bims-unfpre Biomed News
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2021‒02‒28
twelve papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitoba

  1. Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 24. 11(1): 4506
      Upon endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress, the ER-located transmembrane protein, Ire1, is autophosphorylated and acts as an endoribonuclease to trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR). Previous biochemical studies have shown that Ire1 exhibits strong endoribonuclease activity when its cytosolic kinase region captures ADP. Here, we asked how this event contributes to the regulation of Ire1 activity. At the beginning of this study, we obtained a luminal-domain mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ire1, deltaIdeltaIIIdeltaV/Y225H Ire1, which is deduced to be controlled by none of the luminal-side regulatory events. ER-stress responsiveness of deltaIdeltaIIIdeltaV/Y225H Ire1 was largely compromised by a further mutation on the kinase region, D797N/K799N, which allows Ire1 to be activated without capturing ADP. Therefore, in addition to the ER-luminal domain of Ire1, which monitors ER conditions, the kinase region is directly involved in the ER-stress responsiveness of Ire1. We propose that potent ER stress harms cells' "vividness", increasing the cytosolic ADP/ATP ratio, and eventually strongly activates Ire1. This mechanism seems to contribute to the suppression of inappropriately potent UPR under weak ER-stress conditions.
  2. J Biol Chem. 2021 Feb 19. pii: S0021-9258(21)00213-1. [Epub ahead of print] 100440
      Obesity associates with inflammation, insulin resistance and higher blood lipids. It is unclear if immune responses facilitate lipid breakdown and release from adipocytes via lipolysis in a separate way from hormones or adrenergic signals. We found that an ancient component of ER stress, inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1), discriminates inflammation-induced adipocyte lipolysis versus lipolysis from adrenergic or hormonal stimuli. Our data show that inhibiting IRE1 kinase activity was sufficient to block adipocyte-autonomous lipolysis from multiple inflammatory ligands, including bacterial components, certain cytokines, and thapsigargin-induced ER stress. IRE1-mediated lipolysis was specific for inflammatory triggers since IRE1 kinase activity was dispensable for isoproterenol and cAMP-induced lipolysis in adipocytes and mouse adipose tissue. IRE1 RNase activity was not associated with inflammation-induced adipocyte lipolysis. Inhibiting IRE1 kinase activity blocked NF-κB activation, interleukin-6 secretion, and adipocyte-autonomous lipolysis from inflammatory ligands. Inflammation-induced lipolysis mediated by IRE1 occurred independently from changes in insulin signaling in adipocytes, suggesting that inflammation can promote IRE1-mediated lipolysis independent of adipocyte insulin resistance. We found no role for canonical unfolded protein responses or ABL kinases in linking ER stress to IRE1-mediated lipolysis. Adiponectin-Cre-mediated IRE1 knockout in mice showed that adipocyte IRE1 was required for inflammatory ligand-induced lipolysis in adipose tissue explants and that adipocyte IRE1 was required for approximately half of the increase in blood triglycerides after a bacterial endotoxin-mediated inflammatory stimulus in vivo. Together, our results show that IRE1 propagates an inflammation-specific lipolytic program independent from hormonal or adrenergic regulation. Targeting IRE1 kinase activity may benefit metabolic syndrome and inflammatory lipid disorders.
    Keywords:  ER stress; adipocyte; cytokine; endocrinology; immunometabolism; inflammation; lipid; lipolysis; metabolic syndrome; obesity
  3. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2021 Feb 22.
      Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), such as ischaemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke and heart failure, are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although specific CVDs and the associated cardiometabolic abnormalities have distinct pathophysiological and clinical manifestations, they often share common traits, including disruption of proteostasis resulting in accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER proteostasis is governed by the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signalling pathway that adjusts the protein-folding capacity of the cell to sustain the cell's secretory function. When the adaptive UPR fails to preserve ER homeostasis, a maladaptive or terminal UPR is engaged, leading to the disruption of ER integrity and to apoptosis. ER stress functions as a double-edged sword, with long-term ER stress resulting in cellular defects causing disturbed cardiovascular function. In this Review, we discuss the distinct roles of the UPR and ER stress response as both causes and consequences of CVD. We also summarize the latest advances in our understanding of the importance of the UPR and ER stress in the pathogenesis of CVD and discuss potential therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring ER proteostasis in CVDs.
  4. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020 ;11 614123
      Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a process conserved from yeasts to mammals and, based on the generally accepted dogma, helps the secretory performance of a cell, by improving its capacity to cope with a burden in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER of β-cells, "professional secretory cells", has to manage tremendous amounts of insulin, which elicits a strong pressure on the ER intrinsic folding capacity. Thus, the constant demand for insulin production results in misfolded proinsulin, triggering a physiological upregulation of UPR to restore homeostasis. Most diabetic disorders are characterized by the loss of functional β-cells, and the pathological side of UPR plays an instrumental role. The transition from a homeostatic to a pathological UPR that ultimately leads to insulin-producing β-cell decay entails complex cellular processes and molecular mechanisms which remain poorly described so far. Here, we summarize important processes that are coupled with or driven by UPR in β-cells, such as proliferation, inflammation and dedifferentiation. We conclude that the UPR comes in different "flavors" and each of them is correlated with a specific outcome for the cell, for survival, differentiation, proliferation as well as cell death. All these greatly depend on the way UPR is triggered, however what exactly is the switch that favors the activation of one UPR as opposed to others is largely unknown. Substantial work needs to be done to progress the knowledge in this important emerging field as this will help in the development of novel and more efficient therapies for diabetes.
