bims-unfpre Biomed News
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2020‒09‒27
nine papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitoba

  1. Oncogene. 2020 Sep 21.
      Autophagy can protect stressed cancer cell by degradation of damaged proteins and organelles. However, the regulatory mechanisms behind this cellular process remain incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that RSK2 (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2) plays a critical role in ER stress-induced autophagy in breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that the promotive effect of RSK2 on autophagy resulted from directly binding of AMPKα2 in nucleus and phosphorylating it at Thr172 residue. IRE1α, an ER membrane-associated protein mediating unfolded protein response (UPR), is required for transducing the signal for activation of ERK1/2-RSK2 under ER stress. Suppression of autophagy by knockdown of RSK2 enhanced the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to ER stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrated that inhibition of RSK2-mediated autophagy rendered breast cancer cells more sensitive to paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent that induces ER stress-mediated cell death. This study identifies RSK2 as a novel controller of autophagy in tumor cells and suggests that targeting RSK2 can be exploited as an approach to reinforce the efficacy of ER stress-inducing agents against cancer.
  2. J Cell Sci. 2020 Sep 21. pii: jcs.244855. [Epub ahead of print]
      Imbalances in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis provoke a condition known as ER stress and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, an evolutionary conserved cell survival mechanism. Here, we show that mouse myoblasts respond to UPR activation by stimulating glycogenesis and the formation of α-amylase-degradable, glycogen-containing, ER structures. We demonstrate that, the glycogen-binding protein Stbd1 is markedly upregulated through the PERK signalling branch of the UPR pathway and is required for the build-up of glycogen structures in response to ER stress activation. In the absence of ER stress, Stbd1 overexpression is sufficient to induce glycogen clustering but does not stimulate glycogenesis. Glycogen structures induced by ER stress are degraded under conditions of glucose restriction through a process which does not depend on autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Furthermore, we provide evidence that failure to induce glycogen clustering during ER stress is associated with enhanced activation of the apoptotic pathway. Our results reveal a so far unknown response of mouse myoblasts to ER stress and uncover a novel specific function of Stbd1 in this process, which may have physiological implications during myogenic differentiation.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; ER stress; Glycogen; Glycogen synthase; Glycogenin; UPR
  3. J Neurosci. 2020 Sep 21. pii: JN-RM-0604-20. [Epub ahead of print]
      Myelin proteins, which are produced in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), are essential and necessary for maintaining myelin structure. The integrated unfold protein response (UPR) and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) is the primary ER quality control mechanism. The adaptor protein Sel1L (Suppressor/Enhancer of Lin-12-like) controls the stability of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 (hydroxymethylglutaryl reductase degradation protein 1), and is necessary for the ERAD activity of the Sel1L-Hrd1 complex. Herein, we showed that Sel1L deficiency specifically in oligodendrocytes caused ERAD impairment, the UPR activation, and attenuation of myelin protein biosynthesis; and resulted in late-onset, progressive myelin thinning in the CNS of adult mice (both male and female). The pancreatic ER kinase (PERK) branch of the UPR functions as the master regulator of protein translation in ER-stressed cells. Importantly, PERK inactivation reversed attenuation of myelin protein biosynthesis in oligodendrocytes and restored myelin thickness in the CNS of oligodendrocyte-specific Sel1L deficient mice (both male and female). Conversely, blockage of proteolipid protein (PLP) production exacerbated myelin thinning in the CNS of oligodendrocyte-specific Sel1L deficient mice (both male and female). These findings suggest that impaired ERAD in oligodendrocytes reduces myelin thickness in the adult CNS through suppression of myelin protein translation by activating PERK.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTMyelin is an enormous extended plasma membrane of oligodendrocytes that wraps and insulates axons. Myelin structure, including thickness, was thought to be extraordinarily stable in adults. Myelin proteins, which are produced in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), are essential and necessary for maintaining myelin structure. The integrated unfolded protein response (UPR) and ER-associated degradation (ERAD) is the primary mechanism that maintains ER protein homeostasis. Herein, we explored the role of the integrated UPR and ERAD in oligodendrocytes in regulating myelin protein production and maintaining myelin structure using mouse models. The results presented in this study imply that the integrated UPR and ERAD in oligodendrocytes maintains myelin thickness in adults by regulating myelin protein production.
