bims-actimu Biomed News
on Actinopathies in inborn errors of immunity
Issue of 2023‒10‒08
three papers selected by
Elodie Busch, University of Strasbourg

  1. PNAS Nexus. 2023 Oct;2(10): pgad305
      Actin-binding protein Profilin1 is an important regulator of actin cytoskeletal dynamics in cells and critical for embryonic development in higher eukaryotes. The objective of the present study was to examine the consequence of loss-of-function of Pfn1 in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in vivo. We utilized a mouse model engineered for tamoxifen-inducible biallelic inactivation of the Pfn1 gene selectively in EC (Pfn1EC-KO). Widespread deletion of EC Pfn1 in adult mice leads to severe health complications presenting overt pathologies (endothelial cell death, infarct, and fibrosis) in major organ systems and evidence for inflammatory infiltrates, ultimately compromising the survival of animals within 3 weeks of gene ablation. Mice deficient in endothelial Pfn1 exhibit selective bias toward the proinflammatory myeloid-derived population of immune cells, a finding further supported by systemic elevation of proinflammatory cytokines. We further show that triggering Pfn1 depletion not only directly upregulates proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine gene expression in EC but also potentiates the paracrine effect of EC on proinflammatory gene expression in macrophages. Consistent with these findings, we provide further evidence for increased activation of Interferon Regulatory Factor 7 (IRF7) and STAT1 in EC when depleted of Pfn1. Collectively, these findings for the first time demonstrate a prominent immunological consequence of loss of endothelial Pfn1 and an indispensable role of endothelial Pfn1 in mammalian survival unlike tolerable phenotypes of Pfn1 loss in other differentiated cell types.
    Keywords:  actin; endothelial cells; inflammation; macrophage; profilin; vascular
  2. Curr Biol. 2023 Sep 28. pii: S0960-9822(23)01278-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      How actin filaments are spatially organized and remodeled into diverse higher-order networks in vivo is still not well understood. Here, we report an unexpected F-actin "coalescence" activity driven by cyclase-associated protein (CAP) and enhanced by its interactions with actin-binding protein 1 (Abp1). We directly observe S. cerevisiae CAP and Abp1 rapidly transforming branched or linear actin networks by bundling and sliding filaments past each other, maximizing filament overlap, and promoting compaction into bundles. This activity does not require ATP and is conserved, as similar behaviors are observed for the mammalian homologs of CAP and Abp1. Coalescence depends on the CAP oligomerization domain but not the helical folded domain (HFD) that mediates its functions in F-actin severing and depolymerization. Coalescence by CAP-Abp1 further depends on interactions between CAP and Abp1 and interactions between Abp1 and F-actin. Our results are consistent with a mechanism in which the formation of energetically favorable sliding CAP and CAP-Abp1 crosslinks drives F-actin bundle compaction. Roles for CAP and CAP-Abp1 in actin remodeling in vivo are supported by strong phenotypes arising from deletion of the CAP oligomerization domain and by genetic interactions between sac6Δ and an srv2-301 mutant that does not bind Abp1. Together, these observations identify a new actin filament remodeling function for CAP, which is further enhanced by its direct interactions with Abp1.
    Keywords:  Abp1; CAP; Srv2; actin; bundling; crosslinking; cyclase-associated protein; yeast
  3. J Cell Biol. 2023 Dec 04. pii: e202306036. [Epub ahead of print]222(12):
      Understanding how numerous actin-binding proteins (ABPs) work in concert to control the assembly, organization, and turnover of the actin cytoskeleton requires quantitative information about the levels of each component. Here, we measured the cellular concentrations of actin and the majority of the conserved ABPs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as the free (cytosolic) fractions of each ABP. The cellular concentration of actin is estimated to be 13.2 µM, with approximately two-thirds in the F-actin form and one-third in the G-actin form. Cellular concentrations of ABPs range from 12.4 to 0.85 µM (Tpm1> Pfy1> Cof1> Abp1> Srv2> Abp140> Tpm2> Aip1> Cap1/2> Crn1> Sac6> Twf1> Arp2/3> Scp1). The cytosolic fractions of all ABPs are unexpectedly high (0.6-0.9) and remain so throughout the cell cycle. Based on these numbers, we speculate that F-actin binding sites are limited in vivo, which leads to high cytosolic levels of ABPs, and in turn helps drive the rapid assembly and turnover of cellular F-actin structures.