bims-actimu Biomed News
on Actinopathies in inborn errors of immunity
Issue of 2023‒10‒22
two papers selected by
Elodie Busch, University of Strasbourg

  1. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2023 Oct 04.
      BACKGROUND: Inborn errors of immunity are a growing group of disorders with a wide spectrum of genotypic and phenotypic profiles. CARMIL2 (previously named RLTPR) deficiency is a recently described cause of immune dysregulation, mainly presenting with allergy, mucocutaneous infections, and inflammatory bowel disease. CARMIL2 deficiency is categorized under diseases of immune dysregulation with susceptibility to lymphoproliferative conditions.CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe a 29-years-old male from a consanguineous family, with food and sting allergy, allergic rhinitis, facial molluscum contagiosum (viral infection of the skin in the form of umbilicated papules), eosinophilia and highly elevated serum IgE level. Whole exome sequencing revealed numerous homozygous variants, including a CARMIL2 nonsense mutation, a gene regulating actin polymerization, and promoting cell protrusion formation.
    CONCLUSION: The selective role of CARMIL2 in T cell activation and maturation through cyto-skeletal organization is proposed to be the cause of immune dysregulation in individuals with CARMIL2 deficiency. CARMIL2 has an important role in immune pathways regulation, through cell maturation and differentiation, giving rise to a balance between Th1, Th2, and Th17 immune response. This case can improve the understanding of the different impacts of CARMIL2 mutations on immune pathways and further guide the diagnosis of patients with similar phenotypes.
    Keywords:  CARMIL2-deficiency; Hyper-IgE syndromes; Inborn errors of immunity; diseases of im-mune dysregulation; molluscum contagiosum; whole-exome sequencing
  2. Burns Trauma. 2023 ;11 tkad038
      Background: The rapid turnover of the intestinal epithelium is driven by the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). The dynamics of the F-actin cytoskeleton are critical for maintaining intercellular force and the signal transduction network. However, it remains unclear how direct interference with actin polymerization impacts ISC homeostasis. This study aims to reveal the regulatory effects of the F-actin cytoskeleton on the homeostasis of intestinal epithelium, as well as the potential risks of benproperine (BPP) as an anti-tumor drug.Methods: Phalloidin fluorescence staining was utilized to test F-actin polymerization. Flow cytometry and IHC staining were employed to discriminate different types of intestinal epithelial cells. Cell proliferation was assessed through bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assays. The proliferation and differentiation of intestinal stem cells were replicated in vitro through organoid culture. Epithelial migration was evaluated through BrdU pulse labeling and chasing in mice.
    Results: The F-actin content was observed to significantly increase as crypt cells migrated into the villus region. Additionally, actin polymerization in secretory cells, especially in Paneth cells (PCs), was much higher than that in neighboring ISCs. Treatment with the newly identified actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 2 (ARPC2) inhibitor BPP led to a dose-dependent increase or inhibition of intestinal organoid growth in vitro and crypt cell proliferation in vivo. Compared with the vehicle group, BPP treatment decreased the expression of Lgr5 ISC feature genes in vivo and in organoid culture. Meanwhile, PC differentiation derived from ISCs and progenitors was decreased by inhibition of F-actin polymerization. Mechanistically, BPP-induced actin polymerization inhibition may activate the Yes1-associated transcriptional regulator pathway, which affects ISC proliferation and differentiation. Accordingly, BPP treatment affected intestinal epithelial cell migration in a dose-dependent manner.
    Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the regulation of cytoskeleton reorganization can affect ISC homeostasis. In addition, inhibiting ARPC2 with the Food and Drug Administration-approved drug BPP represents a novel approach to influencing the turnover of intestinal epithelial cells.
    Keywords:  ARPC2; Benproperine; F-actin; Intestinal stem cell; YAP