bims-unfpre Biomed News
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2021‒09‒12
five papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitoba

  1. Nat Commun. 2021 Sep 07. 12(1): 5321
      CARM1 is often overexpressed in human cancers including in ovarian cancer. However, therapeutic approaches based on CARM1 expression remain to be an unmet need. Cancer cells exploit adaptive responses such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response for their survival through activating pathways such as the IRE1α/XBP1s pathway. Here, we report that CARM1-expressing ovarian cancer cells are selectively sensitive to inhibition of the IRE1α/XBP1s pathway. CARM1 regulates XBP1s target gene expression and directly interacts with XBP1s during ER stress response. Inhibition of the IRE1α/XBP1s pathway was effective against ovarian cancer in a CARM1-dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo in orthotopic and patient-derived xenograft models. In addition, IRE1α inhibitor B-I09 synergizes with immune checkpoint blockade anti-PD1 antibody in an immunocompetent CARM1-expressing ovarian cancer model. Our data show that pharmacological inhibition of the IRE1α/XBP1s pathway alone or in combination with immune checkpoint blockade represents a therapeutic strategy for CARM1-expressing cancers.
  2. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2021 Sep 08.
      Human periodontal ligament fibroblast (HPDLF) is a major component of the resident cells in the periodontal microenvironment, and plays important roles in periodontitis through multiple mechanisms. Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in HPDLF, the mechanisms governing HPDLF function in periodontitis are unclear. In this study, we tested the ability of unfolded protein response (UPR) to regulate HPDLF in vitro and examined the underlying mechanisms. We found LPS-pretreated HPDLF induced macrophage polarization toward M1 phenotype. UPR activation reduced the inflammatory cytokine production and downregulated the expression of TLR4 in HPDLF. The phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and I-κB was also inhibited by UPR activation. Our findings demonstrate that the connection of LPS, UPR, and HPDLF may represent a new concrete theory of innate immunity regulation in periodontal diseases, and suggest that targeting of UPR in HPDLF may be developed as a potent therapy for periodontitis.
    Keywords:  HPDLF; LPS; Macrophage; Periodontitis; UPR
  3. BMC Cancer. 2021 Sep 08. 21(1): 1003
      BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignancies in head and neck. Platinum-based chemotherapy is an important treatment for NPC. However, the molecular mechanism of resistance to platinum drug remains unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 44(ERp44), an unfolded protein response (UPR)-induced endoplasmic reticulum(ER) protein, is induced during ER stress. This research explored the mechanism of ERp44 in strengthening cisplatin resistance in NPC.METHODS: Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate the expression of ERp44 and Glucose-Regulated Protein 78(GRP78) in NPC. We took CCK8 to detect the role of ERp44 on cell chemosensitivity. Flow cytometric analysis and western blot were taken to analyze cell apoptosis. We performed differential centrifugation to isolate exosomes from serum or conditioned media of cells and analyzed the impact of exosomal ERp44 on cells cisplatin sensitivity. Finally, the results were confirmed in vivo.
    RESULTS: We found the increased expression of ERp44 and GRP78 in NPC and ERp44 was highly expressed in ER-stressed tissues. Cell proliferation was inhibited after cisplatin treatment when ERp44 was knocked down and ERp44 strengthened cisplatin resistance by influencing cell apoptosis and pyroptosis. Then we also collected exosomes and cell viability was increased after the addition of NPC-derived-exosomes with cisplatin treatment. More importantly, our results showed under ERS, NPC cells secreted exosomes containing ERp44 and could transfer them to adjacent cells to strengthen chemoresistance.
    CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that exosomal ERp44 derived from ER-stressed NPC cells took an inevitable role in NPC chemoresistance and might act as a treatment target.
    Keywords:  Chemoresistance; ER stress; ERp44; Exosomes; Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
  4. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Sep 03. pii: 4443. [Epub ahead of print]13(17):
      Hepatocellular carcinoma is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The unfolded protein response (UPR) has been revealed to confer tumorigenic capacity in cancer cells. We hypothesized that a quantifiable score representative of the UPR could be used as a biomarker for cancer progression in HCC. In this study, a total of 655 HCC patients from 4 independent HCC cohorts were studied to examine the relationships between enhancement of the UPR and cancer biology and patient survival in HCC utilizing an UPR score. The UPR correlated with carcinogenic sequence and progression of HCC consistently in two cohorts. Enhanced UPR was associated with the clinical parameters of HCC progression, such as cancer stage and multiple parameters of cell proliferation, including histological grade, mKI67 gene expression, and enrichment of cell proliferation-related gene sets. The UPR was significantly associated with increased mutational load, but not with immune cell infiltration or angiogeneis across independent cohorts. The UPR was consistently associated with worse survival across independent cohorts of HCC. In conclusion, the UPR score may be useful as a biomarker to predict prognosis and to better understand HCC.
    Keywords:  GSVA; hepatocellular cancer; unfolded protein; unfolded protein score
  5. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Aug 26. pii: 4290. [Epub ahead of print]13(17):
      Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor in adults, and the median survival of patients with GBM is 14.5 months. Melitherapy is an innovative therapeutic approach to treat different diseases, including cancer, and it is based on the regulation of cell membrane composition and structure, which modulates relevant signal pathways. Here, we have tested the effects of 2-hydroxycervonic acid (HCA) on GBM cells and xenograft tumors. HCA was taken up by cells and it compromised the survival of several human GBM cell lines in vitro, as well as the in vivo growth of xenograft tumors (mice) derived from these cells. HCA appeared to enhance ER stress/UPR signaling, which consequently induced autophagic cell death of the GBM tumor cells. This negative effect of HCA on GBM cells may be mediated by the JNK/c-Jun/CHOP/BiP axis, and it also seems to be provoked by the cellular metabolite of HCA, C21:5n-3 (heneicosapentaenoic acid). These results demonstrate the efficacy of the melitherapeutic treatment used and the potential of using C21:5n-3 as an efficacy biomarker for this treatment. Given the safety profile in animal models, the data presented here provide evidence that HCA warrants further clinical study as a potential therapy for GBM, currently an important unmet medical need.
    Keywords:  ER stress; HCA; autophagy; glioma; membrane lipid therapy