bims-adipim Biomed News
on Adipose immunity and immunometabolism
Issue of 2023‒08‒27
seven papers selected by
Matthew C. Sinton, University of Glasgow

  1. Front Immunol. 2023 ;14 1191782
      Interleukin-17 family (IL-17s) comprises six structurally related members (IL-17A to IL-17F); sequence homology is highest between IL-17A and IL-17F, displaying certain overlapping functions. In general, IL-17A and IL-17F play important roles in chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, controlling bacterial and fungal infections, and signaling mainly through activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. The role of IL-17A and IL-17F has been established in chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs), such as psoriasis (PsO), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), axial spondylarthritis (axSpA), hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and asthma. CD4+ helper T cells (Th17) activated by IL-23 are well-studied sources of IL-17A and IL-17F. However, other cellular subtypes can also produce IL-17A and IL-17F, including gamma delta (γδ) T cells, alpha beta (αβ) T cells, type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), natural killer T cells (NKT), or mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT). Interestingly, the production of IL-17A and IL-17F by innate and innate-like lymphocytes can take place in an IL-23 independent manner in addition to IL-23 classical pathway. This would explain the limitations of the inhibition of IL-23 in the treatment of patients with certain rheumatic immune-mediated conditions such as axSpA. Despite their coincident functions, IL-17A and IL-17F contribute independently to chronic tissue inflammation having somehow non-redundant roles. Although IL-17A has been more widely studied, both IL-17A and IL-17F are overexpressed in PsO, PsA, axSpA and HS. Therefore, dual inhibition of IL-17A and IL-17F could provide better outcomes than IL-23 or IL-17A blockade.
    Keywords:  IL-17A; IL-17F; IL-23; MAIT cells; Th17 cells; psoriasis; spondyloarthritis; γδ T cells
  2. Cytokine. 2023 Aug 23. pii: S1043-4666(23)00223-5. [Epub ahead of print]170 156345
      Emerging evidence links interleukin-17A (IL-17A) to anxiety and stress. Circulating levels of IL-17A are elevated in patients with anxiety disorders, and pharmacological blockade of IL-17 signaling or genetic deletion of IL-17 reduces anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Given that IL-17 is one of the most conserved cytokines among animal phyla, we tested the hypothesis that anti-IL-17 treatments reduce defensive responding in planarians, the simplest animal with bilateral symmetry and a CNS with cephalization. The endpoint selected was light avoidance, which is a common phenotype of planarians and rodents and an index of defensive responding that is reduced by anxiolytic compounds in both species. Planarians were placed at the midline of a Petri dish containing water or test solution that was equally split into light and dark halves. Planarians exposed to a selective IL-17A antibody (0.1, 1, 10 pM) over a 5-min interval spent more time in the light than water-exposed planarians. Cyanidin (0.01, 0.1 1, 10 µM), an anti-inflammatory flavonoid and non-selective IL-17A inhibitor, also increased time spent in the light. Motility was not affected by IL-17A antibody or cyanidin at concentrations that reduced light avoidance, although higher concentrations reduced motility (>10 µM). Our results show that IL-17A antagonists reduce defensive responding in planarians and suggest conservation of IL-17A effects on aspects of anxiety-related behaviors.
    Keywords:  Anxiety; Avoidance; Cyanidin; Cytokine; IL-17; Interleukin; Invertebrate; Planarian
