bims-apauto Biomed News
on Apoptosis and autophagy
Issue of 2021‒04‒11
ten papers selected by
Su Hyun Lee
Seoul National University

  1. Nat Commun. 2021 04 06. 12(1): 2043
      The tumour suppressor FBW7 is a substrate adaptor for the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF), that targets several oncoproteins for proteasomal degradation. FBW7 is widely mutated and FBW7 protein levels are commonly downregulated in cancer. Here, using an shRNA library screen, we identify the HECT-domain E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIP12 as a negative regulator of FBW7 stability. We find that SCFFBW7-mediated ubiquitylation of FBW7 occurs preferentially on K404 and K412, but is not sufficient for its proteasomal degradation, and in addition requires TRIP12-mediated branched K11-linked ubiquitylation. TRIP12 inactivation causes FBW7 protein accumulation and increased proteasomal degradation of the SCFFBW7 substrate Myeloid Leukemia 1 (MCL1), and sensitizes cancer cells to anti-tubulin chemotherapy. Concomitant FBW7 inactivation rescues the effects of TRIP12 deficiency, confirming FBW7 as an essential mediator of TRIP12 function. This work reveals an unexpected complexity of FBW7 ubiquitylation, and highlights branched ubiquitylation as an important signalling mechanism regulating protein stability.
  2. FEBS Lett. 2021 Apr 09.
      Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for the degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic materials, is increasingly recognized as a major player in endothelial cell (EC) biology and vascular pathology. Particularly in solid tumors, tumor microenvironmental stress such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, inflammatory mediators and metabolic aberrations stimulate autophagy in tumor-associated blood vessels. Increased autophagy in ECs may serve as a mechanism to alleviate stress and restrict exacerbated inflammatory responses. However, increased autophagy in tumor-associated ECs can re-model metabolic pathways and affect the trafficking and surface availability of key mediators and regulators of the interplay between EC and immune cells. In line with this, heightened EC autophagy is involved in pathological angiogenesis, inflammatory and immune responses. Here we review major cellular and molecular mechanisms regulated by autophagy in ECs under physiological conditions and discuss recent evidence implicating EC autophagy in tumor angiogenesis and immunosurveillance.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Cancer; Endothelial cells; Immunosurveillance; Tumor vasculature
  3. Autophagy. 2021 Apr 09. 1-21
      Macroautophagy/autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved process, plays an important role in the regulation of immune inflammation and nervous system homeostasis. However, the exact role and mechanism of autophagy in pain is still unclear. Here, we showed that impaired autophagy flux mainly occurred in astrocytes during the maintenance of neuropathic pain. No matter the stage of neuropathic pain induction or maintenance, activation of autophagy relieved the level of pain, whereas inhibition of autophagy aggravated pain. Moreover, the levels of neuroinflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased or decreased following autophagy inhibition or activation. Further study showed that inhibition of autophagy slowed the induction, but increased the maintenance of neuroinflammatory responses, which could be achieved by promoting the binding of TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6) to K63 ubiquitinated protein, and increasing the levels of p-MAPK8/JNK (mitogen-activated protein kinase 8) and nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NFKB/NF-κB). Impaired autophagy also reduced the protective effect of astrocytes on neurons against ROS stress because of the decrease in the level of glutathione released by astrocytes, which could be improved by activating the NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2) pathway. We also demonstrated that simultaneous activation of autophagy and the NFE2L2 pathway further relieved pain, compared to activating autophagy alone. Our study provides an underlying mechanism by which autophagy participates in the regulation of neuropathic pain, and a combination of autophagy and NFE2L2 activation may be a new treatment approach for neuropathic pain.Abbreviation: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; 8-OHdG: 8-hydroxydeoxy-guanosine; ACTB: actin, beta; AMPAR: alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor; ATG: autophagy-related; CAMK2/CaMKII: calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II; CCL7: chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7; CGAS: cyclic GMP-AMP synthase; CQ: chloroquine; GABA: gamma-aminobutyrate; GCLC: glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit; GFAP: glial fibrillary acidic protein; GSH: glutathione; HMOX1/HO-1: heme oxygenase 1; KEAP1: kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; MAP1LC3/LC3-II: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated form); MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; MAPK1/ERK: mitogen-activated protein kinase 1; MMP2: matrix metallopeptidase 2; MAPK8/JNK: mitogen-activated protein kinase 8; MAPK14/p38: mitogen-activated protein kinase 14; NFE2L2/NRF2: nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2; NFKB/NF-κB: nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SLC12A5: solute carrier family 12, member 5; SNL: spinal nerve ligation; TLR4: toll-like receptor 4; TRAF6: TNF receptor-associated factor; TRP: transient receptor potential.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; astrocytes; neuroinflammation; neuron; neuropathic pain; nfe2l2; ros
  4. Front Immunol. 2021 ;12 635475
