bims-adipim Biomed News
on Adipose immunity and immunometabolism
Issue of 2023‒09‒17
ten papers selected by
Matthew C. Sinton, University of Glasgow

  1. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2023 Sep 11. pii: S0959-437X(23)00092-8. [Epub ahead of print]83 102112
      Nonshivering thermogenesis by brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an adaptive mechanism for maintaining body temperature in cold environments. BAT is critical in rodents and human infants and has substantial influence on adult human metabolism. Stimulating BAT therapeutically is also being investigated as a strategy against metabolic diseases because of its ability to function as a catabolic sink. Thus, understanding how brown adipocytes and the related brite/beige adipocytes use nutrients to fuel their demanding metabolism has both basic and translational implications. Recent advances in mass spectrometry and isotope tracing are improving the ability to study metabolic flux in vivo. Here, we review how such strategies are advancing our understanding of adipocyte thermogenesis and conclude with key future questions.
  2. bioRxiv. 2023 Aug 30. pii: 2023.08.29.555436. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mechanism underlying the metabolic benefit of intermittent fasting remains largely unknown. Here, we reported that intermittent fasting promoted IL-22 production by ILC3s and subsequent beigeing of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. Adoptive transfer of intestinal ILC3s increased beigeing of white adipose tissue in diet-induced-obese mice. Exogenous IL-22 significantly increased the beigeing of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. Deficiency of IL-22 receptor attenuated the beigeing induced by intermittent fasting. Single-cell sequencing of sorted intestinal immune cells revealed that intermittent fasting increased aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in ILC3s. Analysis of cell‒cell ligand receptor interactions indicated that intermittent fasting may stimulate the interaction of ILC3s with dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. These results establish the role of intestinal ILC3s in beigeing of white adipose tissue, suggesting that ILC3/IL-22/IL-22R axis contributes to the metabolic benefit of intermittent fasting.
  3. Nat Metab. 2023 Sep 14.
      Homeostatic regulation of adipose tissue is critical for the maintenance of energy balance and whole-body metabolism. The peripheral nervous system provides bidirectional neural communication between the brain and adipose tissue, thereby providing homeostatic control. Most research on adipose innervation and nerve functions has been limited to the sympathetic nerves and their neurotransmitter norepinephrine. In recent years, more work has focused on adipose sensory nerves, but the contributions of subsets of sensory nerves to metabolism and the specific roles contributed by sensory neuropeptides are still understudied. Advances in imaging of adipose innervation and newer tissue denervation techniques have confirmed that sensory nerves contribute to the regulation of adipose functions, including lipolysis and browning. Here, we summarize the historical and latest findings on the regulation, function and plasticity of adipose tissue sensory nerves that contribute to metabolically important processes such as lipolysis, vascular control and sympathetic axis cross-talk.
  4. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1152003
      Introduction: Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is a critical regulator of systemic metabolic homeostasis. Persons with HIV (PWH) have an increased risk of metabolic diseases and significant alterations in the SAT immune environment compared with the general population.Methods: We generated a comprehensive single-cell multi-omic SAT atlas to characterize cellular compositional and transcriptional changes in 59 PWH across a spectrum of metabolic health.
    Results: Glucose intolerance was associated with increased lipid-associated macrophages, CD4+ and CD8+ T effector memory cells, and decreased perivascular macrophages. We observed a coordinated intercellular regulatory program which enriched for genes related to inflammation and lipid-processing across multiple cell types as glucose intolerance increased. Increased CD4+ effector memory tissue-resident cells most strongly associated with altered expression of adipocyte genes critical for lipid metabolism and cellular regulation. Intercellular communication analysis demonstrated enhanced pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic signaling between immune cells and stromal cells in PWH with glucose intolerance compared with non-diabetic PWH. Lastly, while cell type-specific gene expression among PWH with diabetes was globally similar to HIV-negative individuals with diabetes, we observed substantially divergent intercellular communication pathways.
