bims-unfpre Biomed News
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2020‒10‒18
nine papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitoba

  1. Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 15. 10(1): 17490
    Carlesso A, Hörberg J, Reymer A, Eriksson LA.
      Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1α (IRE1α; hereafter IRE1) is a transmembrane kinase/ribonuclease protein related with the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling. Experimental evidence suggests that IRE1 forms several three dimensional (3D) structural variants: dimers, tetramers and higher order oligomers, where each structural variant can contain different IRE1 conformers in different arrangements. For example, studies have shown that two sets of IRE1 dimers exist; a face-to-face dimer and a back-to-back dimer, with the latter considered the important unit for UPR signaling propagation. However, the structural configuration and mechanistic details of the biologically important IRE1 tetramers are limited. Here, we combine protein-protein docking with molecular dynamics simulations to derive human IRE1 tetramer models and identify a molecular mechanism of IRE1 activation. To validate the derived models of the human IRE1 tetramer, we compare the dynamic behavior of the models with the yeast IRE1 tetramer crystallographic structure. We show that IRE1 tetramer conformational changes could be linked to the initiation of the unconventional splicing of mRNA encoding X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1), which allows for the expression of the transcription factor XBP1s (XBP1 spliced). The derived IRE1 tetrameric models bring new mechanistic insights about the IRE1 molecular activation mechanism by describing the IRE1 tetramers as active protagonists accommodating the XBP1 substrate.
  2. J Cell Mol Med. 2020 Oct 16.
    Ricciardi CA, Gnudi L.
      Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) represent an important challenge for healthcare providers. The identification of new biomarkers/pharmacological targets for kidney disease is required for the development of more effective therapies. Several studies have shown the importance of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pathophysiology of AKI and CKD. ER is a cellular organelle devolved to protein biosynthesis and maturation, and cellular detoxification processes which are activated in response to an insult. This review aimed to dissect the cellular response to ER stress which manifests with activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) with its major branches, namely PERK, IRE1α, ATF6 and the interplay between ER and mitochondria in the pathophysiology of kidney disease. Further, we will discuss the relationship between mediators of renal injury (with specific focus on vascular growth factors) and ER stress and UPR in the pathophysiology of both AKI and CKD with the aim to propose potential new targets for treatment for kidney disease.
    Keywords:  Endoplasmic reticulum stress; acute kidney injury; chronic kidney disease; unfolded protein response; vascular growth factors
  3. Biomedicines. 2020 Oct 12. pii: E409. [Epub ahead of print]8(10):
    Osman A, Benameur T, Korashy HM, Zeidan A, Agouni A.
      Upon increased demand for protein synthesis, accumulation of misfolded and/or unfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a pro-survival response is activated termed unfolded protein response (UPR), aiming at restoring the proper function of the ER. Prolonged activation of the UPR leads, however, to ER stress, a cellular state that contributes to the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases including obesity and diabetes. ER stress response by itself can result in endothelial dysfunction, a hallmark of cardiovascular disease, through various cellular mechanisms including apoptosis, insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), particularly large EVs (lEVs) commonly referred to as microparticles (MPs), are membrane vesicles. They are considered as a fingerprint of their originating cells, carrying a variety of molecular components of their parent cells. lEVs are emerging as major contributors to endothelial cell dysfunction in various metabolic disease conditions. However, the mechanisms underpinning the role of lEVs in endothelial dysfunction are not fully elucidated. Recently, ER stress emerged as a bridging molecular link between lEVs and endothelial cell dysfunction. Therefore, in the current review, we summarized the roles of lEVs and ER stress in endothelial dysfunction and discussed the molecular crosstalk and relationship between ER stress and lEVs in endothelial dysfunction.
    Keywords:  cardiovascular disease; diabetes; endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress; endothelial dysfunction; extracellular vesicles (EVs); metabolic syndrome; microparticles (MPs)
  4. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2020 Oct 14.
    Chen Y, Griffiths A, Wang J, Zhang T, Song Q, Song Z.
