bims-unfpre Biomed News
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2020‒10‒11
eight papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitoba

  1. Trends Cell Biol. 2020 Oct 06. pii: S0962-8924(20)30171-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      Sustaining both proteome and genome integrity (GI) requires the integration of a wide range of mechanisms and signaling pathways. These comprise, in particular, the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the DNA damage response (DDR). These adaptive mechanisms take place respectively in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the nucleus. UPR and DDR alterations are associated with aging and with pathologies such as degenerative diseases, metabolic and inflammatory disorders, and cancer. We discuss the emerging signaling crosstalk between UPR stress sensors and the DDR, as well as their involvement in cancer biology.
    Keywords:  ATM; DNA damage response; IRE1α; PERK; proteostasis; unfolded protein response
  2. Biochem J. 2020 Oct 05. pii: BCJ20200699. [Epub ahead of print]
      Renal epithelial cells regulate the destructive activity of macrophages and participate in the progression of kidney diseases. Critically, the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), which is activated in renal epithelial cells in the course of kidney injury, is required for the optimal differentiation and activation of macrophages. Given that macrophages are key regulators of renal inflammation and fibrosis, we suppose that the identification of mediators that are released by renal epithelial cells under Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress and transmitted to macrophages is a critical issue to address. Signals leading to a paracrine transmission of ER stress (TERS) from a donor cell to a recipient cells could be of paramount importance to understand how ER-stressed cells shape the immune microenvironment. Critically, the vast majority of studies that have examined TERS used thaspigargin as an inducer of ER stress in donor cells in cellular models. By using multiple sources of ER stress, we evaluated if human renal epithelial cells undergoing ER stress can transmit the UPR to human monocyte-derived macrophages and if such TERS can modulate the inflammatory profiles of these cells. Our results indicate that carry-over of thapsigargin is a confounding factor in chemically based TERS protocols classically used to induce ER Stress in donor cells. Hence, such protocols are not suitable to study the TERS phenomenon and to identify its mediators. In addition, the absence of TERS transmission in more physiological models of ER stress indicates that cell-to-cell UPR transmission is not a universal feature in cultured cells.
    Keywords:  Transmission; endoplasmic reticulum stress; paracrine; renal physiology; unfolded protein response
  3. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Oct 05. pii: E2864. [Epub ahead of print]12(10):
      Due to increased immunoglobulin production and uncontrolled proliferation, multiple myeloma (MM) plasma cells develop a phenotype of deregulated unfolded protein response (UPR). The eIF2-alpha kinase 3 [EIF2αK3, protein kinase R (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK)], the third known sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, is a serine-threonine kinase and, like the other two UPR-related proteins, i.e., IRE1 and ATF6, it is bound to the ER membrane. MM, like other tumors showing uncontrolled protein secretion, is highly dependent to UPR for survival; thus, inhibition of PERK can be an effective strategy to suppress growth of malignant plasma cells. Here, we have used GSK2606414, an ATP-competitive potent PERK inhibitor, and found significant anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in a panel of MM cell lines. These effects were accompanied by the downregulation of key components of the PERK pathway as well as of other UPR elements. Consistently, PERK gene expression silencing significantly increased cell death in MM cells, highlighting the importance of PERK signaling in MM biology. Moreover, GSK2606414, in combination with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, exerted an additive toxic effect in MM cells. Overall, our data suggest that PERK inhibition could represent a novel combinatorial therapeutic approach in MM.
    Keywords:  PERK; UPR; apoptosis; bortezomib; cell survival; multiple myeloma
  4. J Cell Sci. 2020 Oct 08. pii: jcs.248526. [Epub ahead of print]
      Lipid droplets (LDs) are implicated in conditions of lipid and protein dysregulation. The fat storage inducing transmembrane (FIT) family induces LD formation. Here, we establish a model system to study the role of S. cerevisiae FIT homologues (ScFIT), SCS3 and YFT2, in proteostasis and stress response pathways. While LD biogenesis and basal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) remain unaltered in ScFIT mutants, SCS3 was found essential for proper stress-induced UPR activation and for viability in the absence of the sole yeast UPR transducer IRE1 Devoid of a functional UPR, muted SCS3 exhibited accumulation of triacylglycerol within the ER along with aberrant LD morphology, suggesting a UPR-dependent compensatory mechanism. Additionally, SCS3 was necessary to maintain phospholipid homeostasis. Strikingly, global protein ubiquitination and the turnover of both ER and cytoplasmic misfolded proteins is impaired in ScFITΔ cells, while a screen for interacting partners of Scs3 identifies components of the proteostatic machinery as putative targets. Together, our data support a model where ScFITs play an important role in lipid metabolism and proteostasis beyond their defined roles in LD biogenesis.
    Keywords:  Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD); Lipid droplet; Phospholipid metabolism; Proteostasis; Scs3; Unfolded protein response (UPR)
  5. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2020 Oct 07. 39(1): 209
      BACKGROUND: Our previous study showed that calreticulin (CRT) promoted EGF-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic cancer (PC) via Integrin/EGFR-ERK/MAPK signaling. We next investigated the novel signal pathway and molecular mechanism involving the oncogenic role of CRT in PC.METHODS: We investigated the potential role and mechanism of CRT in regulating intracellular free Ca2+ dependent acute and chronic endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-induced EMT in PC in vitro and vivo.