    Discussion: These findings suggest a central role of tissue-resident immune cells in regulating SAT inflammation among PWH with metabolic disease, and underscore unique mechanisms that may converge to promote metabolic disease.
    Keywords:  glucose intolerance; human immunodeficiency virus; immune cells; single-cell RNA sequencing; subcutaneous adipose tissue; type 2 diabetes mellitus; white adipose tissue
  5. Immunity. 2023 Sep 12. pii: S1074-7613(23)00363-1. [Epub ahead of print]56(9): 1977-1980
      IL-17-blocking antibodies have shown little clinical effect in some autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. In this issue of Immunity, Luo et al. demonstrate that SHP2-Act1 complexes can mediate autonomous IL-17R signaling in the absence of the IL-17 ligand itself.
  6. Nat Commun. 2023 Sep 12. 14(1): 5627
      Tissue-resident macrophage populations constitute a mosaic of phenotypes, yet how their metabolic states link to the range of phenotypes and functions in vivo is still poorly defined. Here, using high-dimensional spectral flow cytometry, we observe distinct metabolic profiles between different organs and functionally link acetyl CoA carboxylase activity to efferocytotic capacity. Additionally, differences in metabolism are evident within populations from a specific site, corresponding to relative stages of macrophage maturity. Immune perturbation with intestinal helminth infection increases alternative activation and metabolic rewiring of monocyte-derived macrophage populations, while resident TIM4+ intestinal macrophages remain immunologically and metabolically hyporesponsive. Similar metabolic signatures in alternatively-activated macrophages are seen from different tissues using additional helminth models, but to different magnitudes, indicating further tissue-specific contributions to metabolic states. Thus, our high-dimensional, flow-based metabolic analyses indicates complex metabolic heterogeneity and dynamics of tissue-resident macrophage populations at homeostasis and during helminth infection.
  7. Clin Immunol. 2023 Sep 12. pii: S1521-6616(23)00534-X. [Epub ahead of print] 109771
      Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, thought to be predominantly mediated by TH17 cells. Significance of other inflammatory pathways and the innate immune system is not well understood and the spatial heterogeneity of inflammation in the skin has largely been overlooked. Our aim was to create a comprehensive map of skin inflammation in psoriasis, exploring the tissue patterning of inflammation. In situ whole transcriptome sequencing (spatial sequencing) was performed on lesional psoriatic skin in four patients with moderate-to-severe disease to quantify all expressed genes within a tissue section. Transcriptional analysis revealed three major inflammatory niches in psoriasis skin, each with distinct cytokine circuits and chemokines: the hyperplastic epidermis, upper (papillary) dermis, and reticular dermis. Interestingly, key cytokines such as IL-23, IL-17 s, and TNFα were not notably present in the skin's transcriptomic signature. Unexpectedly, IL-32 showed strong expression in the dermis. Our findings underscore the complexity of psoriatic inflammation, highlighting its architectural heterogeneity and the roles of innate cytokines. Both IL-32 and IL-1 family cytokines appear to play critical roles in the dermal and epidermal inflammation, respectively, and may provide pharmacological targets to improve the control of the inflammatory process.
    Keywords:  Inflammation; Psoriasis; Spatial transcriptomics
  8. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1208200
      Introduction: Ets1 is a lymphoid-enriched transcription factor that regulates B- and Tcell functions in development and disease. Mice that lack Ets1 (Ets1 KO) develop spontaneous autoimmune disease with high levels of autoantibodies. Naïve CD4 + T cells isolated from Ets1 KO mice differentiate more readily to Th17 cells that secrete IL-17, a cytokine implicated in autoimmune disease pathogenesis. To determine if increased IL-17 production contributes to the development of autoimmunity in Ets1 KO mice, we crossed Ets1 KO mice to mice lacking the IL-17 receptor A subunit (IL17RA KO) to generate double knockout (DKO) mice.Methods: In this study, the status of the immune system of DKO and control mice was assessed utilizing ELISA, ELISpot, immunofluorescent microscopy, and flow cytometric analysis of the spleen, lymph node, skin. The transcriptome of ventral neck skin was analyzed through RNA sequencing. S. aureus clearance kinetics in in exogenously infected mice was conducted using bioluminescent S. aureus and tracked using an IVIS imaging experimental scheme.