      Hepatic lipotoxicity, hepatocyte dysfunction/cell death induced by saturated fatty acids (SFA), plays a central role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Palmitate is the most abundant SFA in the circulation. In this study, via a small-scale screening of chemical inhibitors using AML12 hepatocytes, we identified mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) to be a culprit in palmitate-induced cell death in hepatocytes in that mTOR inhibition is protective against palmitate-induced cell death. The protective effects of mTORC1 inhibition are independent of autophagy induction as autophagy inhibition failed to ablate the mTORC1 inhibitor-conferred protection. We have previously reported that the endonuclease activity of inositol-requiring enzyme 1a (IRE1a), one of three canonical signaling pathways of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, was implicated in palmitate-induced cell death in hepatocytes. The continuous mechanistic investigation in this study revealed that IRE1α is a downstream target of mTORC1 activation upon palmitate exposure and the inhibition of either its endonuclease activity or kinase activity protected against the lipotoxic effect of palmitate. Our research further uncovered that protein palmitoylation is potentially involved in palmitate-induced mTORC1 activation and lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. 2-bromopalmitate, a protein palmitoylation inhibitor, ameliorated palmitate-triggered mTORC1 activation, concomitant with prevention of lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. Collectively, our data have identified that mTORC1 and ER stress are coordinately implicated in hepatocyte cell death in response to palmitate exposure and suggests that this pathway may potentially serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of NAFLD as well as other metabolic disorders involving lipotoxicity.
    Keywords:  ER stress; IRE1alpha; Lipotoxicity; Palmitate; mTORC1
  5. J Neurochem. 2020 Oct 16.
    Eagleman DE, Zhu J, Liu DC, Seimetz J, Kalsotra A, Tsai NP.
      Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when protein folding or maturation is disrupted. A malfunction in the ER stress response can lead to cell death and has been observed in many neurological diseases. However, how the ER stress response is regulated in neuronal cells remains largely unclear. Here, we studied an E3 ubiquitin ligase named neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated protein 4-like (Nedd4-2). Nedd4-2 is highly expressed in the brain and has a high affinity toward ubiquitinating membrane-bound proteins. We first utilized unbiased proteomic profiling with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) of isolated membrane fractions from mouse whole brains to identify novel targets of Nedd4-2. Through this screen, we found that the expression and ubiquitination of ribosomal proteins are regulated by Nedd4-2 and we confirmed an association between Nedd4-2 and ribosomes through ribosome sedimentation and polysome profiling. Further, we utilized immunoprecipitation and western blotting to show that induction of ER stress promotes an association between Nedd4-2 and ribosomal proteins, which is mediated through dephosphorylation of Nedd4-2 at serine-342. This increased interaction between Nedd4-2 and ribosomal proteins in turn mediates ER stress-associated translational suppression. In summary, the results of this study demonstrate a novel regulatory mechanism underlying the ER stress response and a novel function of Nedd4-2 in translational control. Our findings may shed light on neurological diseases in which the ER stress response or the function of Nedd4-2 is dysregulated.
    Keywords:  Nedd4-2; ribosome; stress; translation; ubiquitination
  6. Cell Death Dis. 2020 Oct 13. 11(10): 847
    Guo J, Ren R, Sun K, Yao X, Lin J, Wang G, Guo Z, Xu T, Guo F.
      Osteoclasts are multinucleated giant cells with the ability to degrade bone tissue, and are closely related to abnormal bone metabolic diseases. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle responsible for protein modification, quality control, and transportation. The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in ER cavity induces ER stress. Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) is an ER stress-sensing protein, which is ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells. Systemic PERK knockout mice show severe bone loss, suggesting that PERK is of great significance for maintaining the normal growth and development of bone tissue, but the role of PERK in osteoclastogenesis is still unclear. In this study, we found that PERK was significantly activated during RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation; knockdown of PERK by siRNA and inhibition of PERK by GSK2606414, respectively, had significant negative regulatory effects on the formation and bone resorption of osteoclasts. PERK inhibitor GSK2606414 down-regulated the mRNA levels and protein expression of osteoclast differentiation marker genes, and inhibited RANKL-induced activation of Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways. Treatment with PERK inhibitor GSK2606414 in ovariectomized mouse model significantly suppressed bone loss and osteoclast formation. Thapsigargin activated ER stress to enhance autophagy, while GSK2606414 had a significant inhibitory effect on autophagy flux and autophagosome formation. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could inhibit the expression of PERK phosphorylation, osteoclast-related proteins and autophagy-related proteins, but the use of PERK activator CCT020312 can reverse inhibition effect of NAC. Our findings demonstrate a key role for PERK in osteoclast differentiation and suggest its therapeutic potential.
  7. Front Oncol. 2020 ;10 1500
    Raiter A, Lipovetsky J, Hyman L, Mugami S, Ben-Zur T, Yerushalmi R.
