bims-unfpre Biomed News
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2020‒11‒29
six papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitoba

  1. Dev Cell. 2020 Nov 16. pii: S1534-5807(20)30874-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      In C. elegans, expression of the UPRER transcription factor xbp-1s in neurons cell non-autonomously activates the UPRER in the intestine, leading to enhanced proteostasis and lifespan. To better understand this signaling pathway, we isolated neurons from animals expressing neuronal xbp-1s for transcriptomic analysis, revealing a striking remodeling of transcripts involved in neuronal signaling. We then identified signaling molecules required for cell non-autonomous intestinal UPRER activation, including the biogenic amine tyramine. Expression of xbp-1s in just two pairs of neurons that synthesize tyramine, the RIM and RIC interneurons, induced intestinal UPRER activation and extended longevity, and exposure to stress led to splicing and activation of xbp-1 in these neurons. In addition, we found that neuronal xbp-1s modulates feeding behavior and reproduction, dependent upon tyramine synthesis. XBP-1s therefore remodels neuronal signaling to coordinately modulate intestinal physiology and stress-responsive behavior, functioning as a global regulator of organismal responses to stress.
    Keywords:  C. elegans; ER stress; aging; neurobiology; proteostasis; signaling; stress response
  2. J Leukoc Biol. 2020 Nov 22.
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a severe Gram-negative opportunistic bacterium that causes a spectrum of organ system diseases, particularly in immunocompromised patients. This bacterium has been shown to induce unfolded protein response (UPR) during mammalian infection. Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a multicompartmental protein relating to a number of cellular processes; however, it remains unknown whether AnxA2 coordinates a UPR pathway under bacterial infection conditions. Here, we report that the endoplasmic reticulum stress inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)-X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) pathway was up-regulated by AnxA2 through p38 MAPK signaling following P. aeruginosa infection in macrophages, whereas ATF4 and ATF6 not. In addition, XBP1 was found as a positive regulator of innate immunity to tame P. aeruginosa challenges by enhancing autophagy and bacterial clearance. XBP1 also facilitated NF-κB activation to elicit the release of proinflammatory cytokines predominantly in macrophages. Together, our findings identify AnxA2 as a regulator for XBP1-mediated UPR pathway.
    Keywords:  Annexin A2; ER stress; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; XBP1
  3. Eur J Pharmacol. 2020 Nov 24. pii: S0014-2999(20)30841-4. [Epub ahead of print] 173749
      Cellular stress and inflammation, establishing as disease pathology, have reached great heights in the last few decades. Stress conditions such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and lipoproteins are known to disturb proteostasis resulting in the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, alteration in calcium homeostasis culminating in unfolded protein response. Protein disulfide isomerase and endoplasmic reticulum oxidase-1 are the key players in protein folding. The protein folding process assisted by endoplasmic reticulum oxidase-1 results in the production of reactive oxygen species in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Production of reactive oxygen species beyond the quenching capacity of the antioxidant systems perturbs ER homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum stress also induces the production of cytokines leading to inflammatory responses. This has been proven to be the major causative factor for various pathophysiological states compared to other cellular triggers in diseases, which further manifests to increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered inflammatory responses, deleterious to cellular physiology and homeostasis. Numerous studies have drawn correlations between the progression of several diseases in association with endoplasmic reticulum stress, redox protein folding, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. This review aims to provide an insight into the role of protein disulfide isomerase and endoplasmic reticulum oxidase-1 in endoplasmic reticulum stress, unfolded protein response, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammatory responses, which exacerbate the progression of various diseases.