    RESULTS: Thapsigargin (TG) induced acute ERS via increasing intracellular free Ca2+ in PC cells, which was reversed by CRT silencing. Additionally, CRT silencing inhibited TG-induced EMT in vitro by reversing TG-induced changes of the key proteins in EMT signaling (ZO-1, E-cadherin and Slug) and ERK/MAPK signaling (pERK). TG-promoted cell invasion and migration was also rescued by CRT silencing but enhanced by IRE1α silencing (one of the key stressors in unfolded protein response). Meanwhile, CRT was co-immunoprecipitated and co-localized with IRE1α in vitro and its silencing led to the chronic ERS via upregulating IRE1α independent of IRE1-XBP1 axis. Moreover, CRT silencing inhibited IRE1α silencing-promoted EMT, including inhibiting the activation of EMT and ERK/MAPK signaling and the promotion of cell mobility. In vivo, CRT silencing decreased subcutaneous tumor size and distant liver metastasis following with the increase of IRE1α expression. A negative relationship between CRT and IRE1α was also observed in clinical PC samples, which coordinately promoted the advanced clinical stages and poor prognosis of PC patients.
    CONCLUSIONS: CRT promotes EMT in PC via mediating intracellular free Ca2+ dependent TG-induced acute ERS and IRE1α-mediated chronic ERS via Slug and ERK/MAPK signaling.
    Keywords:  Calreticulin; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Epithelial mesenchymal transition; IRE1α; Intracellular free Ca2 +; Pancreatic cancer
  6. Front Physiol. 2020 ;11 574339
      The luminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein of 29 kDa (ERp29) is a ubiquitously expressed cellular agent with multiple critical roles. ERp29 regulates the biosynthesis and trafficking of several transmembrane and secretory proteins, including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), thyroglobulin, connexin 43 hemichannels, and proinsulin. ERp29 is hypothesized to promote ER to cis-Golgi cargo protein transport via COP II machinery through its interactions with the KDEL receptor; this interaction may facilitate the loading of ERp29 clients into COP II vesicles. ERp29 also plays a role in ER stress (ERS) and the unfolded protein response (UPR) and is implicated in oncogenesis. Here, we review the vast array of ERp29's clients, its role as an ER to Golgi escort protein, and further suggest ERp29 as a potential target for therapies related to diseases of protein misfolding and mistrafficking.
    Keywords:  COP II; ERp29; Golgi; chaperone; endoplasmic reticulum; escort; secretory pathway; trafficking
  7. Autophagy. 2020 Oct 06. 1-21
      Our previous studies reveal a mechanism for lipid droplet (LD)-mediated proteostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whereby unfolded proteins that accumulate in the ER in response to lipid imbalance-induced ER stress are removed by LDs and degraded by microlipophagy (µLP), autophagosome-independent LD uptake into the vacuole (the yeast lysosome). Here, we show that dithiothreitol- or tunicamycin-induced ER stress also induces µLP and identify an unexpected role for vacuolar membrane dynamics in this process. All stressors studied induce vacuolar fragmentation prior to µLP. Moreover, during µLP, fragmented vacuoles fuse to form cup-shaped structures that encapsulate and ultimately take up LDs. Our studies also indicate that proteins of the endosome sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) are upregulated, required for µLP, and recruited to LDs, vacuolar membranes, and sites of vacuolar membrane scission during µLP. We identify possible target proteins for LD-mediated ER proteostasis. Our live-cell imaging studies reveal that one potential target (Nup159) localizes to punctate structures that colocalizes with LDs 1) during movement from ER membranes to the cytosol, 2) during microautophagic uptake into vacuoles, and 3) within the vacuolar lumen. Finally, we find that mutations that inhibit LD biogenesis, homotypic vacuolar membrane fusion or ESCRT function inhibit stress-induced autophagy of Nup159 and other ER proteins. Thus, we have obtained the first direct evidence that LDs and µLP can mediate ER stress-induced ER proteostasis, and identified direct roles for ESCRT and vacuolar membrane fusion in that process.
    Keywords:  ER stress; erad; escrt; lipid droplet proteome; microautophagy; microlipophagy; unfolded protein response; vacuolar membrane fusion; vacuole
  8. Development. 2020 Oct 09. pii: dev.190082. [Epub ahead of print]
      Insulin/IGF signaling in C. elegans is crucial for proper development of the dauer larva and growth control. Mutants disturbing insulin processing, secretion and downstream signaling perturb this process and have helped identify genes that affect progression of type 2 diabetes. Insulin maturation is required for its proper secretion by pancreatic β cells. The role of the ER chaperones in insulin processing and secretion needs further study. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans ER chaperone ENPL-1/GRP94/HSP90B1, acts in dauer development by promoting insulin secretion and signaling. Processing of a proinsulin likely involves binding between the two proteins via a specific domain. We show that in enpl-1 mutants, an unprocessed insulin exits the ER lumen and is found in dense core vesicles, but is not secreted. The high ER stress in enpl-1 mutants does not cause the secretion defect. Importantly, increased ENPL-1 levels result in increased secretion. Taken together, our work indicates that ENPL-1 operates at the level of insulin availability and is an essential modulator of insulin processing and secretion.
    Keywords:  Dauer; Dense core vesicles; ER chaperone; Endoplasmic reticulum; Insulin secretion