      To achieve a cure for metastatic breast cancer, further understanding of molecular drivers of the metastatic cascade is essential. Currently, chemotherapy regimens include doxorubicin and paclitaxel which act in part by inducing the unfolded protein response (UPR). The master regulator of the UPR, glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), localizes on the surface of tumor cells and is associated with metastatic disease. Cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 1 (CREB3L1), a member of the UPR, is a breast cancer metastasis suppressor that acts on cyclic AMP to promote the expression of target genes including GRP78. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chemotherapy on CREB3L1 and cell-surface GRP78 expression and its association with the development of breast cancer metastasis. For this purpose, we use breast cancer cells migration in vitro assays and an in vivo metastatic mouse model. The results showed that chemotherapy activated CREB3L1 and enhanced cell-surface GRP78 expression specifically in triple-negative breast cancer cells (TNBC), reducing their migration and metastatic potential. CREB3L1 knockout (KO) in the triple negative MDAMB231 cell line using CRISPR/Cas9 technology led to inhibition of GRP78 expression and abrogation of the CREB3L1 metastatic suppression function. Inoculation of CREB3L1-KO MDAMB231 cells into a mouse metastatic model induced a massive metastatic profile which chemotherapy failed to prevent. These findings elucidate a potential pathway to the development of a novel treatment strategy for metastatic TNBC based on modulating CREB3L1 and cell-surface GRP78 expression by chemotherapy and GRP78-targeted drugs.
    Keywords:  CREB3L1; chemotherapy; glucose-regulated protein 78; metastasis; triple-negative breast cancer
  8. Cell Death Dis. 2020 Oct 13. 11(10): 848
    Kim TW, Hong DW, Hong SH.
      Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a well-known therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes as well as is a potential target for effective anti-cancer drug, since PPARγ ligands such as ciglitazone (Cig) frequently cause cell death in many types of cancer cells and suppress tumor growth. However, many cancer patients acquire chemo-resistance or radio-resistance after chemo or radiotherapy, and it is still unclear. In the difficulty of well-known anti-cancer drugs, we developed a novel PPARγ agonist CB13 (1-benzyl-5-(4-methylphenyl) pyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione) and investigated the anti-cancer effect and cell death mechanism on human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. With anti-cancer effect of Cig, CB13 also causes inhibition of cell growth by decreasing cell viability, increasing the release of LDH, and increasing caspase-3, and caspase-9 activities. CB13 generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes cell death via ER stress in NSCLC and radio-resistant NSCLC cells (A549R and H460R), and a combination of CB13 and radiation induces greater ER stress and cell death when compared to CB13 alone. Taken together, our results suggest that a combination of CB13 and radiation may overcome radio-resistance caused by radiotherapy.
  9. Cell Death Dis. 2020 Oct 15. 11(10): 861
    Genovese I, Giamogante F, Barazzuol L, Battista T, Fiorillo A, Vicario M, D'Alessandro G, Cipriani R, Limatola C, Rossi D, Sorrentino V, Poser E, Mosca L, Squitieri F, Perluigi M, Arena A, van Petegem F, Tito C, Fazi F, Giorgi C, Calì T, Ilari A, Colotti G.
      Dysregulation of calcium signaling is emerging as a key feature in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD), and targeting this process may be therapeutically beneficial. Under this perspective, it is important to study proteins that regulate calcium homeostasis in the cell. Sorcin is one of the most expressed calcium-binding proteins in the human brain; its overexpression increases endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentration and decreases ER stress in the heart and in other cellular types. Sorcin has been hypothesized to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases, since it may counteract the increased cytosolic calcium levels associated with neurodegeneration. In the present work, we show that Sorcin expression levels are strongly increased in cellular, animal, and human models of AD, PD, and HD, vs. normal cells. Sorcin partially colocalizes with RyRs in neurons and microglia cells; functional experiments with microsomes containing high amounts of RyR2 and RyR3, respectively, show that Sorcin is able to regulate these ER calcium channels. The molecular basis of the interaction of Sorcin with RyR2 and RyR3 is demonstrated by SPR. Sorcin also interacts with other ER proteins as SERCA2 and Sigma-1 receptor in a calcium-dependent fashion. We also show that Sorcin regulates ER calcium transients: Sorcin increases the velocity of ER calcium uptake (increasing SERCA activity). The data presented here demonstrate that Sorcin may represent both a novel early marker of neurodegenerative diseases and a response to cellular stress dependent on neurodegeneration.