    Keywords:  heterogeneity; immune attack; unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway; β-cell dedifferentiation; β-cell proliferation
  5. J Cell Sci. 2021 Feb 23. pii: jcs.249276. [Epub ahead of print]
      A genome-wide screen recently identified SEC24A as a novel mediator of thapsigargin-induced cell death in HAP1 cells. Here, we determined the cellular mechanism and specificity of SEC24A-mediated cytotoxicity. Measurement of calcium levels using organelle-specific fluorescent indicator dyes showed that calcium efflux from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and influx into mitochondria were significantly impaired in SEC24A knockout cells. Furthermore, SEC24A knockout cells also showed ∼44% less colocalization of mitochondria and peripheral tubular ER. Knockout of SEC24A, but not its paralogs SEC24B, SEC24C, or SEC24D, rescued HAP1 cells from cell death induced by three different inhibitors of Sarcoplasmic/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) but not from cell death induced by a topoisomerase inhibitor. Thapsigargin-treated SEC24A knockout cells showed a ∼2.5-fold increase in autophagic flux and ∼10-fold reduction in apoptosis compared to wild-type cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that SEC24A plays a previously unrecognized role in regulating association and calcium flux between the ER and mitochondria, thereby impacting processes dependent on mitochondrial calcium levels, including autophagy and apoptosis.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Autophagy; Calcium; ER stress; Mitochondrial-associated membranes; SEC24A; SERCA; Thapsigargin
  6. PLoS One. 2021 ;16(2): e0247237
      Increased intake of dietary saturated fatty acids has been linked to obesity and the development of Osteoarthritis (OA). However, the mechanism by which these fats promote cartilage degradation and the development of OA is not clearly understood. Here, we report the effects of consumption of common dietary saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, palmitate and oleate, respectively, on body weight, metabolic factors, and knee articular cartilage in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Mice fed on a diet rich in saturated or unsaturated fatty acid gained an equal amount of weight; however, mice fed a palmitate diet, but not a control or oleate diet, exhibited more cartilage lesions and increased expression of 1) unfolded protein response (UPR)/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers including BIP, P-IRE1α, XBP1, ATF4, and CHOP; 2) apoptosis markers CC3 and C-PARP; and 3) negative cell survival regulators Nupr1 and TRB3, in knee articular cartilage. Palmitate-induced apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL staining. Likewise, dietary palmitate was also increased the circulatory levels of classic proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α. Taken together, our results demonstrate that increased weight gain is not sufficient for the development of obesity-linked OA and suggest that dietary palmitate promotes UPR/ER stress and cartilage lesions in mouse knee joints. This study validates our previous in vitro findings and suggests that ER stress could be the critical metabolic factor contributing to the development of diet/obesity induced OA.
  7. Stem Cell Reports. 2021 Feb 09. pii: S2213-6711(21)00044-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      Chondrodysplasias are hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the components of growth cartilage. Although the unfolded protein response (UPR) has been identified as a key disease mechanism in mouse models, no suitable in vitro system has been reported to analyze the pathology in humans. Here, we developed a three-dimensional culture protocol to differentiate hypertrophic chondrocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and examine the phenotype caused by MATN3 and COL10A1 mutations. Intracellular MATN3 or COL10 retention resulted in increased ER stress markers and ER size in most mutants, but activation of the UPR was dependent on the mutation. Transcriptome analysis confirmed a UPR with wide-ranging changes in bone homeostasis, extracellular matrix composition, and lipid metabolism in the MATN3 T120M mutant, which further showed altered cellular morphology in iPSC-derived growth-plate-like structures in vivo. We then applied our in vitro model to drug testing, whereby trimethylamine N-oxide led to a reduction of ER stress and intracellular MATN3.
    Keywords:  COL10A1; MATN3; chondrodysplasia; iPSC; unfolded protein response
  8. Front Cell Neurosci. 2020 ;14 615125
      Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a vision-threatening, chronic, and challenging eye disease in the diabetic population. Despite recent advancements in the clinical management of diabetes, DR remains the major cause of blindness in working-age adults. A better understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of DR development will aid in identifying therapeutic targets. Emerging pieces of evidence from recent research in the field of ER stress have demonstrated a close association between unfolded protein response (UPR)-associated cellular activities and DR development. In this minireview article, we shall provide an emerging understating of how UPR influences DR pathogenesis at the cellular level.
