form of NAFLD characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the liver. In addition to decreased expression of DDX58, we found that DDX58 activity can be attenuated by treatments with palmitic acid (PA), a saturated fatty acid. To investigate whether PA inhibition of DDX58 is harmful to the cell, we characterized DDX58 function in hepatocytes when exposed to high doses of PA in the presence and/or absence of DDX58. We show that siRNA knockdown of DDX58 promotes apoptosis. Importantly, we show that stable overexpression of DDX58 is protective against toxic levels of PA and stimulates autophagy. This study begins to demonstrate the regulation of the autophagy receptor protein SQSTM1/p62 through DDX58. DDX58 expression directly influences SQSTM1 mRNA and protein levels. This work proposes a model in which activating DDX58 increases an autophagic response and this aids in clearing toxic lipid inclusion bodies, which leads to inflammation and apoptosis. Activating a DDX58-induced autophagy response may be a strategy for treating NAFLD.Abbreviations:5'pppdsRNA: 5' triphosphate double-stranded RNA; CDAHFD: choline-deficient, L-amino acid defined high-fat diet; CEBPB: CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta; CQ: chloroquine; DDX58/retinoic acid inducible gene 1/Rig-1: DExD/H box helicase 58; h: hours; IFIH1/MDA5: interferon induced with helicase C domain 1; IFNB/IFN-β: interferon beta 1, fibroblast; KO: knockout; MAVS: mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein; NAFLD: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NASH: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; NFKB/NF-κB: nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells; PA: palmitic acid; poly:IC: polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid; PRR: pattern recognition receptors; PSR: picrosirus red; RAP: rapamycin; RLR: RIG-I-like receptor; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; STING1: stimulator of interferon response cGAMP interactor 1; TBK1: TANK-binding kinase 1.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; NAFLD; NASH; SQSTM1; inflammation; lipotoxicity
  9. Autophagy. 2021 May 14. 1-18
      ULK1 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase) has a central role in initiating macroautophagy/autophagy, a process that contributes to atherosclerosis and neointima hyperplasia, or excessive tissue growth that leads to vessel dysfunction. However, the role of ULK1 in neointima formation remains unclear. We aimed to determine how Ulk1 deletion affected neointima formation and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. We measured autophagy activity, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and neointima hyperplasia in cultured VSMCs and ligation-injured mouse carotid arteries from male wild-type (WT, C57BL/6 J) and VSMC-specific ulk1 knockout (ulk1 KO) mice. Carotid artery ligation in WT mice increased ULK1 protein expression, and concurrently increased autophagic flux and neointima formation. Treating human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) with PDGF (platelet derived growth factor) increased ULK1 expression, activated autophagy, and promoted cell migration. Further, smooth muscle cell-specific deletion of Ulk1 suppressed autophagy, inhibited VSMC migration, and impeded neointima hyperplasia. Mechanistically, Ulk1 deletion inhibited autophagic degradation of histone acetyltransferase protein KAT2A/GCN5 (K[lysine] acetyltransferase 2A), resulting in accumulation of KAT2A that directly acetylated TUBA/α-tubulin and subsequently increased protein levels of acetylated TUBA. The acetylation of TUBA increased microtubule stability and inhibited VSMC directional migration and neointima formation. Finally, local transfection of Kat2a siRNA decreased TUBA acetylation and prevented the attenuation of vascular injury-induced neointima formation in ulk1 KO mice. These findings suggest that Ulk1 deletion inhibits neointima formation by reducing autophagic degradation of KAT2A and increasing TUBA acetylation in VSMCs.Abbreviations: ACTA2/α-SMA: actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta; ACTB: actin beta; ATAT1: alpha tubulin acetyltransferase 1; ATG: autophagy related; BECN1: beclin 1; BP: blood pressure; CAL: carotid artery ligation; CQ: chloroquine diphosphate; EC: endothelial cells; EEL: external elastic layer; FBS: fetal bovine serum; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; HASMCs: human aortic smooth muscle cells; HAT1: histone acetyltransferase 1; HDAC: histone deacetylase; IEL: inner elastic layer; IP: immunoprecipitation; KAT2A/GCN5: K(lysine) acetyltransferase 2A; KAT8/hMOF: lysine acetyltransferase 8; MAP1LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MYH11: myosin heavy chain 11; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PDGF: platelet derived growth factor; PECAM1/CD31: platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1; RAC3: Rac family small GTPase 3; SIRT2: sirtuin 2; SPP1/OPN: secreted phosphoprotein 1; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TAGLN/SM22: transgelin; TUBA: tubulin alpha; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase; VSMC: vascular smooth muscle cell; VVG: Verhoeff Van Gieson; WT: wild type.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; KAT2A/GCN5; TUBA/α-tubulin acetylation; ULK1; VSMCs; neointima formation