    Results: We found that the absence of IL17RA signaling did not prevent or ameliorate the autoimmune phenotype of Ets1 KO mice but rather that DKO animals exhibited worse symptoms with striking increases in activated B cells and secreted autoantibodies. This was correlated with a prominent increase in the numbers of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. In addition to the autoimmune phenotype, DKO mice also showed signs of immunodeficiency and developed spontaneous skin lesions colonized by Staphylococcus xylosus. When DKO mice were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus, they were unable to clear the bacteria, suggesting a general immunodeficiency to staphylococcal species. γδ T cells are important for the control of skin staphylococcal infections. We found that mice lacking Ets1 have a complete deficiency of the γδ T-cell subset dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs), which are involved in skin woundhealing responses, but normal numbers of other skin γδ T cells. To determine if loss of DETC combined with impaired IL-17 signaling might promote susceptibility to staph infection, we depleted DETC from IL17RA KO mice and found that the combined loss of DETC and impaired IL-17 signaling leads to an impaired clearance of the infection.
    Conclusions: Our studies suggest that loss of IL-17 signaling can result in enhanced autoimmunity in Ets1 deficient autoimmune-prone mice. In addition, defects in wound healing, such as that caused by loss of DETC, can cooperate with impaired IL-17 responses to lead to increased susceptibility to skin staph infections.
    Keywords:  ETS1; IL17RA; Staphylococcus aureus; autoantibodies; autoimmunity; dendritic epidermal T cell; immunodeficiency
  9. Exp Mol Med. 2023 Sep 11.
      The mucosa is a tissue that covers numerous body surfaces, including the respiratory tract, digestive tract, eye, and urogenital tract. Mucosa is in direct contact with pathogens, and γδ T cells perform various roles in the tissue. γδ T cells efficiently defend the mucosa from various pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi. In addition, γδ T cells are necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis because they select specific organisms in the microbiota and perform immunoregulatory functions. Furthermore, γδ T cells directly facilitate pregnancy by producing growth factors. However, γδ T cells can also play detrimental roles in mucosal health by amplifying inflammation, thereby worsening allergic responses. Moreover, these cells can act as major players in autoimmune diseases. Despite their robust roles in the mucosa, the application of γδ T cells in clinical practice is lacking because of factors such as gaps between mice and human cells, insufficient knowledge of the target of γδ T cells, and the small population of γδ T cells. However, γδ T cells may be attractive targets for clinical use due to their effector functions and low risk of inducing graft-versus-host disease. Therefore, robust research on γδ T cells is required to understand the crucial features of these cells and apply these knowledges to clinical practices.
  10. Nat Immunol. 2023 Sep 14.
      Iron metabolism is pivotal for cell fitness in the mammalian host; however, its role in group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) is unknown. Here we show that transferrin receptor CD71 (encoded by Tfrc)-mediated iron metabolism cell-intrinsically controls ILC3 proliferation and host protection against Citrobacter rodentium infection and metabolically affects mitochondrial respiration by switching of oxidative phosphorylation toward glycolysis. Iron deprivation or Tfrc ablation in ILC3s reduces the expression and/or activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), a key ILC3 regulator. Genetic ablation or activation of Ahr in ILC3s leads to CD71 upregulation or downregulation, respectively, suggesting Ahr-mediated suppression of CD71. Mechanistically, Ahr directly binds to the Tfrc promoter to inhibit transcription. Iron overload partially restores the defective ILC3 compartment in the small intestine of Ahr-deficient mice, consistent with the compensatory upregulation of CD71. These data collectively demonstrate an under-appreciated role of the Ahr-CD71-iron axis in the regulation of ILC3 maintenance and function.