    Keywords:  Crosstalk; ER Stress; Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidase; Oxidative Stress; Protein Disulphide Isomerase
  4. Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 24. 10(1): 20482
      Persistent ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and failure of the heat shock response (HSR) are fundamental hallmarks of insulin resistance (IR); one of the early core metabolic aberrations that leads to type 2 diabetes (T2D). The antioxidant α-lipoic acid (ALA) has been shown to attenuate metabolic stress and improve insulin sensitivity in part through activation of the heat shock response (HSR). However, these studies have been focused on a subset of heat shock proteins (HSPs). In the current investigation, we assessed whether ALA has an effect on modulating the expression of DNAJB3/HSP40 cochaperone; a potential therapeutic target with a novel role in mitigating metabolic stress and promoting insulin signaling. Treatment of C2C12 cells with 0.3 mM of ALA triggers a significant increase in the expression of DNAJB3 mRNA and protein. A similar increase in DNAJB3 mRNA was also observed in HepG2 cells. We next investigated the significance of such activation on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and glucose uptake. ALA pre-treatment significantly reduced the expression of ER stress markers namely, GRP78, XBP1, sXBP1 and ATF4 in response to tunicamycin. In functional assays, ALA treatment abrogated significantly the tunicamycin-mediated transcriptional activation of ATF6 while it enhanced the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and Glut4 translocation. Silencing the expression of DNAJB3 but not HSP72 abolished the protective effect of ALA on tunicamycin-induced ER stress, suggesting thus that DNAJB3 is a key mediator of ALA-alleviated tunicamycin-induced ER stress. Furthermore, the effect of ALA on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is significantly reduced in C2C12 and HepG2 cells transfected with DNAJB3 siRNA. In summary, our results are supportive of an essential role of DNAJB3 as a molecular target through which ALA alleviates ER stress and improves glucose uptake.
  5. PLoS Genet. 2020 Nov 23. 16(11): e1009192
      During infection, cellular resources are allocated toward the metabolically-demanding processes of synthesizing and secreting effector proteins that neutralize and kill invading pathogens. In Drosophila, these effectors are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are produced in the fat body, an organ that also serves as a major lipid storage depot. Here we asked how activation of Toll signaling in the larval fat body perturbs lipid homeostasis to understand how cells meet the metabolic demands of the immune response. We find that genetic or physiological activation of fat body Toll signaling leads to a tissue-autonomous reduction in triglyceride storage that is paralleled by decreased transcript levels of the DGAT homolog midway, which carries out the final step of triglyceride synthesis. In contrast, Kennedy pathway enzymes that synthesize membrane phospholipids are induced. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed elevated levels of major phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species in fat bodies with active Toll signaling. The ER stress mediator Xbp1 contributed to the Toll-dependent induction of Kennedy pathway enzymes, which was blunted by deleting AMP genes, thereby reducing secretory demand elicited by Toll activation. Consistent with ER stress induction, ER volume is expanded in fat body cells with active Toll signaling, as determined by transmission electron microscopy. A major functional consequence of reduced Kennedy pathway induction is an impaired immune response to bacterial infection. Our results establish that Toll signaling induces a shift in anabolic lipid metabolism to favor phospholipid synthesis and ER expansion that may serve the immediate demand for AMP synthesis and secretion but with the long-term consequence of insufficient nutrient storage.
  6. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 604240
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria are physically connected to form dedicated structural domains known as mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs), which participate in fundamental biological processes, including lipid and calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, mitochondrial dynamics and other related cellular behaviors such as autophagy, ER stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Many studies have proved the importance of MAMs in maintaining the normal function of both organelles, and the abnormal amount, structure or function of MAMs is related to the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we review the knowledge regarding the components of MAMs according to their different functions and the specific roles of MAMs in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology, focusing on some highly prevalent cardiovascular diseases, including ischemia-reperfusion, diabetic cardiomyopathy, heart failure, pulmonary arterial hypertension and systemic vascular diseases. Finally, we summarize the possible mechanisms of MAM in cardiovascular diseases and put forward some obstacles in the understanding of MAM function we may encounter.
    Keywords:  SR-mitochondrial contact; cardiovascular diseases; metabolic transition; mitochondria-associated ER membrane; mitochondrial bioenergetics