bims-unfpre Biomed News
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2022‒02‒13
three papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitoba

  1. Elife. 2022 02 09. pii: e72182. [Epub ahead of print]11
      Targeting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunctions may halt the pathogenesis of obesity and thereby reduce the prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular disesases, and cancers. The present study was designed to elucidate the mechnaisms by which plant-derived celastrol ameliorated inflammation and lipid accumulation in obesity. The mouse model of diet-induced obesity was induced by feeding high-fat diet for 3 months and subsequently intervented with celastrol for 21 days. Hepatic and adipose tissues were analyzed for lipid accumulation, macrophage activation, and biomarker expression. As result, celastrol effectively reduced body weight, suppressed ER stress, inflammation, and lipogenesis while promoted hepatic lipolysis. RNA-sequencing revealed that celastrol-loaded nanomicelles restored the expression of 49 genes that regulate ER stress, inflammation, and lipid metabolism. On the other hand, celastrol-PEG4-alkyne was synthesized for identifying celastrol-bound proteins in RAW264.7 macrophages. ER chaperone GRP78 (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein) was identified by proteomics approach for celastrol binding to the residue Cys41. Upon binding and conjugation, celastrol diminished the chaperone activity of GRP78 by 130-fold and reduced ER stress in palmitate-challenged cells, while celastrol analog lacking quinone methide failed to exhibit antiobesity effects. Thus, covalent GRP78 inhibition may induce the reprograming of ER signaling, inflammation, and metabolism against diet-induced obesity.
    Keywords:  ER stress; GRP78; biochemistry; celastrol; chemical biology; inflammation; lipid accumulation; medicine; mouse; obesity
  2. Cell Death Dis. 2022 Feb 10. 13(2): 143
      Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) in hepatocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying ER stress remain poorly understood, thus reducing the options for exploring new pharmacological therapies for patients with hyperacute liver injury. Eight-to-twelve-week-old C57BL/6J Xbp1-floxed (Xbp1f/f) and hepatocyte-specific knockout Xbp1 mice (Xbp1∆hepa) were challenged with either high dose APAP [500 mg/kg] and sacrificed at early (1-2 h) and late (24 h) stages of hepatotoxicity. Histopathological examination of livers, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, Western blot, real time (RT)-qPCR studies and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed. Pharmacological inhibition of XBP1 using pre-treatment with STF-083010 [STF, 75 mg/kg] and autophagy induction with Rapamycin [RAPA, 8 mg/kg] or blockade with Chloroquine [CQ, 60 mg/kg] was also undertaken in vivo. Cytoplasmic expression of XBP1 coincided with severity of human and murine hyperacute liver injury. Transcriptional and translational activation of the UPR and sustained activation of JNK1/2 were major events in APAP hepatotoxicity, both in a human hepatocytic cell line and in a preclinical model. Xbp1∆hepa livers showed decreased UPR and JNK1/2 activation but enhanced autophagy in response to high dose APAP. Additionally, blockade of XBP1 splicing by STF, mitigated APAP-induced liver injury and without non-specific off-target effects (e.g., CYP2E1 activity). Furthermore, enhanced autophagy might be responsible for modulating CYP2E1 activity in Xbp1∆hepa animals. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Xbp1 specifically in hepatocytes ameliorated APAP-induced liver injury by enhancing autophagy and decreasing CYP2E1 expression. These findings provide the basis for the therapeutic restoration of ER stress and/or induction of autophagy in patients with hyperacute liver injury.
  3. Autophagy. 2022 Feb 07. 1-18
      Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates with high morbidity and mortality. EBOV infection is dependent on its structural glycoprotein (GP), but high levels of GP expression also trigger cell rounding, detachment, and downregulation of many surface molecules that is thought to contribute to its high pathogenicity. Thus, EBOV has evolved an RNA editing mechanism to reduce its GP expression and increase its fitness. We now report that the GP expression is also suppressed at the protein level in cells by protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). Although PDIs promote oxidative protein folding by catalyzing correct disulfide formation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), PDIA3/ERp57 adversely triggered the GP misfolding by targeting GP cysteine residues and activated the unfolded protein response (UPR). Abnormally folded GP was targeted by ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) machinery and, unexpectedly, was degraded via the macroautophagy/autophagy-lysosomal pathway, but not the proteasomal pathway. PDIA3 also decreased the GP expression from other ebolavirus species but increased the GP expression from Marburg virus (MARV), which is consistent with the observation that MARV-GP does not cause cell rounding and detachment, and MARV does not regulate its GP expression via RNA editing during infection. Furthermore, five other PDIs also had a similar inhibitory activity to EBOV-GP. Thus, PDIs negatively regulate ebolavirus glycoprotein expression, which balances the viral life cycle by maximizing their infection but minimizing their cellular effect. We suggest that ebolaviruses hijack the host protein folding and ERAD machinery to increase their fitness via reticulophagy during infection.Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; 4-PBA: 4-phenylbutyrate; ACTB: β-actin; ATF: activating transcription factor; ATG: autophagy-related; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; BDBV: Bundibugyo ebolavirus; CALR: calreticulin; CANX: calnexin; CHX: cycloheximide; CMA: chaperone-mediated autophagy; ConA: concanamycin A; CRISPR: clusters of regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats; Cas9: CRISPR-associated protein 9; dsRNA: double-stranded RNA; EBOV: Zaire ebolavirus; EDEM: ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like protein; EIF2AK3/PERK: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; Env: envelope glycoprotein; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERAD: ER-associated protein degradation; ERN1/IRE1: endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; GP: glycoprotein; HA: hemagglutinin; HDAC6: histone deacetylase 6; HMM: high-molecular-mass; HIV-1: human immunodeficiency virus type 1; HSPA5/BiP: heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5; IAV: influenza A virus; IP: immunoprecipitation; KIF: kifenesine; Lac: lactacystin; LAMP: lysosomal associated membrane protein; MAN1B1/ERManI: mannosidase alpha class 1B member 1; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MARV: Marburg virus; MLD: mucin-like domain; NHK/SERPINA1: alpha1-antitrypsin variant null (Hong Kong); NTZ: nitazoxanide; PDI: protein disulfide isomerase; RAVV: Ravn virus; RESTV: Reston ebolavirus; SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SBOV: Sudan ebolavirus; sGP: soluble GP; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; ssGP: small soluble GP; TAFV: Taï Forest ebolavirus; TIZ: tizoxanide; TGN: thapsigargin; TLD: TXN (thioredoxin)-like domain; Ub: ubiquitin; UPR: unfolded protein response; VLP: virus-like particle; VSV: vesicular stomatitis virus; WB: Western blotting; WT: wild-type; XBP1: X-box binding protein 1.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; ER-phagy; ERAD; ERp57; EVD; ebola; filoviruses; glycoproteins; lysosomes; reticulophagy