bims-unfpre Biomed News
on Unfolded protein response
Issue of 2020‒05‒10
eight papers selected by
Susan Logue
University of Manitoba


  1. EMBO Rep. 2020 May 03. e48927
    Govindarajan S, Verheugen E, Venken K, Gaublomme D, Maelegheer M, Cloots E, Gysens F, De Geest BG, Cheng TY, Moody DB, Janssens S, Drennan M, Elewaut D.
      CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells constitute a common glycolipid-reactive innate-like T-cell subset with a broad impact on innate and adaptive immunity. While several microbial glycolipids are known to activate iNKT cells, the cellular mechanisms leading to endogenous CD1d-dependent glycolipid responses remain largely unclear. Here, we show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in APCs is a potent inducer of CD1d-dependent iNKT cell autoreactivity. This pathway relies on the presence of two transducers of the unfolded protein response: inositol-requiring enzyme-1a (IRE1α) and protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK). Surprisingly, the neutral but not the polar lipids generated within APCs undergoing ER stress are capable of activating iNKT cells. These data reveal that ER stress is an important mechanism to elicit endogenous CD1d-restricted iNKT cell responses through induction of distinct classes of neutral lipids.
    Keywords:  ER stress; NKT cells; antigen-presenting cells; lipid antigens; neutral lipid
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.201948927
  2. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Apr 29. pii: E1113. [Epub ahead of print]12(5):
    Lafont E.
      Throughout tumour progression, tumour cells are exposed to various intense cellular stress conditions owing to intrinsic and extrinsic cues, to which some cells are remarkably able to adapt. Death Receptor (DR) signalling and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) are two stress responses that both regulate a plethora of outcomes, ranging from proliferation, differentiation, migration, cytokine production to the induction of cell death. Both signallings are major modulators of physiological tissue homeostasis and their dysregulation is involved in tumorigenesis and the metastastic process. The molecular determinants of the control between the different cellular outcomes induced by DR signalling and the UPR in tumour cells and their stroma and their consequences on tumorigenesis are starting to be unravelled. Herein, I summarize the main steps of DR signalling in relation to its cellular and pathophysiological roles in cancer. I then highlight how the UPR and DR signalling control common cellular outcomes and also cross-talk, providing potential opportunities to further understand the development of malignancies.
    Keywords:  CD95; ER stress; IRE1; PERK; TNFR1; TRAIL-R1/2; cell death; death receptor; post-translational modifications; unfolded protein response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12051113
  3. J Dermatol Sci. 2020 Feb 21. pii: S0923-1811(20)30077-3. [Epub ahead of print]
    Seo SH, Kim SE, Lee SE.
      BACKGROUND: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium depletion-induced ER stress is a crucial signal for keratinocyte differentiation and barrier homeostasis, but its effects on the epidermal tight junction (TJ) have not been characterized. Ultraviolet B (UVB) causes ER calcium release in keratinocytes and disrupts epidermal TJ, however, the involvement of ER stress in the UVB-induced TJ alterations remains unknown.OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of ER stress by pharmacological ER calcium depletion or UVB on the TJ integrity in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK).
    METHODS: NHEK were exposed to ER calcium pump inhibitor thapsigargin (Tg) or UVB. ER stress markers and TJ molecules expression, TJ and F-actin structures, and TJ barrier function were analyzed.
    RESULTS: Tg or UVB exposure dose-dependently triggered unfolded protein response (UPR) in NHEK. Low dose Tg induced the IRE1α-XBP1 pathway and strengthened TJ barrier. Contrary, high dose Tg activated PERK phosphorylation and disrupted TJ by F-actin disorganization. UVB disrupted TJ and F-actin structures dose dependently. IRE1α RNase inhibition induced or exacerbated TJ and F-actin disruption in the presence of low dose Tg or UVB. High dose Tg increased RhoA activity. 4-PBA or Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor partially prevented the disruption of TJ and F-actin following high dose Tg or UVB.
    CONCLUSIONS: ER stress has bimodal effects on the epidermal TJ depending on its intensity. The IRE1α pathway is critical for the maintenance of TJ integrity during mild ER stress. Severe ER stress-induced UPR or ROCK signalling mediates the disruption of TJ through cytoskeletal disorganization during severe ER stress.
    Keywords:  Bimodal effects; ER stress; Rho kinase; Tight junction; Ultraviolet B; Unfolded protein response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2020.02.006
  4. Lab Invest. 2020 May 04.
    Mahadevan J, Morikawa S, Yagi T, Abreu D, Lu S, Kanekura K, Brown CM, Urano F.
      Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated cell death is an emerging target for human chronic disorders, including neurodegeneration and diabetes. However, there is currently no treatment for preventing ER stress-mediated cell death. Here, we show that mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), a neurotrophic factor secreted from ER stressed cells, prevents ER stress-mediated β cell death and enhances β cell proliferation in cell and mouse models of Wolfram syndrome, a prototype of ER disorders. Our results indicate that molecular pathways regulated by MANF are promising therapeutic targets for regenerative therapy of ER stress-related disorders, including diabetes, retinal degeneration, neurodegeneration, and Wolfram syndrome.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-0436-1
  5. J Neuroinflammation. 2020 May 06. 17(1): 152
    Huang J, Lu W, Doycheva DM, Gamdzyk M, Hu X, Liu R, Zhang JH, Tang J.
