bims-actimu Biomed News
on Actinopathies in inborn errors of immunity
Issue of 2023‒12‒17
three papers selected by
Elodie Busch, University of Strasbourg

  1. Nano Lett. 2023 Dec 12.
      Nanoparticles are promising tools for biomedicine. Many nanoparticles are internalized to function. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is one of the most important mechanisms for nanoparticle internalization. However, the regulatory mechanism of clathrin-mediated nanoparticle endocytosis is still unclear. Here, we report that the adapter protein HIP-55 regulates clathrin-mediated nanoparticle endocytosis. CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), a typical nanoparticle, enter cells through the HIP-55-dependent clathrin endocytosis pathway. Both pharmacological inhibitor and genetic intervention demonstrate that QDs enter cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. HIP-55 can interact with clathrin and promote clathrin-mediated QDs endocytosis. Furthermore, HIP-55 ΔADF which is defective in F-actin binding fails to promote QDs endocytosis, indicating HIP-55 promotes clathrin-mediated QDs endocytosis depending on interaction with F-actin. In vivo, HIP-55 knockout also inhibits endocytosis of QDs. These findings reveal that HIP-55 acts as an intrinsic regulator for clathrin-mediated nanoparticle endocytosis, providing new insight into the nanoparticle internalization and a new strategy for nanodrug enrichment in target cells.
    Keywords:  F-actin; HIP-55; Nanoparticles; clathrin-mediated endocytosis; quantum dots
  2. Immunol Rev. 2023 Dec 08.
      The study of primary immunodeficiencies or inborn errors of immunity continues to drive our knowledge of the function of the human immune system. From the outset, the study of inborn errors has focused on unraveling genetic etiologies and molecular mechanisms. Aided by the continuous growth in genetic diagnostics, the field has moved from the study of an infection dominated phenotype to embrace and unravel diverse manifestations of autoinflammation, autoimmunity, malignancy, and severe allergy in all medical disciplines. It has now moved from the study of ultrarare presentations to producing meaningful impact in conditions as diverse as inflammatory bowel disease, neurological conditions, and hematology. Beyond offering immunogenetic diagnosis, the study of underlying inborn errors of immunity in these conditions points to targeted treatment which can be lifesaving.
    Keywords:  emerging therapies; genetic revolution; somatic mutations
  3. BMC Med Genomics. 2023 Dec 11. 16(1): 323
      BACKGROUND: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a group of fatal primary immunodeficiencies characterized by the severe impairment of T-cell differentiation. IL7R deficiency is a rare form of SCID that usually presents in the first months of life with severe and opportunistic infections, failure to thrive, and a high risk of mortality unless treated. Although recent improvements in early diagnosis have been achieved through newborn screening, few IL7R-related SCID patients had been reported in the Chinese population.CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we retrospectively analyzed a case of SCID in a 5-month-old girl with symptoms, including severe T-cell depletion, recurrent fever, oral ulcers, pneumonia, hepatosplenomegaly, bone marrow hemophagocytosis, and bacterial and viral infections. Whole-exome sequencing (WES), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) were performed to identify the patient's genetic etiology. We identified a 268 kb deletion and a splicing variant, c.221 + 1G > A, in the proband. These two variants of IL7R were inherited from the father and mother.
    CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of whole IL7R gene deletion in combination with a pathogenic splicing variant in a patient with SCID. This deletion also expands the pathogenic variation spectrum of SCID caused by IL7R. The incorporation of exome-based copy number variant analysis makes WES a powerful molecular diagnostic technique for the clinical diagnosis of pediatric patients.
    Keywords:  Chromosome microarray analysis; IL7R; Severe combined immunodeficiency; Splicing variant; Whole exome sequencing