      Nuclear dot protein 52 kDa (NDP52, also known as CALCOCO2) functions as a selective autophagy receptor. The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) specifically generates the N-terminal Met1-linked linear ubiquitin chain, and regulates innate immune responses, such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interferon (IFN) antiviral, and apoptotic pathways. Although NDP52 and LUBAC cooperatively regulate bacterial invasion-induced xenophagy, their functional crosstalk remains enigmatic. Here we show that NDP52 suppresses canonical NF-κB signaling through the broad specificity of ubiquitin-binding at the C-terminal UBZ domain. Upon TNF-α-stimulation, NDP52 associates with LUBAC through the HOIP subunit, but does not disturb its ubiquitin ligase activity, and has a modest suppressive effect on NF-κB activation by functioning as a component of TNF-α receptor signaling complex I. NDP52 also regulates the TNF-α-induced apoptotic pathway, but not doxorubicin-induced intrinsic apoptosis. A chemical inhibitor of LUBAC (HOIPIN-8) cancelled the increased activation of the NF-κB and IFN antiviral pathways, and enhanced apoptosis in NDP52-knockout and -knockdown HeLa cells. Upon Salmonella-infection, colocalization of Salmonella, LC3, and linear ubiquitin was detected in parental HeLa cells to induce xenophagy. Treatment with HOIPIN-8 disturbed the colocalization and facilitated Salmonella expansion. In contrast, HOIPIN-8 showed little effect on the colocalization of LC3 and Salmonella in NDP52-knockout cells, suggesting that NDP52 is a weak regulator in LUBAC-mediated xenophagy. These results indicate that the crosstalk between NDP52 and LUBAC regulates innate immune responses, apoptosis, and xenophagy.
    Keywords:  LUBAC; NDP52; NF-κB; apoptosis; ubiquitin; xenophagy
  5. Front Oncol. 2021 ;11 627023
      Metastasis and relapse account for the great majority of cancer-related deaths. Most metastatic lesions are micro metastases that have the capacity to remain in a non-dividing state called "dormancy" for months or even years. Commonly used anticancer drugs generally target actively dividing cancer cells. Therefore, cancer cells that remain in a dormant state evade conventional therapies and contribute to cancer recurrence. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of cancer dormancy are not fully understood. Recent studies indicate that a major cellular stress response mechanism, autophagy, plays an important role in the adaptation, survival and reactivation of dormant cells. In this review article, we will summarize accumulating knowledge about cellular and molecular mechanisms of cancer dormancy, and discuss the role and importance of autophagy in this context.
    Keywords:  autophagy; cancer; dormancy; metastasis; recurrence; relapse
  6. Cell Biol Int. 2021 Apr 05.
      Autophagy-dependent cell death is a prominent mechanism that majorly contributes to homeostasis by maintaining the turnover of organelles under stressful conditions. Several viruses, including coronaviruses, take advantage of cellular autophagy to facilitate their own replication. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a beta-coronavirus that mediates its replication through dependent or independent ATG5 pathway using specific double-membrane vesicles that can be considered as similar to autophagosomes. With due attention to several mutations in NSP6, a non-structural protein with a positive regulatory effect on autophagosome formation, a potential correlation between SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis mechanisms and autophagy can be expected. Certain medications, albeit limited in number, have been indicated to negatively regulate autophagy flux, potentially in a way similar to the inhibitory effect of β-CoVs on the process of autophagy. Though, there is no conclusive evidence to support their direct antagonizing effect on CoVs. Off-target accumulation of a major fraction of FDA-approved autophagy modulating drugs may result in adverse effects. Therefore, medications that have modulatory effects on autophagy could be considered as potential lead compounds for the development of new treatments against this virus. This review discusses the role of autophagy/virophagy in controlling of SARS-CoV-2, focusing on the potential therapeutic implications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Beta-coronavirus; Coronavirus disease 2019; Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; Virophagy
  7. Cell Death Discov. 2021 Apr 06. 7(1): 64
      Autophagy and apoptosis are involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Research indicates that circular RNA HIPK3 (circHIPK3) is crucial to cell autophagy and apoptosis in various cancer types. However, the role of circHIPK3 in the regulation of cardiomyocyte autophagy and apoptosis during I/R remains unknown. Our study aimed to examine the regulatory effect of circHIPK3 during myocardial I/R and investigate its mechanism in cardiomyocyte autophagy and apoptosis. Methods and results. The expression of circHIPK3 was upregulated during myocardial I/R injury and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury of cardiomyocytes. To study the potential role of circHIPK3 in myocardial H/R injury, we performed gain-of-function and loss-of-function analyses of circHIPK3 in cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of circHIPK3 significantly promoted H/R-induced cardiomyocyte autophagy and cell injury (increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis) compared to those in the control group, while silencing of circHIPK3 showed the opposite effect. Further research found that circHIPK3 acted as an endogenous miR-20b-5p sponge to sequester and inhibit miR-20b-5p activity, resulting in increased ATG7 expression. In addition, miR-20b-5p inhibitors reversed the decrease in ATG7 induced by silencing circHIPK3. Conclusions. CircHIPK3 can accelerate cardiomyocyte autophagy and apoptosis during myocardial I/R injury through the miR-20b-5p/ATG7 axis. These data suggest that circHIPK3 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for I/R.