    Keywords:  diabetic retinopathy; retinal glial cell; retinal neuronal cell; retinal pigment epithelium; retinal vascular cell; unfolded protein response
  9. Nat Commun. 2021 02 23. 12(1): 1248
      Mutations in human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 (ENT3) encoded by SLC29A3 results in anemia and erythroid hypoplasia, suggesting that ENT3 may regulate erythropoiesis. Here, we demonstrate that lysosomal ENT3 transport of taurine-conjugated bile acids (TBA) facilitates TBA chemical chaperone function and alleviates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in expanding mouse hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Slc29a3-/- HSPCs accumulate less TBA despite elevated levels of TBA in Slc29a3-/- mouse plasma and have elevated basal ER stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and radiation-induced apoptosis. Reintroduction of ENT3 allows for increased accumulation of TBA into HSPCs, which results in TBA-mediated alleviation of ER stress and erythroid apoptosis. Transplanting TBA-preconditioned HSPCs expressing ENT3 into Slc29a3-/- mice increase bone marrow repopulation capacity and erythroid pool size and prevent early mortalities. Together, these findings suggest a putative role for a facilitative lysosomal transporter in the bile acid regulation of ER stress in mouse HSPCs which may have implications in erythroid biology, the treatment of anemia observed in ENT3-mutated human genetic disorders, and nucleoside analog drug therapy.
  10. Cell Prolif. 2021 Feb 21. e13011
      Osteoblasts and osteoclasts participate in the process of bone remodelling to meet the needs of normal growth and development or repair pathological damage. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) can break the intracellular homeostasis of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, which is closely related to abnormal bone remodelling. The double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) is a key transmembrane protein that regulates ER stress, and growing evidence suggests that the PERK pathway plays a crucial role in regulating bone metabolism under both physiological and pathological conditions. Based on the current findings, we summarized the main mechanisms involved in bone metabolism downstream of the PERK pathway, among which elF2α, FOXO1, CaN, Nrf2 and DAG play a role in regulating the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Importantly, strategies by the regulation of PERK pathway exert beneficial effects in preclinical trials of several bone-related diseases. Given the importance and novelty of PERK pathway, we provide an overview and discuss the roles of PERK pathway in regulating bone metabolism and its impact on bone-related diseases. We hope that the development of research in this field will bring a bright future for the treatment of bone-related diseases.
  11. Mol Cancer Ther. 2021 Feb 25. pii: molcanther.MCT-20-0699-A.2020. [Epub ahead of print]
      This study shows that pancreatic cancer cells undergoing cell death by Valproic Acid (VPA) treatment activated DCs more efficiently than those treated with Trichostatin A (TSA), as demonstrated by CD86 and CD80 surface expression. Surprisingly though, DCs cultured in the presence of supernatant derived from VPA-treated cancer cells showed a reduced allostimulatory capacity and an increased release of IL-10 and IL-8 cytokines in comparison to those exposed to TSA-treated cells culture supernatant. Searching for molecular mechanisms leading to such differences, we found that VPA treatment dysregulated choline metabolism and triggered a stronger ER stress in pancreatic cancer cells than TSA, up-regulating CHOP, and activated COX2, thus promoting the release of prostaglandin (PG) E2. Interestingly, dysfunctional DCs cultured in the presence of VPA-treated cells culture supernatant showed a higher level of intracellular ROS, 4-HNE protein adducts and ER stress, as evidenced by the up-regulation of spliced XBP1 (XBP1s), effects that were reduced when DCs were exposed to supernatant of cancer cells treated with Celecoxib before VPA. Celecoxib indeed prevented PGE2 release, restoring the function of DCs exposed to VPA-treated cells culture supernatant and a similar effect was obtained by silencing XBP1s in DCs treated with VPA-treated cells culture supernatant. These results suggest that PGE2 could be one of the yet unidentified factors able to transfer the stress from cancer cells to DCs, resulting in an impairment of their function.
  12. Clin Transl Immunology. 2021 ;10(2): e1247
      Inflammation is the result of a complex network of cellular and molecular interactions and mechanisms that facilitate immune protection against intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli, particularly pathogens, to maintain homeostasis and promote tissue healing. However, dysregulation in the immune system elicits excess/abnormal inflammation resulting in unintended tissue damage and causes major inflammatory diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, sarcoidosis and rheumatoid arthritis. It is now widely accepted that both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammasomes play critical roles in activating inflammatory signalling cascades. Notably, evidence is mounting for the involvement of ER stress in exacerbating inflammasome-induced inflammatory cascades, which may provide a new axis for therapeutic targeting in a range of inflammatory disorders. Here, we comprehensively review the roles, mechanisms and interactions of both ER stress and inflammasomes, as well as their interconnected relationships in inflammatory signalling cascades. We also discuss novel therapeutic strategies that are being developed to treat ER stress- and inflammasome-related inflammatory disorders.
    Keywords:  NLRP3; endoplasmic reticulum stress; inflammasome; inflammatory disorder