  4. Cancer Cell Int. 2020 ;20 459
      Background: Centromere protein F (CENPF) is a key component of the kinetochore complex involved in mitosis, cell differentiation and cellular response to stresses. However, the alteration of CENPF in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has not been well described. In the present study, we investigate CENPF regulation in response to ER stress.Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to determine CENPF expression under ER stress. Luciferase activity analysis was performed to investigate the promoter regions contributing to CENPF transcription in response to TG. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and ChIP Re-IP assays were used to determine if X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and/or activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α) bind in the CENPF promoter region. Cell apoptosis and proliferation were analyzed using TUNEL, cell growth and clonogenic assays.
    Results: CENPF expression is dramatically reduced under ER stress induced by thapsigargin (TG), brefeldin A (BFA), or tunicamycin (TM) and this downregulation of CENPF expression was dependent on XBP1 and ATF6α. Luciferase activity analysis of the truncated CENPF promoter indicates that regions from bases - 679 to - 488 and from - 241 to - 78 in the CENPF promoter were sensitive to TG treatment. Additionally, ChIP and ChIP Re-IP assays reveal that XBP1 and ATF6α were assembled on the same regions of CENPF promoter. Notably, we identify two XBP1 binding sequences at positions - 567 and - 192, to which XBP1 binding was enhanced by TG. Finally, CENPF overexpression inhibits cell apoptosis and promotes cell proliferation in response to ER stress.
    Conclusion: In summary, these results demonstrate that ER stress plays a crucial role in CENPF expression, and XBP1 may up-regulate DNA-binding affinities after TG treatment to the promoter of CENPF. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of CENPF regulation.
    Keywords:  ATF6α; CENPF; ER stress; Expression regulation; XBP1
  5. J Virol. 2020 Sep 23. pii: JVI.01229-20. [Epub ahead of print]
      Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, which has become a global epidemic threat due to its rapid spread and association with serious consequences of infection including neonatal microcephaly. Inositol requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related transmembrane protein that mediates unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway and has been indicated to play an important role in flavivirus replication. However, the mechanism of how IRE1α affects ZIKV replication remains unknown. Here, we explored the role of IRE1α in ZIKV infection in vitro and in vivo by using CRISPR/Cas9-based gene knockout and RNA interference-based gene knockdown techniques. Both knockout and knockdown of IRE1α dramatically reduced ZIKV replication levels, including viral RNA levels, protein expression, and titers in different human cell lines. Trans-complementation with IRE1α restored viral replication levels decreased by IRE1α depletion. Furthermore, the proviral effect of IRE1α was dependent on its kinase and ribonuclease activities. Importantly, we found that IRE1α promoted the replication of ZIKV through up-regulating the accumulation of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) rate-limiting enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), which further affected the production of oleic acid and lipid droplet. Finally, our data demonstrated that in the brain tissues of ZIKV-infected mice, the replication levels of ZIKV and viral related lesions were significantly suppressed by both the kinase and RNase inhibitors of IRE1α. Taken together, our work identified IRE1α as a ZIKV-dependency factor, which promotes viral replication through affecting SCD1 mediated lipid metabolism, potentially providing a novel molecular target for the development of anti-ZIKV agents.Importance Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to serious neurologic disorders and causes widespread concern in the field of global public health. Inositol requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) is an ER-related transmembrane protein that mediates unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway. Here, we revealed that IRE1α is a proviral factor for ZIKV replication both in culture cells and mice model, which relies on its kinase and RNase activities. Importantly, we further provided evidence that upon ZIKV infection, IRE1α is activated and splices XBP1 mRNA which enhances the expression of monounsaturated fatty acids rate-limiting enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and subsequent lipid droplet production. Our data uncover a novel mechanism of IRE1α proviral effect by modulating lipid metabolism, providing the first evidence of a close relationship between IRE1α-mediated UPR, lipid metabolism, and ZIKV replication, and indicating IRE1α inhibitors as potentially effective anti-ZIKV agents.
