bims-actimu Biomed News
on Actinopathies in inborn errors of immunity
Issue of 2023‒11‒05
two papers selected by
Elodie Busch, University of Strasbourg

  1. J Allergy Clin Immunol Glob. 2024 Feb;3(1): 100172
      Background: To date, fewer than 20 patients have been identified as having germline biallelic mutations in the coronin-1A gene (CORO1A) and its protein with clinical features of combined immunodeficiency characterized by T-cell lymphopenia ranging from the severe phenotype to the mild phenotype, recurrent infections, and lymphoproliferative disorders. However, the effects of CORO1A protein disruption on actin-dependent functions in primary cells have not been fully delineated.Objective: We sought to characterize the underlying defects of actin-dependent cellular functions in a female patient with combined immunodeficiency caused by a novel missense variant in the CORO1A gene in combination with a de novo heterozygous microdeletion of chromosome 16p11.2 and also to provide evidence of the pathogenicity of this gene mutation.
    Methods: To identify the genetic defect, next-generation sequencing followed by Sanger confirmation and array comparative genomic hybridization were performed. Western blot and quantitative PCR tests were used to assess the effects on the protein. Flow cytometry and live microscopy were performed to investigate cellular motility and immune cell counts and function.
    Results: We demonstrated that the CORO1A hemizygous variant c.19C>T, p. A7C induces significant decreases in cellular levels of the CORO1A protein while leaving mRNA concentrations unaffected. The observed mutation resulted in impaired natural killer cell cytotoxicity and platelet calcium signaling. In addition, primary granulocytes and mesenchymal cells showed significant defects in motility.
    Conclusion: Collectively, we added new data about the CORO1A gene as a key player in actin cytoskeleton dynamics and cell signaling. Our findings expand the clinical spectrum regarding CORO1A protein deficiency and confirm the importance of a personalized therapeutic approach for each patient.
    Keywords:  CORO1A; actin; combined immunodeficiency; cytoskeleton; granulomatous dermatitis; platelet
  2. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2023 Oct 30. pii: S1357-2725(23)00129-2. [Epub ahead of print] 106490
      Talin protein (Talin 1/2) is a mechanosensitive cytoskeleton protein. The unique structure of the Talin plays a vital role in transmitting mechanical forces. Talin proteins connect the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton by linking to integrins and actin, thereby mediating the conversion of mechanical signals into biochemical signals and influencing disease progression as potential diagnostic indicators, therapeutic targets, and prognostic indicators of various diseases. Most studies in recent years have confirmed that mechanical forces also have a crucial role in the development of disease, and Talin has been found to play a role in several diseases. Still, more studies need to be done on how Talin is involved in mechanical signaling in disease. This review focuses on the mechanical signaling of Talin in disease, aiming to summarize the mechanisms by which Talin plays a role in disease and to provide references for further studies.
    Keywords:  Cell adhesion; Cytoskeletal protein; Mechanical force; Talin