bims-actimu Biomed News
on Actinopathies in inborn errors of immunity
Issue of 2023‒09‒24
four papers selected by
Elodie Busch, University of Strasbourg

  1. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2023 ;11 1268922
      The regulation of machinery involved in cell migration is vital to the maintenance of proper organism function. When migration is dysregulated, a variety of phenotypes ranging from developmental disorders to cancer metastasis can occur. One of the primary structures involved in cell migration is the actin cytoskeleton. Actin assembly and disassembly form a variety of dynamic structures which provide the pushing and contractile forces necessary for cells to properly migrate. As such, actin dynamics are tightly regulated. Classically, the Rho family of GTPases are considered the major regulators of the actin cytoskeleton during cell migration. Together, this family establishes polarity in the migrating cell by stimulating the formation of various actin structures in specific cellular locations. However, while the Rho GTPases are acknowledged as the core machinery regulating actin dynamics and cell migration, a variety of other proteins have become established as modulators of actin structures and cell migration. One such group of proteins is the Rab40 family of GTPases, an evolutionarily and functionally unique family of Rabs. Rab40 originated as a single protein in the bilaterians and, through multiple duplication events, expanded to a four-protein family in higher primates. Furthermore, unlike other members of the Rab family, Rab40 proteins contain a C-terminally located suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) box domain. Through the SOCS box, Rab40 proteins interact with Cullin5 to form an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. As a member of this complex, Rab40 ubiquitinates its effectors, controlling their degradation, localization, and activation. Because substrates of the Rab40/Cullin5 complex can play a role in regulating actin structures and cell migration, the Rab40 family of proteins has recently emerged as unique modulators of cell migration machinery.
    Keywords:  Rab40 GTPases; Rho GTPases; SOCS box; actin; cell migration; cytoskeleton; ubiquitination
  2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 Sep 26. 120(39): e2309955120
      Cellular form and function are controlled by the assembly and stability of actin cytoskeletal structures-but disassembling/pruning these structures is equally essential for the plasticity and remodeling that underlie behavioral adaptations. Importantly, the mechanisms of actin assembly have been well-defined-including that it is driven by actin's polymerization into filaments (F-actin) and then often bundling by crosslinking proteins into stable higher-order structures. In contrast, it remains less clear how these stable bundled F-actin structures are rapidly disassembled. We now uncover mechanisms that rapidly and extensively disassemble bundled F-actin. Using biochemical, structural, and imaging assays with purified proteins, we show that F-actin bundled with one of the most prominent crosslinkers, fascin, is extensively disassembled by Mical, the F-actin disassembly enzyme. Furthermore, the product of this Mical effect, Mical-oxidized actin, is poorly bundled by fascin, thereby further amplifying Mical's disassembly effects on bundled F-actin. Moreover, another critical F-actin regulator, cofilin, also affects fascin-bundled filaments, but we find herein that it synergizes with Mical to dramatically amplify its disassembly of bundled F-actin compared to the sum of their individual effects. Genetic and high-resolution cellular assays reveal that Mical also counteracts crosslinking proteins/bundled F-actin in vivo to control cellular extension, axon guidance, and Semaphorin/Plexin cell-cell repulsion. Yet, our results also support the idea that fascin-bundling serves to dampen Mical's F-actin disassembly in vitro and in vivo-and that physiologically relevant cellular remodeling requires a fine-tuned interplay between the factors that build bundled F-actin networks and those that disassemble them.
    Keywords:  MICAL1; MICAL2; MICAL3; bristle; nervous system
  3. Nat Commun. 2023 09 20. 14(1): 5848
      Members of the NETWORKED (NET) family are involved in actin-membrane interactions. Here we show that two members of the NET family, NET4A and NET4B, are essential for normal guard cell actin reorganization, which is a process critical for stomatal closure in plant immunity. NET4 proteins interact with F-actin and with members of the Rab7 GTPase RABG3 family through two distinct domains, allowing for simultaneous localization to actin filaments and the tonoplast. NET4 proteins interact with GTP-bound, active RABG3 members, suggesting their function being downstream effectors. We also show that RABG3b is critical for stomatal closure induced by microbial patterns. Taken together, we conclude that the actin cytoskeletal remodelling during stomatal closure involves a molecular link between actin filaments and the tonoplast, which is mediated by the NET4-RABG3b interaction. We propose that stomatal closure to microbial patterns involves the coordinated action of immune-triggered osmotic changes and actin cytoskeletal remodelling likely driving compact vacuolar morphologies.
  4. J Pathol. 2023 Sep 21.
      Activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) into migratory myofibroblasts is a key process in liver fibrogenesis. Cell migration requires an active remodeling of the cytoskeleton, which is a tightly regulated process coordinated by Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and the Rho family of small GTPases. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) promotes assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers by regulating cytoskeleton organization. GEF exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (EPAC1) has been implicated in modulating TGFβ1 and Rho signaling; however, its role in HSC migration has never been examined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) enzymes in regulating EPAC1 signaling, HSC migration, and fibrogenesis. We show that PDE4 protein expression is increased in activated HSCs expressing alpha smooth muscle actin and active myosin light chain (MLC) in fibrotic tissues of human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis cirrhosis livers and mouse livers exposed to carbon tetrachloride. In human livers, TGFβ1 levels were highly correlated with PDE4 expression. TGFβ1 treatment of LX2 HSCs decreased levels of cAMP and EPAC1 and increased PDE4D expression. PDE4 specific inhibitor, rolipram, and an EPAC-specific agonist decreased TGFβ1-mediated cell migration in vitro. In vivo, targeted delivery of rolipram to the liver prevented fibrogenesis and collagen deposition and decreased the expression of several fibrosis-related genes, and HSC activation. Proteomic analysis of mouse liver tissues identified the regulation of actin cytoskeleton by the kinase effectors of Rho GTPases as a major pathway impacted by rolipram. Western blot analyses confirmed that PDE4 inhibition decreased active MLC and endothelin 1 levels, key proteins involved in cytoskeleton remodeling and contractility. The current study, for the first time, demonstrates that PDE4 enzymes are expressed in hepatic myofibroblasts and promote cytoskeleton remodeling and HSC migration. © 2023 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
    Keywords:  cell migration; cyclic AMP signaling; cytoskeleton remodeling; hepatic stellate cells; liver fibrosis; phosphodiesterase 4; proteomics