  6. J Biol Chem. 2020 Sep 23. pii: jbc.RA120.015577. [Epub ahead of print]
      The protein folding and lipid moiety status of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are monitored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), with calnexin playing dual roles in the maturation of GPI-APs. In the present study, we investigated the functions of calnexin in the quality control and lipid remodeling of GPI-APs in the ER. By directly binding the N-glycan on proteins, calnexin was observed to efficiently retain GPI-APs in the ER until they were correctly folded. In addition, sufficient ER retention time was crucial for GPI-inositol deacylation, which is mediated by post-GPI attachment protein 1 (PGAP1). Once the calnexin/calreticulin cycle was disrupted, misfolded and inositol-acylated GPI-APs could not be retained in the ER and were exposed on the plasma membrane. In calnexin/calreticulin deficient cells, endogenous GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase was expressed on the cell surface, but its activity was significantly decreased. ER stress induced surface expression of misfolded GPI-APs, but proper GPI-inositol deacylation occurred due to the extended time that they were retained in the ER. Our results indicate that calnexin-mediated ER quality control systems for GPI-APs are necessary for both protein folding and GPI-inositol deacylation.
    Keywords:  ER quality control; endoplasmic reticulum (ER); glycobiology; glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor); protein folding
  7. J Biol Chem. 2020 Sep 25. pii: jbc.RA120.013987. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with a variety of human diseases including neurodegeneration, diabetes, non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cancer, but its underlying causes are incompletely understood. Using the human hepatic cell line HepG2 as a model, we show here that endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD), an ER protein quality control process, is critically required for mitochondrial function in mammalian cells. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of key proteins involved in ERAD increased cell death under both basal conditions and in response to proinflammatory cytokines, a situation frequently found in NAFLD. Decreased viability of ERAD-deficient HepG2 cells was traced to impaired mitochondrial functions including reduced ATP production, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and increased mitochondrial outer membrane permeability (MOMP). Transcriptome profiling revealed widespread down-regulation of genes underpinning mitochondrial functions, and up-regulation of genes associated with tumor growth and aggression. These results highlight a critical role for ERAD in maintaining mitochondrial functional and structural integrity and raise the possibility of improving cellular and organismal mitochondrial function via enhancing cellular ERAD capacity.
    Keywords:  endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress); endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD); liver; mitochondrial disease; mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)
  8. Cell Death Dis. 2020 Sep 22. 11(9): 786
      Tumor regression in sites distant to the irradiated field are thought to be associated with emission of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) molecules and generation of immunogenic cell death (ICD). Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are resistant to high doses of radiation, and ultimately select the outgrowth of a more aggressive tumor. This study showed high-dose IR triggered fewer DAMPs molecules exposure and release in GSCs comparing to matched non-GSCs. Downregulation of binding immunoglobulin protein (Bip) promoted IR-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress to generate DAMPs molecules by PERK and IRE1-α phosphorylation, and increased dendritic cells mature and effector T lymphocytes activation. GSCs treated with Bip knockdown and IR efficiently prevented tumor generation, and reduced post-radiotherapy tumor recurrence. These data suggest that Bip plays a critical role in inhibition of IR-induced ICD in GSCs, and Bip inhibition may be a promising strategy on adjuvant therapy by ameliorating tumor immune microenvironment.
  9. Exp Cell Res. 2020 Sep 17. pii: S0014-4827(20)30542-5. [Epub ahead of print] 112293
      The nod-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3)-mediated pyroptosis is involved in kidney diseases. Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) directly interacts with NLRP3. This study aimed to probe the mechanism of TXNIP and NLRP3 pathway in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Marker detection and histological staining indicated that in DN rats, the renal function was destroyed, and the TXNIP/NLRP3 axis was activated to induce inflammatory generation and pyroptosis. The protein levels of TXNIP, NLRP3 inflammatory components and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-related factors (ATF4, CHOP and IRE1α) were measured. DN rats were injected with LV-TXNIP-shRNA or IRE1α RNase specific inhibitor (STF-083010) to examine ERS- and pyroptosis-related proteins, and renal injury. Silencing TXNIP inhibited the NLRP3 axis and reduced renal damage in DN rats. ERS was activated in DN rats, and miR-200a expression was degraded by IRE1α. miR-200a bound to TXNIP. NRK-52E cells were induced by high glucose (HG) to simulate DN in vitro. The damage and pyroptosis of NRK-52E cells were analyzed. After inhibiting IRE1α, miR-200a expression increased and TXNIP expression decreased. miR-200a inhibition in HG-induced NRK-52E cells partially reversed the reduced pyroptosis by STF-083010. Overall, IRE1α upregulates miR-200a degradation in DN rats, and stimulates the TXINP/NLRP3 pathway-mediated pyroptosis and renal damage.
    Keywords:  Diabetic nephropathy; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; IRE1α; NLRP3; Pyroptosis; TXINP; microRNA-200a