bims-unfpre Biomed News
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2022‒03‒27
three papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitoba

  1. Cell Rep. 2022 Mar 22. pii: S2211-1247(22)00221-2. [Epub ahead of print]38(12): 110488
      The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induces the unfolded protein response (UPR), which acts through various mechanisms to reduce ER stress. While the UPR has been well studied for its effects on the ER, its impact on the Golgi is less understood. The Golgi complex receives transport vesicles from the endosome through two types of tethering factors: long coiled-coil golgin and the multisubunit Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex. Here, we report that ER stress increases the phosphorylation of golgin Imh1 to maintain the GARP-mediated recycling of the SNAREs Snc1 and Tlg1. We also identify a specific function of the Golgi affected by ER stress and elucidate a homeostatic response to restore this function, which involves both an Ire1-dependent and a MAP kinase Slt2/ERK2-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, our findings advance a general understanding of how two different types of tethers act cooperatively to mediate a transport pathway.
    Keywords:  ADP-ribosylation factor; Arl1; GTPase; Golgi; MAP kinase; SNARE; Slt2/ERK2; vesicle trafficking
  2. Nat Commun. 2022 Mar 24. 13(1): 1587
      The unfolded protein response (UPR) maintains homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Residing in the ER membrane, the UPR mediator Ire1 deploys its cytoplasmic kinase-endoribonuclease domain to activate the key UPR transcription factor Xbp1 through non-conventional splicing of Xbp1 mRNA. Ire1 also degrades diverse ER-targeted mRNAs through regulated Ire1-dependent decay (RIDD), but how it spares Xbp1 mRNA from this decay is unknown. Here, we identify binding sites for the RNA-binding protein Pumilio in the 3'UTR Drosophila Xbp1. In the developing Drosophila eye, Pumilio binds both the Xbp1unspliced and Xbp1spliced mRNAs, but only Xbp1spliced is stabilized by Pumilio. Furthermore, Pumilio displays Ire1 kinase-dependent phosphorylation during ER stress, which is required for its stabilization of Xbp1spliced. hIRE1 can phosphorylate Pumilio directly, and phosphorylated Pumilio protects Xbp1spliced mRNA against RIDD. Thus, Ire1-mediated phosphorylation enables Pumilio to shield Xbp1spliced from RIDD. These results uncover an unexpected regulatory link between an RNA-binding protein and the UPR.
  3. Hum Mol Genet. 2022 Mar 21. pii: ddac065. [Epub ahead of print]
      Wolfram syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by diabetes, optic atrophy and deafness. Patients die at 35 years old, mainly from respiratory failure or dysphagia. Unfortunately, there is no treatment to block the progression of symptoms and an urgent need for adequate research models. Here, we report on the phenotypical characterization of two loss-of-function zebrafish mutant lines: wfs1aC825X and wfs1bW493X. We observed that wfs1a deficiency altered the size of the ear and the retina of the fish. We also documented a decrease in the expression level of unfolded protein response (UPR) genes in basal condition and in stress condition, i.e. after Tunicamycin treatment. Interestingly, both mutants lead to a decrease of their visual function measured behaviorally. These deficits were associated with a decrease in the expression level of UPR genes in basal and stress conditions. Interestingly, basal, ATP-linked and maximal mitochondrial respirations were transiently decreased in the wfs1b mutant. Taken together, these zebrafish lines highlight the critical role of wfs1a and wfs1b in UPR, mitochondrial function and visual physiology. These models will be useful tools to better understand the cellular function of Wfs1 and to develop novel therapeutic approaches for Wolfram syndrome.