      BACKGROUND: Inhibition of inositol-requiring enzyme-1 alpha (IRE1α), one of the sensor signaling proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, has been shown to alleviate brain injury and improve neurological behavior in a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) rat model. However, there is no information about the role of IRE1α inhibitor as well as its molecular mechanisms in preventing neuronal pyroptosis induced by NLRP1 (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing 1) inflammasome. In the present study, we hypothesized that IRE1α can degrade microRNA-125-b-2-3p (miR-125-b-2-3p) and activate NLRP1/caspased-1 pathway, and subsequently promote neuronal pyroptosis in HIE rat model.METHODS: Ten-day old unsexed rat pups were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia (HI) injury, and the inhibitor of IRE1α, STF083010, was administered intranasally at 1 h after HI induction. AntimiR-125 or NLRP1 activation CRISPR was administered by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection at 24 h before HI induction. Immunofluorescence staining, western blot analysis, reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), brain infarct volume measurement, neurological function tests, and Fluoro-Jade C staining were performed.
    RESULTS: Endogenous phosphorylated IRE1α (p-IRE1α), NLRP1, cleaved caspase-1, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-18 (IL-18) were increased and miR-125-b-2-3p was decreased in HIE rat model. STF083010 administration significantly upregulated the expression of miR-125-b-2-3p, reduced the infarct volume, improved neurobehavioral outcomes and downregulated the protein expression of NLRP1, cleaved caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18. The protective effects of STF083010 were reversed by antimiR-125 or NLRP1 activation CRISPR.
    CONCLUSIONS: IRE1α inhibitor, STF083010, reduced neuronal pyroptosis at least in part via miR-125/NLRP1/caspase-1 signaling pathway after HI.
    Keywords:  Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy; IRE1α; Inflammasome; NLPR1; Pyroptosis; miR-125
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-01796-3
  6. J Clin Med. 2020 May 01. pii: E1294. [Epub ahead of print]9(5):
    Bourebaba L, Łyczko J, Alicka M, Bourebaba N, Szumny A, Fal AM, Marycz K.
      OBJECTIVES: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered a well-known pathology that is determined without using alcohol and has emerged as a growing public health problem. Lipotoxicity is known to promote hepatocyte death, which, in the context of NAFLD, is termed lipoapoptosis. The severity of NAFLD correlates with the degree of hepatocyte lipoapoptosis. Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) including PTP1B and Low molecular weight PTP (LMPTP), are negative regulators of the insulin signaling pathway and are considered a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of diabetes. In this study, we hypothesized that the inhibition of PTP1B and LMPTP may potentially prevent hepatocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress onset, following lipotoxicity induced using a free fatty acid (FFA) mixture.METHODS: HepG2 cells were cultured in the presence or absence of two PTP inhibitors, namely MSI-1436 and Compound 23, prior to palmitate/oleate overloading. Apoptosis, ER stress, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dynamics were then evaluated by either MUSE or RT-qPCR analysis.
    RESULTS: The obtained data demonstrate that the inhibition of PTP1B and LMPTP prevents apoptosis induced by palmitate and oleate in the HepG2 cell line. Moreover, mitochondrial dynamics were positively improved following inhibition of the enzyme, with concomitant oxidative stress reduction and ER stress abrogation.
    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, PTP's inhibitory properties may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of FFA-induced lipotoxicity in the liver and ultimately in the management of the NAFLD condition.
    Keywords:  GC-MS; LMPTP; MSI-1436; NAFLD; PTP1B; lipotoxicity; palmitate
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051294
  7. Oncogene. 2020 May 04.
    Yoneda A, Minomi K, Tamura Y.
      Breast cancer (BC) is an aggressive cancer that is a leading cause of cancer-associated death in women worldwide. Although increased expression of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), a collagen-specific chaperone, is associated with the high malignancy of BC, its role in BC remains largely unclear. Here we show that a small population of high-invasive BC cells expresses HSP47 and that HSP47-positive high-invasive BC cells have a high metastatic potential that is completely abolished by disruption of HSP47. HSP47 interacts with non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA) via the unfolded protein response transducer IRE1α, resulting in enhancement of the metastatic potential of high-invasive BC cells by augmenting the contractile force of actin filaments. Ablation of NMIIA abrogates the metastatic potential of HSP47-positive high-invasive BC cells. We further show that forced expression of NMIIA confers a high metastatic potential on low-invasive BC cells in which HSP47 but not NMIIA is expressed. Overall, our study indicates that HSP47 acts as a stimulator for metastasis of BC cells and suggest that HSP47 may be a candidate for a therapeutic target against BC.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-1311-7
  8. J Cell Mol Med. 2020 May 07.
    Zeng J, Jin Q, Ruan Y, Sun C, Xu G, Chu M, Ji K, Wu L, Li L.
      Transforming growth factor β-activated protein kinase 1 (TAK1) involves in various biological responses and is a key regulator of cell death. However, the role of TAK1 on acute myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury is unknown. We observed that TAK1 activation increased significantly after MI/R and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), and we hypothesized that TAK1 has an important role in MI/R injury. Mice (TAK1 inhibiting by 5Z-7-oxozeaenol or silencing by AAV9 vector) were exposed to MI/R injury. Primary cardiomyocytes (TAK1 silencing by siRNA; and overexpressing TAK1 by adenovirus vector) were used to induce H/R injury model in vitro. Inhibition of TAK1 significantly decreased MI/R-induced myocardial infarction area, reduced cell death and improved cardiac function. Mechanistically, TAK1 silencing suppressed MI/R-induced myocardial oxidative stress and attenuated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the inhibition of ROS by NAC partially reversed the damage of TAK1 in vitro. Our study presents the first direct evidence that inhibition of TAK1 mitigated MI/R injury, and TAK1 mediated ROS/ER stress/apoptosis signal pathway is important for the pathogenesis of MI/R injury.
    Keywords:  ROS; TAK1; endoplasmic reticulum stress; myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15340