  3. J Vis Exp. 2023 Mar 03.
      ARTICLES DISCUSSED: Cho, D. S., Doles, J. D. Preparation of adipose progenitor cells from mouse epididymal adipose tissues. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (162), doi: 10.3791/61694 (2020). Peics, J. et al. Isolation of adipogenic and fibro-inflammatory stromal cell subpopulations from murine intra-abdominal adipose depots. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (162), doi: 10.3791/61610 (2020). Estrada-Gutierrez, G. et al. Isolation of viable adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction from human visceral adipose tissue suitable for RNA analysis and macrophage phenotyping. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (164), doi: 10.3791/61884 (2020). Gilleron, J. et al. Exploring adipose tissue structure by methylsalicylate clearing and 3D imaging. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (162), doi: 10.3791/61640 (2020). Czepielewski, R. S. et al. Lymphatic and blood network analysis during obesity. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (165), doi: 10.3791/61814 (2020). Jager, J., Gaudfrin, M., Gilleron, J., Cormont, M., Tanti, J. F. An adipocyte cell culture model to study the impact of protein and micro-RNA modulation on adipocyte function. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (171), doi: 10.3791/61925 (2021). Poret, J. M., Molina, P. E., Simon, L. Isolation, proliferation and differentiation of rhesus macaque adipose-derived stem cells. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (171), doi: 10.3791/61732 (2021). Batista Jr., M. L., Meshulam, T., Desevin, K., Rabhi, N., Farmer, S. R. Three-dimensional adipocyte culture as a model to study cachexia-induced white adipose tissue remodeling. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (167), doi: 10.3791/61853 (2021). Akbar, N., Pinnick, K. E., Paget, D., Choudhury, R. P. Isolation and characterization of human adipocyte-derived extracellular vesicles using filtration and ultracentrifugation. Journal of Visualized Experiments. (170), doi: 10.3791/61979 (2021).
  4. Int J Biol Macromol. 2023 Aug 23. pii: S0141-8130(23)03407-4. [Epub ahead of print] 126511
      This work aimed to explore whether the persistent inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ameliorates fat accumulation by promoting adipose browning in vitro and in vivo. LPS over 1 ng/mL reduced lipid accumulation while increasing the expressions of specific genes involved in inflammation, mitochondrial biogenesis, and adipose browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, LPS in intraperitoneal injection decreased white adipose tissue weight and elevated interscapular brown adipose tissue weight in mice. According to RT-PCR and western blot analysis results, the expressions of genes and proteins related to inflammation, mitochondrial biogenesis, lipolysis, and brown or beige markers in different tissues were elevated after LPS intervention. Cumulatively, LPS-induced persistent inflammation may potentially ameliorate fat accumulation by facilitating adipose browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and mice. These results offer new perspectives into the effect of persistent inflammation induced by LPS on regulating fat metabolism, thereby reducing fat accumulation by boosting adipose browning procedure.
    Keywords:  3T3-L1 adipocytes; Adipose browning; Fat metabolism; Lipopolysaccharide; Persistent inflammation
  5. Adipocyte. 2023 Dec;12(1): 2248673
      Technologies are transforming the understanding of adipose tissue as a complex and dynamic tissue that plays a critical role in energy homoeostasis and metabolic health. This mini-review provides a brief overview of the potential impact of novel technologies in biomedical research and aims to identify areas where these technologies can make the most significant contribution to adipose tissue research. It discusses the impact of cutting-edge technologies such as single-cell sequencing, multi-omics analyses, spatial transcriptomics, live imaging, 3D tissue engineering, microbiome analysis, in vivo imaging, and artificial intelligence/machine learning. As these technologies continue to evolve, we can expect them to play an increasingly important role in advancing our understanding of adipose tissue and improving the treatment of related diseases.
    Keywords:  Adipose tissue; analyses; biomarkers; research; technologies
  6. Nutrients. 2023 Aug 10. pii: 3528. [Epub ahead of print]15(16):
      Psoriasis, an autoimmune chronic inflammatory skin condition, has a high incidence in the general population, reaching 2-4%. Its pathogenesis involves an interplay of genetic factors, immune disturbances, and environmental factors. Within the environmental factors that aid the appearance of this autoimmune skin disease, the Western lifestyle and overall diet play important roles in the steady growth in psoriasis prevalence. Furthermore, psoriasis is associated with comorbidities such as psoriatic arthritis, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Accumulating evidence suggests that obesity is an important risk factor for psoriasis. Moreover, obesity aggravates established psoriasis, and a reduction in the body mass index can improve the clinical outcomes of psoriasis and increase the efficacy of standard psoriasis therapies. The possible connection between this autoimmune disease and obesity relies on the fact that white adipose tissue is an essential endocrine organ that secretes an array of immune mediators and inflammatory and metabolic factors with pro-inflammatory action. Thus, immune-mediated mechanisms in both psoriasis and obesity conditions are common factors. This paper describes the factors that link obesity with skin autoimmune disease and highlights the importance of the stimulatory or regulatory effects of nutrients and food in psoriasis and the possible improvement of psoriasis through nutritional strategies.
    Keywords:  diet; microbiome; nutrition; obesity; psoriasis