  8. MicroPubl Biol. 2021 Mar 29. 2021
      The autophagy-related protein Atg27p has been previously shown to localize to the autophagy-specific pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS) as well as to several organelles, including the late Golgi, the vacuolar membrane, and the endosome. Given that Atg27p localization to the vacuolar membrane in particular has been shown to be dependent on both its C-terminal tyrosine sorting motif and the AP-3 adaptor, and that Atg27p can be found in clathrin-coated vesicles, we set out to determine whether Atg27p localization inside cells is dependent on clathrin or on any of its cargo adaptors. We report that Atg27p localization is clathrin- and Ent3p/5p-dependent.
  9. Enzymes. 2020 ;pii: S1874-6047(20)30021-4. [Epub ahead of print]48 397-423
      With the intense protein synthesis demands of cancer, the classical enzymatic role of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) is required to sustain tumor growth. However, many if not all aaRSs also possess regulatory functions outside of the domain of catalytic tRNA aminoacylation, which can further contribute to or even antagonize cancers in non-translational ways. These regulatory functions of aaRS are likely to be manipulated in cancer to ensure uncontrolled growth and survival. This review will largely focus on the unique capacities of individual and sometimes collaborating synthetases to influence the hallmarks of cancer, which represent the principles and characteristics of tumorigenesis. An interesting feature of cytoplasmic aaRSs in higher eukaryotes is the formation of a large multi-synthetase complex (MSC) with nine aaRSs held together by three non-enzymatic scaffolding proteins (AIMPs). The MSC-associated aaRSs, when released from the complex in response to certain stimulations, often participate in pathways that promote tumorigenesis. In contrast, the freestanding aaRSs are associated with activities in both directions-some promoting while others inhibiting cancer. The AIMPs have emerged as potent tumor suppressors through their own distinct mechanisms. We propose that the tumor-suppressive roles of AIMPs may also be a consequence of keeping the cancer-promoting aaRSs within the MSC. The rich connections between cancer and the synthetases have inspired the development of innovative cancer treatments that target or take advantage of these novel functions of aaRSs.
    Keywords:  Disease; Homeostasis; Metastasis; Multi-synthetase complex; Nucleus; Protein synthesis; Regulation; Secretion; Transfer RNA (tRNA); Translation
  10. FEBS J. 2021 Apr 07.
      Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor activated during energy stress that plays a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis. This ubiquitous signaling pathway has been implicated in multiple functions including mitochondrial biogenesis, redox regulation, cell growth and proliferation, cell autophagy and inflammation. The protective role of AMPK in cardiovascular function and the involvement of dysfunctional AMPK in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease have been highlighted in recent years. In this review, we summarize and discuss the role of AMPK in the regulation of blood flow in response to metabolic demand and the basis of the AMPK physiological anticontractile, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic actions in the vascular system. Investigations by others and us have demonstrated the key role of vascular AMPK in the regulation of endothelial function, redox homeostasis and inflammation, in addition to its protective role in the hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The pathophysiological implications of AMPK involvement in vascular function with regard to the vascular complications of metabolic disease and the therapeutic potential of AMPK activators are also discussed.
    Keywords:  AMPK; endothelium; inflammation; ischemia/reperfusion; metabolism; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species; vascular smooth muscle